Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 12, Issue 1, Jan 2023, Pages 63-78
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1186388
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1186388
Copyright © 2023 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Salt accumulation in soils under furrow and drip irrigation using modified waters in Central Iran

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Jahanbazi ,L., Heidari,A., Mohammadi,M., Kuniushkova,M., 2023. Salt accumulation in soils under furrow and drip irrigation using modified waters in Central Iran. Eurasian J Soil Sci 12(1):63-78. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1186388
Jahanbazi ,L.Heidari,A.,Mohammadi,M.,& Kuniushkova,M. Salt accumulation in soils under furrow and drip irrigation using modified waters in Central Iran Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 12(1):63-78. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1186388
Jahanbazi ,L.Heidari,A.,Mohammadi,M., and ,Kuniushkova,M."Salt accumulation in soils under furrow and drip irrigation using modified waters in Central Iran" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 12.1 (2023):63-78. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1186388
Jahanbazi ,L.Heidari,A.,Mohammadi,M., and ,Kuniushkova,M. "Salt accumulation in soils under furrow and drip irrigation using modified waters in Central Iran" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,12(Jan 2023):63-78 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1186388
L,Jahanbazi .A,Heidari.M,Mohammadi.M,Kuniushkova "Salt accumulation in soils under furrow and drip irrigation using modified waters in Central Iran" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.12, no.1, pp.63-78 (Jan 2023), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1186388
Jahanbazi ,Leila ;Heidari,Ahmad ;Mohammadi,Mohammad Hossein ;Kuniushkova,Maria Salt accumulation in soils under furrow and drip irrigation using modified waters in Central Iran. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2023),12.1:63-78. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1186388

How to cite

Jahanbazi , L., Heidari, A., Mohammadi, M., Kuniushkova, M., 2023. Salt accumulation in soils under furrow and drip irrigation using modified waters in Central Iran. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 12(1): 63-78. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1186388

Author information

Leila Jahanbazi , Soil Science Department, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
Ahmad Heidari , Soil Science Department, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
Mohammad Hossein Mohammadi , Soil Science Department, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
Maria Kuniushkova , Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory GSP-1, 119991 Moscow, Russia

Publication information

Article first published online : 09 Oct 2022
Manuscript Accepted : 04 Oct 2022
Manuscript Received: 01 Feb 2022
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1186388
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1186388

Abstract

The objectives of this study were i) to characterize the water and soils under different managements, ii) to evaluate the sustainability of using hypersaline soils and water, and iii) to assess possible solutions to prevent more degradation of soil and water resources. Field and laboratory analysis of the samples using eight pedons and 128 surface samples taken from grid in four pre-determined land uses; pistachio orchard abandoned, pistachio orchard with furrow irrigation, wheat and maize cropping with furrow irrigation, pistachio orchard with drip irrigation. The study area, 170 ha, comprised two distinct soil parent materials including marls (max. ECe >100 dS/m) and alluviums (max. ECe >60 dS/m). Abandoning lands caused salinity increasing due to lack of leaching by irrigation water. The maximum increase of soil salinity was in the abandoned land use (EC e =98 dS/m), where trees had been removed and there is no irrigation, followed by pistachio plantation land use (EC=11 to 34 dS/m), and wheat and maize cropping land use (EC=11-19 dS/m). The minimum rise in soil salinity was in the drip irrigation due to mixing freshwater with saline water and therefore better water quality (EC=3 dS/m at surface layer and 17 dS/m in next layer). Land use change to agriculture increased the need for irrigation and because of arid climate it mainly supplied by groundwater from deep wells. Using deep groundwater due to rock-water reaction and increasing salinity, decreased water quality in furrow irrigation and therefore it had more significant effect on soil salinity compare to drip. Comparison of the mean values of soil salinity indicators in 2018 showed that salinity has increased by 3-6 times in the furrow irrigation and at least two-fold in the drip irrigation, compared to 2002. The calculated salinity indicators also proved the soil and water resources had been degraded and present land use types are not sustainable. Possible solutions could be to minimize land use change to agriculture, to use drip irrigation with mixed saline and freshwater, and to remove salt crusts from the soil surface.

