Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 12, Issue 2, Apr 2023, Pages 177 - 189
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1243497
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1243497
Copyright © 2023 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Variability of major soil properties of a fallow-acidic-level upland with high and multiple spatial resolutions

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Begum,M., Hossain,M., Aziz,M., Choudhury,M., Jahan,I., 2023. Variability of major soil properties of a fallow-acidic-level upland with high and multiple spatial resolutions. Eurasian J Soil Sci 12(2):177 - 189. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1243497
Begum,M.Hossain,M.,Aziz,M.Choudhury,M.,& Jahan,I. Variability of major soil properties of a fallow-acidic-level upland with high and multiple spatial resolutions Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 12(2):177 - 189. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1243497
Begum,M.Hossain,M.,Aziz,M.Choudhury,M., and ,Jahan,I."Variability of major soil properties of a fallow-acidic-level upland with high and multiple spatial resolutions" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 12.2 (2023):177 - 189. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1243497
Begum,M.Hossain,M.,Aziz,M.Choudhury,M., and ,Jahan,I. "Variability of major soil properties of a fallow-acidic-level upland with high and multiple spatial resolutions" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,12(Apr 2023):177 - 189 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1243497
M,Begum.M,Hossain.M,Aziz.M,Choudhury.I,Jahan "Variability of major soil properties of a fallow-acidic-level upland with high and multiple spatial resolutions" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.12, no.2, pp.177 - 189 (Apr 2023), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1243497
Begum,Mahmuda ;Hossain,Md. Shahadat ;Aziz,Md. Abdul ;Choudhury,Md. Abdur Razzak ;Jahan,Israt Variability of major soil properties of a fallow-acidic-level upland with high and multiple spatial resolutions. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2023),12.2:177 - 189. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1243497

How to cite

Begum, M., Hossain, M., Aziz, M., Choudhury, M., Jahan, I., 2023. Variability of major soil properties of a fallow-acidic-level upland with high and multiple spatial resolutions. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 12(2): 177 - 189. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1243497

Author information

Mahmuda Begum , Department of Soil Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet 3100, Bangladesh
Md. Shahadat Hossain , Department of Soil Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet 3100, Bangladesh
Md. Abdul Aziz , Department of Soil Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet 3100, Bangladesh
Md. Abdur Razzak Choudhury , Department of Soil Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet 3100, Bangladesh
Israt Jahan , Department of Soil Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet 3100, Bangladesh

Publication information

Article first published online : 27 Jan 2023
Manuscript Accepted : 18 Jan 2023
Manuscript Received: 05 Jul 2022
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1243497
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1243497

Abstract

Variation of the soil attributes of a land in an area is dependent on topography, time, climate, parent material, land use land cover, land management, distance and scale. This variation affects the representation of soil of a land in an area. The study aimed to assess the variations in the representation of major soil properties of a unique fallow-acidic-undisturbed-level upland in different spatial resolutions of soil sampling. A fallow and level upland of 1500 m2 as separately gridded with the spacing of 5mx5m, 10mx10m and 15mx15m and geo-referenced surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were collected from the corner of each grid. The collected soil samples were analyzed for texture (Tx), organic carbon (OC), pH, total N (TN), available P (AP), exchangeable K (exch K), available S (AS), available Fe (AFe), available Zn (AZn) and available Mn (AMn) in soil. Statistical and geospatial analyses of the dataset were done with the relevant softwares. For the nutrients TN, AP, AZn and AFe, coefficients of variation (CV) showed a trend of increment across high-medium-low spatial resolutions, and their variability ranked as AZn (mean CV=104.03%, great variation)>AFe (mean CV=41.67%, moderate variation)>AP (mean CV=20.32%, moderate variation)>TN (mean CV=4.92%, low variation) based on average CV of three spatial resolutions of sampling. In case of other soil attributes, no particular trend of increment or decrement was observed across the resolutions and their variability was moderate except for pH which had low variability. Their variability ordered as exch K (mean CV=35.17%)>AS (mean CV=34.98%)>SOC (mean CV=31.71%)>Tx (mean CV=31.17%)>AMn (mean CV=30.10%)>Soil pH (mean CV=6.96%). Rationale correlations were observed between some soil attributes (pH vs AZ, AFe, OC; Tx vs TN, AP; Exch K vs AZn vs AFe; OC vs Exch K, AZn, AFe) with different degrees of associations (r), and increased trend in r value was found across the resolutions of high-medium-low except for pH and Tx. Different spatially gradient structures of the ordinary krigged interpolated maps were observed for different soil properties and for different spatial resolutions. Quantitatively, calculated (from semivariograms) nugget effects of 0-100% indicated that spatial dependency of studied soil properties could be very strong to very weak. The heterogeneity of soil in the upland as revealed by our results would assist scientists or farm managers to use or compare scale-dependent soil data wisely and precisely.