Keywords

Land degradation, Arid climate, Solute dynamics, Saline soils, Saline water, Irrrigation.

Corresponding author

References

Acar, B., Yilmaz, A.M., 2019. Irrigation techniques and plant growth strategies in salt-affected soils. International Journal of Agriculture and Economic Development 7(1): 1-9.

Ahmed, M.N., Abdel Samie, S.G., Badawy, H.A., 2013. Factors controlling mechanisms of groundwater salinization and hydrogeochemical processes in the Quaternary aquifer of the Eastern Nile Delta, Egypt. Environmental Earth Sciences 68: 369-394.

Al-Muaini, A., Green, S., Dakheel, A., Abdullah, A.H., Abou Dahr, W.A., Dixon, S., Clothier, B., 2019. Irrigation management with saline groundwater of a date palm cultivar in the hyper-arid United Arab Emirates. Agricultural Water Management 211: 123-131.

Ayers, R.S., Westcot, D.W., 1985. Water quality for agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Vol. 29. Rome, Italy. Available at [Access date: 01.02.2022]:http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/t0234e/t0234e00.HTM

Bauder, T.A., Waskom, R.M., Davis, J.G., 2010. Irrigation water quality criteria, Colorado State University Extension. Fact Sheet No. 0.506.  Available at [Access date: 01.02.2022]:https://extension.colostate.edu/docs/pubs/crops/00506.pdf 

Bodaghabadi, M.B., Faskhodi, A.A., Salehi, M.H., Hosseinifard, S.J., Heydari, M., 2019. Soil suitability analysis and evaluation of pistachio orchard farming, using canonical multivariate analysis. Scientia Horticulturae 246: 528-534.

Bouaziz, M., Hihi, S., Chtourou, M.Y., Osunmadewa, B., 2020. Soil salinity detection in semi-arid region using spectral unmixing, remote sensing and ground truth measurements. Journal of Geographic Information System 12(4): 372-386.

Burt, C.M., Isbell, B., 2005. Leaching of accumulated soil salinity under drip irrigation.  American Society of Agricultural Engineers 48 (6): 2115-2121.

Cheraghi, S.A.M., 2004. Institutional and scientific profiles of organizations working on saline agriculture in Iran. Prospects of saline agriculture in the Arabian Peninsula: Proceedings of the International Symposium on "Prospects of Saline Agriculture in the GCC Countries" 18–20 March 2001, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Taha, F.K., Ismail, S., Jaradat, A. (Eds.). Amherst Scientific Publishers. pp.399–412.

Crane, J.C., 1978. Pistachio Tree Nuts. Avipublishing Co., Westport, California, USA.

Darouich, H.M., Pedras, C.M., Gonçalves, J.M., Pereira, L.S., 2014. Drip vs. surface irrigation: A comparison focussing on water saving and economic returns using multicriteria analysis applied to cotton. Biosystems Engineering 122: 74-90.

Demir, Y., Erşahin, S., Güler, M., Cemek, B., Günal, H., Arslan, H., 2009. Spatial variability of depth and salinity of groundwater under irrigated ustifluvents in the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 158: 279-294.

Devkota, M., Gupta, R.K., Martius, C., Lamers, J.P.A., Devkota, K.P., Sayre, K.D., Vlek, P.L.G., 2015. Soil salinity management on raised beds with different furrow irrigation modes in salt-affected lands. Agricultural Water Management 152: 243-250.

Dion, P., Nautiyal, C.S., 2008. Microbiology of extreme soils. Springer Berlin, Heidelberg. 369p.

Doneen, L.D., 1964. Notes on water quality in agriculture published as a water science and engineering paper 4001. Department of Water Science and Engineering, University of California, Davis, Oakland, CA, USA.

Dreimanis, A., 1962. Quantitative gasometric determination of calcite and dolomite by using Chittick apparatus. Journal of Sedimentary Research 32: 520-529.

Dudley, L.M., Ben‐Gal, A., Lazarovitch, N., 2008. Drainage water reuse: Biological, physical, and technological considerations for system management. Journal of Environmental Quality 37 (S5): S 25 – S 35.

Eaton, F.M., 1950. Significance of carbonates in irrigation waters. Soil Science 69 (2): 123–134.

Fipps, G., 2003. Irrigation water quality standards and salinity management strategies. Texas Cooperative Extension, Texas A&M University System. Available at [Access date: 01.02.2022]:‏ https://twon.tamu.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2021/06/irrigation-water-quality-standards-and-salinity-management-strategies-1.pdf

Fukumasu, J., Jarvis, N., Koestel, J., Kätterer, T., Larsbo, M., 2022. Relations between soil organic carbon content and the pore size distribution for an arable topsoil with large variations in soil properties. European Journal of Soil Science 73(1): e13212.

Gebremeskel, G., Gebremicael, T.G., Ki, M., Meresa, E., Gebremedhin, T., Girmay, A., 2018. Salinization pattern and its spatial distribution in the irrigated agriculture of Northern Ethiopia: An integrated approach of quantitative and spatial analysis. Agricultural Water Management 206: 147–157.

Gee, G.W., Bauder, J.W., 1986. Particle-size Analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.), 2nd Edition. Agronomy Monograph No. 9, American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 383-411.

Geilfus, C.M., 2019. Chloride in soil: From nutrient to soil pollutant. Environmental and Experimental Botany 157: 299-309.

Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration of Iran, 2011. Geological map of Semnan, 1:100000, Sheet N0.:6661.

George, D., Mallery, P., 2019. IBM SPSS statistics 26 step by step: A simple guide and reference. 16th Edition. Routledge, New York, USA. 402p. .

Ghazali, M.F., Wikantika, K., Harto, A.B., Kondoh, A., 2020. Generating soil salinity, soil moisture, soil pH from satellite imagery and its analysis. Information Processing in Agriculture 7(2): 294-306.

Grattan, S., Zeng, L., Shannon, M., Roberts, S., 2002. Rice is more sensitive to salinity than previously thought. California Agriculture 56 (6): 189-198.

Hanson, B., Hopmans, J.W., Simunek, J., 2008. Leaching with subsurface drip irrigation under saline, shallow groundwater conditions. Vadose Zone Journal 7 (2): 810-818.

Hillel, D., 2000. Salinity management for sustainable irrigation. Integrating Science, Environment, and Economics. The international bank for reconstruction and development. The World Bank, USA. Available at [Access date: 01.02.2022]:‏ https://documents.worldbank.org/en/publication/documents-reports/downloadstats?docid=687661468741583380

Hoffman, G.J., Shalhevet, J., 2007. Controlling salinity. In: Design and Operation of Farm Irrigation Systems (2nd Edition).  Hoffman, G.J., Evans, R.G., Jensen, M.E., Martin, D.L., Elliot, R.L. (Eds.). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St Joseph, MI, USA. pp. 160–207.

Köppen, W., 1931. Grundriss der Klimakunde. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, Germany. 388p. [in German]

Miao, Q., Shi, H., Goncalves, J.M., Pereira, L.S., 2015. Field assessment of basin irrigation performance and water saving in Hetao, Yellow River basin: Issues to support irrigation systems modernisation. Biosystems Engineering 136: 102-116.

Minhas, P.S., 1996. Saline water management for irrigation in India. Agricultural Water Management 30: 1–24.

Minhas, P.S., Ramos, T.B., Ben-Gal, A., Pereira, L.S., 2020. Coping with salinity in irrigated agriculture: Crop evapotranspiration and water management issues. Agricultural Water Management 227: 105832.

Moazzzam Jazi, M., Seyedi, S.M., Ebrahimie, E., De Moro, G., 2017. A genome-wide transcriptome map of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) provides novel insights into salinity-related genes and marker discovery. BMC Genomics 18: 627.