Keywords

Geospatial, soil attributes, correlation, heterogeneity, map.

Corresponding author

References

Behera, S.K., Shukla, A.K., 2014. Total and extractable manganese and iron in some cultivated acid soils of India. Status, distribution and relationship with some soil properties. Pedosphere 24(2): 196-208.

Behera, S.K., Suresh, K., Rao, B.N., Mathur, R.K., Shukla, A.K., Manorama, K., Harinarayana, P., 2016. Spatial variability of some soil properties varies in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations of west coastal area of India. Solid Earth 7(3): 979–993.

Bhunia, G.S., Shit, P.K., Chattopadhyay, R., 2018. Assessment of spatial variability of soil properties using geostatistical approach of lateritic soil (West Bengal, India). Annals of Agrarian Science 16(4): 436-443.

Bogunovic, I., Mesic, M., Zgorelec, Z., Jurisic, A., Bilandzija, D., 2014. Spatial variation of soil nutrients on sandy-loam soil. Soil and Tillage Research 144: 174-183.

Bouyoucos, G.J.,1962. Hydrometer method ımproved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal 54(5): 464-465.

Bray, H.R., Kurtz, L.T., 1945. Determination of total, organic and available forms of phosphorus in soil. Soil Science 59: 39–45.

Bremner, J.M., Mulvaney, C.S., 1982. Nitrogen-total. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, 2nd edition. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 595-624.

Cambardella, C.A., Moorman, T.B., Novak, J.M., Parkin, T.B., Karlen, D.L., Turco, R.F., Konopka, A.E., 1994. Field‐scale variability of soil properties in central Iowa soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58(5): 1501-1511.

Castellini, M., Stellacci, A.M., Tomaiuolo, M., Barca, E., 2019. Spatial variability of soil physical and hydraulic properties in a durum wheat field: an assessment by the BEST-procedure. Water 11(7): 1434.

Clark,  I ., 1979. Practical geostatistics, London. Applied Science Publishers 3: 129.

Delbari, M., Afrasiab, P., Gharabaghi, B., Amiri, M., Salehian, A., 2019. Spatial variability analysis and mapping of soil physical and chemical attributes in a salt-affected soil. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 12 (3): 68.

Dengiz, O., Sağlam, M., Özaytekin, H.H., Baskan, O., 2013. Weathering rates and some physico-chemical characteristics of soils developed on a calcic toposequences. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences 8(2); 13 – 24.

Ettema, C.H., Wardle, D.A., 2002. Spatial soil ecology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17(4): 177-183.

Fageria, N.K., Oliveira, J.P., 2014. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium interactions in upland rice. Journal of Plant Nutrition 37(10): 1586-1600.

Fang, F., Huo, S., Shen, H., Ran, S., Wang, H., Song, P., Fang, Z.,2020.  A bio-based ionic complex with different oxidation states of phosphorus for reducing flammability and smoke release of epoxy resins. Composites Communications 17: 104-108.

Fox, R.L., Olsen, R.A., Rhoades, H. F., 1964. Evaluating the sulfur status of soils by plant and soil tests. Soil Science Society of America Journal 28(2): 243-296.

Goovaerts,  P., 1997. Geostatistics for natural resources evaluation. Oxford University Press. 512p.

Hangsheng, Z ., 2005. On The Construction of Harmonious Society. Journal of Jiangsu Social Sciences 5.

Jackson, M.L., 1973. Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India. 498p.