Mustafa, G., Akhtar, M.S., 2019. Crops and methods to control soil salinity. In: Salt Stress, Microbes, and Plant Interactions: Mechanisms and Molecular Approaches. Akhtar, M.S., (Ed.). Springer, Singapore pp. 237-251.

Newhall, F., Berdanier, C.R., 1996. Calculation of soil moisture regimes from the climatic record. Soil Survey Investigation Reports No. 46. Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. Available at [Access date: 01.02.2022]:‏ https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/nrcs142p2_052248.pdf

Pasternak, D., De Malach, Y., 1995. Irrigation with brackish water under desert conditions X. Irrigation management of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mills) on desert sand dunes. Agricultural Water Management 28(2): 121-132.

Pereira, L.S., Cordery, I., Iacovides, I., 2009. Coping with water scarcity: Addressing the challenges. Springer Dordrecht. 382p.

Pereira, L.S., Duarte, E., Fragoso, R., 2014. Water use: Recycling and desalination for agriculture. In: Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems. van Alfen, N.K. (Ed.), Vol. 5. Elsevier, San Diego, pp. 407–424.

Pereira, L.S., Gonçalves, J.M., Dong, B., Mao, Z., Fang, S.X., 2007. Assessing basin irrigation and scheduling strategies for saving irrigation water and controlling salinity in the upper Yellow River Basin, China. Agricultural Water Management 93(3): 109-122.

Pereira, L.S., Oweis, T., Zairi, A., 2002. Irrigation management under water scarcity. Agricultural Water Management 57(3): 175-206.

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Qadir, M., Oster, J.D., 2004. Crop and irrigation management strategies for saline-sodic soils and waters aimed at environmentally sustainable agriculture. Science of the Total Environment 323 (1-3): 1-19.

Qian, T., Tsunekawa, A., Masunaga, T., Wang, T., 2017. Analysis of the spatial variation of soil salinity and its causal factors in China’s Minqin Oasis. Mathematical Problems in Engineering Article ID 9745264.

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Soil Science Division Staff, 2017. Soil survey manual. C Ditzler, K Scheffe, and HC Monger (eds.). USDA Handbook 18. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

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Abstract

The objectives of this study were i) to characterize the water and soils under different managements, ii) to evaluate the sustainability of using hypersaline soils and water, and iii) to assess possible solutions to prevent more degradation of soil and water resources. Field and laboratory analysis of the samples using eight pedons and 128 surface samples taken from grid in four pre-determined land uses; pistachio orchard abandoned, pistachio orchard with furrow irrigation, wheat and maize cropping with furrow irrigation, pistachio orchard with drip irrigation. The study area, 170 ha, comprised two distinct soil parent materials including marls (max. ECe >100 dS/m) and alluviums (max. ECe >60 dS/m). Abandoning lands caused salinity increasing due to lack of leaching by irrigation water. The maximum increase of soil salinity was in the abandoned land use (EC e =98 dS/m), where trees had been removed and there is no irrigation, followed by pistachio plantation land use (EC=11 to 34 dS/m), and wheat and maize cropping land use (EC=11-19 dS/m). The minimum rise in soil salinity was in the drip irrigation due to mixing freshwater with saline water and therefore better water quality (EC=3 dS/m at surface layer and 17 dS/m in next layer). Land use change to agriculture increased the need for irrigation and because of arid climate it mainly supplied by groundwater from deep wells. Using deep groundwater due to rock-water reaction and increasing salinity, decreased water quality in furrow irrigation and therefore it had more significant effect on soil salinity compare to drip. Comparison of the mean values of soil salinity indicators in 2018 showed that salinity has increased by 3-6 times in the furrow irrigation and at least two-fold in the drip irrigation, compared to 2002. The calculated salinity indicators also proved the soil and water resources had been degraded and present land use types are not sustainable.  Possible solutions could be to minimize land use change to agriculture, to use drip irrigation with mixed saline and freshwater, and to remove salt crusts from the soil surface.

Keywords: Land degradation, Arid climate, Solute dynamics, Saline soils, Saline water, Irrrigation.