Jenny, H., 1941.Factors of soil formation: a system of quantitative pedology. Dover publications, Mineola, New York, USA, 320p.

Jiang, Y., Zhang, Y.G., Wen, D.Z., Liang, W.J., 2003. Spatial heterogeneity of exchangeable iron content in cultivated soils of Shenyang suburbs. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation (in Chinese) 17(1): 119-121.

Journel, A.G., Huijbregts, C.J., 1978. Mining geostatistics. Academic press, London. 600p.

Kobraee, S.,  Shamsi, K., Rasekhi, B., 2011. Effect of micronutrients application on yield and yield components of soybean. Annals of Biological Research  2(2): 476-482.

Lindsay,  W.L., 1979. Chemical equilibria in soils. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. 449p.

Lindsay, W.L., Norvell, W.A., 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu. Soil Science Society of America Journal 42(3): 421-428.

Metwally, M.S., Shaddad, S.M., Liu, M., Yao, R.J., Abdo, A.I., Li, P., Chen, X., 2019. Soil properties spatial variability and delineation of site-specific management zones based on soil fertility using fuzzy clustering in a hilly field in Jianyang, Sichuan, China. Sustainability 11(24): 7084.

Mia,  M.A.B., 2015.  Nutrition of crop plants. Plant Science Research and Practices K867.N88, p. 7.

Negassa, W., Baum, C., Schlichting, A., Müller, J., Leinweber, P., 2019. Small-scale spatial variability of soil chemical and biochemical properties in a rewetted degraded peatland. Frontiers Environmental Science 7: 116.

Niederberger, J., Kohler, M., Bauhus, J., 2019. Distribution of phosphorus fractions with different plant availability in German forest soils and their relationship with common soil properties and foliar P contents. Soil 5(2): 189-204.

Özgöz, E., Akbş, F., Çetin, M., Erşahin, S., Günal, H., 2007.  Spatial variability of soil physical properties as affected by different tillage systems. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 35(1): 1–13.

Panday, D., Ojha, R.B., Chalise, D., Das, S., Twanabasu, B., 2019. Spatial variability of soil properties under different land use in the Dang district of Nepal. Cogent Food & Agriculture 5(1): 1600460.

Reza, S.K., Baruah, U., Sarkar, D., Singh, S.K., 2016. Spatial variability of soil properties using geostatistical method: a case study of lower Brahmaputra plains, India. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 9(6): 446.

Reza, S.K., Nayak, D.C., Mukhopadhyay, S., Chattopadhyay, T., Singh, S.K., 2017. Characterizing spatial variability of soil properties in alluvial soils of India using geostatistics and geographical information system. Achieves Agronomy and Soil Science 63(11): 1489-1498.

Salviano, A.A.C., 1996. Variabilidade de atributos de solo e de Crotalaria juncea L. em solo degradado do município de Piracicaba-SP (Doctoral dissertation, Universidade de São Paulo).

Şenol, H., Dengiz, O., Tunçay, T., 2018. Geochemical mass balance applied to the study of weathering and evolution of soils. Indian Journal of Geo Marine Science 47(9): 1851-1865.

Sharma, R., Sood, K., 2020. Characterization of spatial variability of soil parameters in apple orchards of Himalayan region using geostatistical analysis. Communications of Soil Science and Plant Analysis 51(8): 1065-1077.

Shukla, A.K., Sinha, N.K., Tiwari, P.K., Prakash, C., Behera, S.K., Lenka, N.K., Singh, V.K., Dwivedi, B.S., Majumdar, K., Kumar, A., Srivastava, P.C., Pachauri, S.P., Meena, M.C., Lakaria, B.L., Siddiqui, S., 2016. Spatial distribution and management zones for sulphur and micronutrients in Shiwalik Himalayan Region of India. Land Degradation & Development 28(3): 959-969.

Su, B., Zhao, G., Dong, C., 2018. Spatiotemporal variability of soil nutrients and the responses of growth during growth stages of winter wheat in northern China. PloS one 13(12): e0203509.

Usowicz, B., Lipiec, J., 2017. Spatial variability of soil properties and cereal yield in a cultivated field on sandy soil. Soil and Tillage Research 174: 241-250.