References

Acar, B., Yilmaz, A.M., 2019. Irrigation techniques and plant growth strategies in salt-affected soils. International Journal of Agriculture and Economic Development 7(1): 1-9.

Ahmed, M.N., Abdel Samie, S.G., Badawy, H.A., 2013. Factors controlling mechanisms of groundwater salinization and hydrogeochemical processes in the Quaternary aquifer of the Eastern Nile Delta, Egypt. Environmental Earth Sciences 68: 369-394.

Al-Muaini, A., Green, S., Dakheel, A., Abdullah, A.H., Abou Dahr, W.A., Dixon, S., Clothier, B., 2019. Irrigation management with saline groundwater of a date palm cultivar in the hyper-arid United Arab Emirates. Agricultural Water Management 211: 123-131.

Ayers, R.S., Westcot, D.W., 1985. Water quality for agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Vol. 29. Rome, Italy. Available at [Access date: 01.02.2022]:http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/t0234e/t0234e00.HTM

Bauder, T.A., Waskom, R.M., Davis, J.G., 2010. Irrigation water quality criteria, Colorado State University Extension. Fact Sheet No. 0.506.  Available at [Access date: 01.02.2022]:https://extension.colostate.edu/docs/pubs/crops/00506.pdf 

Bodaghabadi, M.B., Faskhodi, A.A., Salehi, M.H., Hosseinifard, S.J., Heydari, M., 2019. Soil suitability analysis and evaluation of pistachio orchard farming, using canonical multivariate analysis. Scientia Horticulturae 246: 528-534.

Bouaziz, M., Hihi, S., Chtourou, M.Y., Osunmadewa, B., 2020. Soil salinity detection in semi-arid region using spectral unmixing, remote sensing and ground truth measurements. Journal of Geographic Information System 12(4): 372-386.

Burt, C.M., Isbell, B., 2005. Leaching of accumulated soil salinity under drip irrigation.  American Society of Agricultural Engineers 48 (6): 2115-2121.

Cheraghi, S.A.M., 2004. Institutional and scientific profiles of organizations working on saline agriculture in Iran. Prospects of saline agriculture in the Arabian Peninsula: Proceedings of the International Symposium on "Prospects of Saline Agriculture in the GCC Countries" 18–20 March 2001, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Taha, F.K., Ismail, S., Jaradat, A. (Eds.). Amherst Scientific Publishers. pp.399–412.

Crane, J.C., 1978. Pistachio Tree Nuts. Avipublishing Co., Westport, California, USA.

Darouich, H.M., Pedras, C.M., Gonçalves, J.M., Pereira, L.S., 2014. Drip vs. surface irrigation: A comparison focussing on water saving and economic returns using multicriteria analysis applied to cotton. Biosystems Engineering 122: 74-90.

Demir, Y., Erşahin, S., Güler, M., Cemek, B., Günal, H., Arslan, H., 2009. Spatial variability of depth and salinity of groundwater under irrigated ustifluvents in the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 158: 279-294.

Devkota, M., Gupta, R.K., Martius, C., Lamers, J.P.A., Devkota, K.P., Sayre, K.D., Vlek, P.L.G., 2015. Soil salinity management on raised beds with different furrow irrigation modes in salt-affected lands. Agricultural Water Management 152: 243-250.

Dion, P., Nautiyal, C.S., 2008. Microbiology of extreme soils. Springer Berlin, Heidelberg. 369p.

Doneen, L.D., 1964. Notes on water quality in agriculture published as a water science and engineering paper 4001. Department of Water Science and Engineering, University of California, Davis, Oakland, CA, USA.

Dreimanis, A., 1962. Quantitative gasometric determination of calcite and dolomite by using Chittick apparatus. Journal of Sedimentary Research 32: 520-529.

Dudley, L.M., Ben‐Gal, A., Lazarovitch, N., 2008. Drainage water reuse: Biological, physical, and technological considerations for system management. Journal of Environmental Quality 37 (S5): S 25 – S 35.