Walkley, A., Black, C.A., 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29–38.

Wang, Z., Zhao, G., Gao, M., Chang, C., 2017. Spatial variability of soil salinity in coastal saline soil at different scales in the Yellow River Delta, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 189(2): 80.

Zhang, H., Zhuang, S., Qian, H., Wang, F., Ji, H., 2015. Spatial variability of the topsoil organic carbon in the Moso bamboo forests of southern China in association with soil properties. PloSone 10(3): e0119175.

Zhang, M., Li, M., Wang, W., Liu, C., Gao, H., 2013. Temporal and spatial variability of soil moisture based on WSN. Mathematical and Computer Modelling 58(3-4): 826-833.

Zhang, X.Y., Sui, Y.Y., Zhang, X.D., Meng, K., Herbert, S.J., 2007. Spatial variability of nutrient properties in black soil of Northeast China. Pedosphere 17(1): 19-29.

Zhou, M., Yan, G., Xing, Y., Chen, F., Zhang, X., Wang, J., Zhang, J., Dai, G., Zheng, X., Sun, W., Wang, Q., Liu, T., 2019. Nitrogen deposition and decreased precipitation does not change total nitrogen uptake in a temperate forest. Science of Total Environment 651: 32-41.

Abstract

Variation of the soil attributes of a land in an area is dependent on topography, time, climate, parent material, land use land cover, land management, distance and scale. This variation affects the representation of soil of a land in an area. The study aimed to assess the variations in the representation of major soil properties of a unique fallow-acidic-undisturbed-level upland in different spatial resolutions of soil sampling. A fallow and level upland of 1500 m2 as separately gridded with the spacing of 5mx5m, 10mx10m and 15mx15m and geo-referenced surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were collected from the corner of each grid. The collected soil samples were analyzed for texture (Tx), organic carbon (OC), pH, total N (TN), available P (AP), exchangeable K (exch K), available S (AS), available Fe (AFe), available Zn (AZn) and available Mn (AMn) in soil. Statistical and geospatial analyses of the dataset were done with the relevant softwares. For the nutrients TN, AP, AZn and AFe, coefficients of variation (CV) showed a trend of increment across high-medium-low spatial resolutions, and their variability ranked as AZn (mean CV=104.03%, great variation)>AFe (mean CV=41.67%, moderate variation)>AP (mean CV=20.32%, moderate variation)>TN (mean CV=4.92%, low variation) based on average CV of three spatial resolutions of sampling. In case of other soil attributes, no particular trend of increment or decrement was observed across the resolutions and their variability was moderate except for pH which had low variability. Their variability ordered as exch K (mean CV=35.17%)>AS (mean CV=34.98%)>SOC (mean CV=31.71%)>Tx (mean CV=31.17%)>AMn (mean CV=30.10%)>Soil pH (mean CV=6.96%). Rationale correlations were observed between some soil attributes (pH vs AZ, AFe, OC; Tx vs TN, AP; Exch K vs AZn vs AFe; OC vs Exch K, AZn, AFe) with different degrees of associations (r), and increased trend in r value was found across the resolutions of high-medium-low except for pH and Tx. Different spatially gradient structures of the ordinary krigged interpolated maps were observed for different soil properties and for different spatial resolutions. Quantitatively, calculated (from semivariograms) nugget effects of 0-100% indicated that spatial dependency of studied soil properties could be very strong to very weak. The heterogeneity of soil in the upland as revealed by our results would assist scientists or farm managers to use or compare scale-dependent soil data wisely and precisely.

Keywords: Geospatial, soil attributes, correlation, heterogeneity, map.

References

Behera, S.K., Shukla, A.K., 2014. Total and extractable manganese and iron in some cultivated acid soils of India. Status, distribution and relationship with some soil properties. Pedosphere 24(2): 196-208.

Behera, S.K., Suresh, K., Rao, B.N., Mathur, R.K., Shukla, A.K., Manorama, K., Harinarayana, P., 2016. Spatial variability of some soil properties varies in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations of west coastal area of India. Solid Earth 7(3): 979–993.