Eaton, F.M., 1950. Significance of carbonates in irrigation waters. Soil Science 69 (2): 123–134.

Fipps, G., 2003. Irrigation water quality standards and salinity management strategies. Texas Cooperative Extension, Texas A&M University System. Available at [Access date: 01.02.2022]:‏ https://twon.tamu.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2021/06/irrigation-water-quality-standards-and-salinity-management-strategies-1.pdf

Fukumasu, J., Jarvis, N., Koestel, J., Kätterer, T., Larsbo, M., 2022. Relations between soil organic carbon content and the pore size distribution for an arable topsoil with large variations in soil properties. European Journal of Soil Science 73(1): e13212.

Gebremeskel, G., Gebremicael, T.G., Ki, M., Meresa, E., Gebremedhin, T., Girmay, A., 2018. Salinization pattern and its spatial distribution in the irrigated agriculture of Northern Ethiopia: An integrated approach of quantitative and spatial analysis. Agricultural Water Management 206: 147–157.

Gee, G.W., Bauder, J.W., 1986. Particle-size Analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.), 2nd Edition. Agronomy Monograph No. 9, American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 383-411.

Geilfus, C.M., 2019. Chloride in soil: From nutrient to soil pollutant. Environmental and Experimental Botany 157: 299-309.

Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration of Iran, 2011. Geological map of Semnan, 1:100000, Sheet N0.:6661.

George, D., Mallery, P., 2019. IBM SPSS statistics 26 step by step: A simple guide and reference. 16th Edition. Routledge, New York, USA. 402p. .

Ghazali, M.F., Wikantika, K., Harto, A.B., Kondoh, A., 2020. Generating soil salinity, soil moisture, soil pH from satellite imagery and its analysis. Information Processing in Agriculture 7(2): 294-306.

Grattan, S., Zeng, L., Shannon, M., Roberts, S., 2002. Rice is more sensitive to salinity than previously thought. California Agriculture 56 (6): 189-198.

Hanson, B., Hopmans, J.W., Simunek, J., 2008. Leaching with subsurface drip irrigation under saline, shallow groundwater conditions. Vadose Zone Journal 7 (2): 810-818.

Hillel, D., 2000. Salinity management for sustainable irrigation. Integrating Science, Environment, and Economics. The international bank for reconstruction and development. The World Bank, USA. Available at [Access date: 01.02.2022]:‏ https://documents.worldbank.org/en/publication/documents-reports/downloadstats?docid=687661468741583380

Hoffman, G.J., Shalhevet, J., 2007. Controlling salinity. In: Design and Operation of Farm Irrigation Systems (2nd Edition).  Hoffman, G.J., Evans, R.G., Jensen, M.E., Martin, D.L., Elliot, R.L. (Eds.). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St Joseph, MI, USA. pp. 160–207.

Köppen, W., 1931. Grundriss der Klimakunde. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, Germany. 388p. [in German]

Miao, Q., Shi, H., Goncalves, J.M., Pereira, L.S., 2015. Field assessment of basin irrigation performance and water saving in Hetao, Yellow River basin: Issues to support irrigation systems modernisation. Biosystems Engineering 136: 102-116.

Minhas, P.S., 1996. Saline water management for irrigation in India. Agricultural Water Management 30: 1–24.

Minhas, P.S., Ramos, T.B., Ben-Gal, A., Pereira, L.S., 2020. Coping with salinity in irrigated agriculture: Crop evapotranspiration and water management issues. Agricultural Water Management 227: 105832.

Moazzzam Jazi, M., Seyedi, S.M., Ebrahimie, E., De Moro, G., 2017. A genome-wide transcriptome map of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) provides novel insights into salinity-related genes and marker discovery. BMC Genomics 18: 627.

Mustafa, G., Akhtar, M.S., 2019. Crops and methods to control soil salinity. In: Salt Stress, Microbes, and Plant Interactions: Mechanisms and Molecular Approaches. Akhtar, M.S., (Ed.). Springer, Singapore pp. 237-251.

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