Bhunia, G.S., Shit, P.K., Chattopadhyay, R., 2018. Assessment of spatial variability of soil properties using geostatistical approach of lateritic soil (West Bengal, India). Annals of Agrarian Science 16(4): 436-443.

Bogunovic, I., Mesic, M., Zgorelec, Z., Jurisic, A., Bilandzija, D., 2014. Spatial variation of soil nutrients on sandy-loam soil. Soil and Tillage Research 144: 174-183.

Bouyoucos, G.J.,1962. Hydrometer method ımproved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal 54(5): 464-465.

Bray, H.R., Kurtz, L.T., 1945. Determination of total, organic and available forms of phosphorus in soil. Soil Science 59: 39–45.

Bremner, J.M., Mulvaney, C.S., 1982. Nitrogen-total. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, 2nd edition. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 595-624.

Cambardella, C.A., Moorman, T.B., Novak, J.M., Parkin, T.B., Karlen, D.L., Turco, R.F., Konopka, A.E., 1994. Field‐scale variability of soil properties in central Iowa soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58(5): 1501-1511.

Castellini, M., Stellacci, A.M., Tomaiuolo, M., Barca, E., 2019. Spatial variability of soil physical and hydraulic properties in a durum wheat field: an assessment by the BEST-procedure. Water 11(7): 1434.

Clark,  I ., 1979. Practical geostatistics, London. Applied Science Publishers 3: 129.

Delbari, M., Afrasiab, P., Gharabaghi, B., Amiri, M., Salehian, A., 2019. Spatial variability analysis and mapping of soil physical and chemical attributes in a salt-affected soil. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 12 (3): 68.

Dengiz, O., Sağlam, M., Özaytekin, H.H., Baskan, O., 2013. Weathering rates and some physico-chemical characteristics of soils developed on a calcic toposequences. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences 8(2); 13 – 24.

Ettema, C.H., Wardle, D.A., 2002. Spatial soil ecology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17(4): 177-183.

Fageria, N.K., Oliveira, J.P., 2014. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium interactions in upland rice. Journal of Plant Nutrition 37(10): 1586-1600.

Fang, F., Huo, S., Shen, H., Ran, S., Wang, H., Song, P., Fang, Z.,2020.  A bio-based ionic complex with different oxidation states of phosphorus for reducing flammability and smoke release of epoxy resins. Composites Communications 17: 104-108.

Fox, R.L., Olsen, R.A., Rhoades, H. F., 1964. Evaluating the sulfur status of soils by plant and soil tests. Soil Science Society of America Journal 28(2): 243-296.

Goovaerts,  P., 1997. Geostatistics for natural resources evaluation. Oxford University Press. 512p.

Hangsheng, Z ., 2005. On The Construction of Harmonious Society. Journal of Jiangsu Social Sciences 5.

Jackson, M.L., 1973. Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India. 498p.

Jenny, H., 1941.Factors of soil formation: a system of quantitative pedology. Dover publications, Mineola, New York, USA, 320p.

Jiang, Y., Zhang, Y.G., Wen, D.Z., Liang, W.J., 2003. Spatial heterogeneity of exchangeable iron content in cultivated soils of Shenyang suburbs. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation (in Chinese) 17(1): 119-121.

Journel, A.G., Huijbregts, C.J., 1978. Mining geostatistics. Academic press, London. 600p.

Kobraee, S.,  Shamsi, K., Rasekhi, B., 2011. Effect of micronutrients application on yield and yield components of soybean. Annals of Biological Research  2(2): 476-482.

Lindsay,  W.L., 1979. Chemical equilibria in soils. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. 449p.

Lindsay, W.L., Norvell, W.A., 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu. Soil Science Society of America Journal 42(3): 421-428.

Metwally, M.S., Shaddad, S.M., Liu, M., Yao, R.J., Abdo, A.I., Li, P., Chen, X., 2019. Soil properties spatial variability and delineation of site-specific management zones based on soil fertility using fuzzy clustering in a hilly field in Jianyang, Sichuan, China. Sustainability 11(24): 7084.

Mia,  M.A.B., 2015.  Nutrition of crop plants. Plant Science Research and Practices K867.N88, p. 7.

Negassa, W., Baum, C., Schlichting, A., Müller, J., Leinweber, P., 2019. Small-scale spatial variability of soil chemical and biochemical properties in a rewetted degraded peatland. Frontiers Environmental Science 7: 116.

Niederberger, J., Kohler, M., Bauhus, J., 2019. Distribution of phosphorus fractions with different plant availability in German forest soils and their relationship with common soil properties and foliar P contents. Soil 5(2): 189-204.

Özgöz, E., Akbş, F., Çetin, M., Erşahin, S., Günal, H., 2007.  Spatial variability of soil physical properties as affected by different tillage systems. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 35(1): 1–13.

Panday, D., Ojha, R.B., Chalise, D., Das, S., Twanabasu, B., 2019. Spatial variability of soil properties under different land use in the Dang district of Nepal. Cogent Food & Agriculture 5(1): 1600460.

Reza, S.K., Baruah, U., Sarkar, D., Singh, S.K., 2016. Spatial variability of soil properties using geostatistical method: a case study of lower Brahmaputra plains, India. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 9(6): 446.

Reza, S.K., Nayak, D.C., Mukhopadhyay, S., Chattopadhyay, T., Singh, S.K., 2017. Characterizing spatial variability of soil properties in alluvial soils of India using geostatistics and geographical information system. Achieves Agronomy and Soil Science 63(11): 1489-1498.

Salviano, A.A.C., 1996. Variabilidade de atributos de solo e de Crotalaria juncea L. em solo degradado do município de Piracicaba-SP (Doctoral dissertation, Universidade de São Paulo).

Şenol, H., Dengiz, O., Tunçay, T., 2018. Geochemical mass balance applied to the study of weathering and evolution of soils. Indian Journal of Geo Marine Science 47(9): 1851-1865.

Sharma, R., Sood, K., 2020. Characterization of spatial variability of soil parameters in apple orchards of Himalayan region using geostatistical analysis. Communications of Soil Science and Plant Analysis 51(8): 1065-1077.

Shukla, A.K., Sinha, N.K., Tiwari, P.K., Prakash, C., Behera, S.K., Lenka, N.K., Singh, V.K., Dwivedi, B.S., Majumdar, K., Kumar, A., Srivastava, P.C., Pachauri, S.P., Meena, M.C., Lakaria, B.L., Siddiqui, S., 2016. Spatial distribution and management zones for sulphur and micronutrients in Shiwalik Himalayan Region of India. Land Degradation & Development 28(3): 959-969.

Su, B., Zhao, G., Dong, C., 2018. Spatiotemporal variability of soil nutrients and the responses of growth during growth stages of winter wheat in northern China. PloS one 13(12): e0203509.

Usowicz, B., Lipiec, J., 2017. Spatial variability of soil properties and cereal yield in a cultivated field on sandy soil. Soil and Tillage Research 174: 241-250.

Walkley, A., Black, C.A., 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29–38.

Wang, Z., Zhao, G., Gao, M., Chang, C., 2017. Spatial variability of soil salinity in coastal saline soil at different scales in the Yellow River Delta, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 189(2): 80.

Zhang, H., Zhuang, S., Qian, H., Wang, F., Ji, H., 2015. Spatial variability of the topsoil organic carbon in the Moso bamboo forests of southern China in association with soil properties. PloSone 10(3): e0119175.

Zhang, M., Li, M., Wang, W., Liu, C., Gao, H., 2013. Temporal and spatial variability of soil moisture based on WSN. Mathematical and Computer Modelling 58(3-4): 826-833.

Zhang, X.Y., Sui, Y.Y., Zhang, X.D., Meng, K., Herbert, S.J., 2007. Spatial variability of nutrient properties in black soil of Northeast China. Pedosphere 17(1): 19-29.

Zhou, M., Yan, G., Xing, Y., Chen, F., Zhang, X., Wang, J., Zhang, J., Dai, G., Zheng, X., Sun, W., Wang, Q., Liu, T., 2019. Nitrogen deposition and decreased precipitation does not change total nitrogen uptake in a temperate forest. Science of Total Environment 651: 32-41.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science