Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 11, Issue 4, Oct 2022, Pages 303-315
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1120539
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1120539
Copyright © 2022 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



A study about radiation dosimetry and heavy metal pollution in the Küçük Menderes Basin, Turkey (Radio-ecological and Heavy Metal Risks)

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Akakçe,N., Yaprak,G., Camgöz,B., 2022. A study about radiation dosimetry and heavy metal pollution in the Küçük Menderes Basin, Turkey (Radio-ecological and Heavy Metal Risks). Eurasian J Soil Sci 11(4):303-315. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1120539
Akakçe,N.,Yaprak,G.,& Camgöz,B. A study about radiation dosimetry and heavy metal pollution in the Küçük Menderes Basin, Turkey (Radio-ecological and Heavy Metal Risks) Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 11(4):303-315. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1120539
Akakçe,N.,Yaprak,G., and ,Camgöz,B."A study about radiation dosimetry and heavy metal pollution in the Küçük Menderes Basin, Turkey (Radio-ecological and Heavy Metal Risks)" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 11.4 (2022):303-315. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1120539
Akakçe,N.,Yaprak,G., and ,Camgöz,B. "A study about radiation dosimetry and heavy metal pollution in the Küçük Menderes Basin, Turkey (Radio-ecological and Heavy Metal Risks)" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,11(Oct 2022):303-315 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1120539
N,Akakçe.G,Yaprak.B,Camgöz "A study about radiation dosimetry and heavy metal pollution in the Küçük Menderes Basin, Turkey (Radio-ecological and Heavy Metal Risks)" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.11, no.4, pp.303-315 (Oct 2022), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1120539
Akakçe,Nurdan ;Yaprak,Günseli ;Camgöz,Berkay A study about radiation dosimetry and heavy metal pollution in the Küçük Menderes Basin, Turkey (Radio-ecological and Heavy Metal Risks). Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2022),11.4:303-315. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1120539

How to cite

Akakçe, N., Yaprak, G., Camgöz, B., 2022. A study about radiation dosimetry and heavy metal pollution in the Küçük Menderes Basin, Turkey (Radio-ecological and Heavy Metal Risks). Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 11(4): 303-315. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1120539

Author information

Nurdan Akakçe , Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Izmir, Turkey & Ege University Application and Research Center for Testing and Analysis (EGE-MATAL), Izmir, Turkey
Günseli Yaprak , Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Izmir, Turkey
Berkay Camgöz , Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Izmir, Turkey

Publication information

Article first published online : 24 May 2022
Manuscript Accepted : 10 May 2022
Manuscript Received: 07 Dec 2021
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1120539
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1120539

Abstract

Agricultural researchers in many countries investigate radiological risks in soil and crops because it concerns human health. In addition, they also study heavy metal pollution in plants in cultivated soil for ecological safety. This study aims to analyze the activity concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals in soil and corn crops in the Küçük Menderes Basin (Izmir, Turkey) – which is enriched with phosphatic fertilizers. We collected soil and corn samples from the area, and then separately measured concentrations of radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and trace elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) they contain. Activity concentrations of the radionuclides were acquired by radiometric methods (gamma spectroscopy). Heavy metal amounts were calculated using ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass-spectrometry). The mean heavy metal concentrations in the soil (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Hg) were 0.096, 40.26, 26.51, 72.43, 32.24, 7.05 mg kg-1, 158.28 µg kg-1 and in the corn (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Hg) were 0.01, 1.09, 2.05, 22.00, 0.54, 0.24 mg kg-1, 12.15 µg kg-1. The heavy metal concentrations in soil samples were as follows: Hg < Cd < Pb < Cu < Ni < Cr < Zn and in corn samples were as follows: Hg < Cd < Pb < Ni < Cr < Cu < Zn. Also, the mean activity concentrations in the soils (226Ra, 232Th, 40K) were 36.2±2, 32±1, 615.44±7 Bq kg-1. The 226Ra and 232Th concentrations in the corn samples are smaller than the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). However, the mean activity concentration of 40K in the corn samples is 310.7±8 Bq kg-1. These values considered are acceptable for human health according to UNSCEAR (2000). The heavy metal concentrations in the soil and corn samples are within acceptable limits for Turkish Government. The level of radionuclide activity and heavy metal concentrations, as well as both transfer and bio-concentration factors are comparable with those of a handful of other countries. Long-term research on radio-ecological risks is very important for agricultural control. In addition, the data set of radiation levels and pollutant elements do not have a fixed amount in related materials such as soil and plants. On the other hand, the quantity of pollutants soil (via plants) has risen due to activity from non-controlled industrial facilities. Researchers and governments alike therefore must monitor ecological pollution of terrestrial radionuclides and heavy elements on a routine basis.

Keywords

Radioecology, agronomy, heavy metals, soil, corn.

Corresponding author

References

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Abstract

Agricultural researchers in many countries investigate radiological risks in soil and crops because it concerns human health. In addition, they also study heavy metal pollution in plants in cultivated soil for ecological safety. This study aims to analyze the activity concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals in soil and corn crops in the Küçük Menderes Basin (Izmir, Turkey) – which is enriched with phosphatic fertilizers. We collected soil and corn samples from the area, and then separately measured concentrations of radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and trace elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) they contain. Activity concentrations of the radionuclides were acquired by radiometric methods (gamma spectroscopy). Heavy metal amounts were calculated using ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass-spectrometry). The mean heavy metal concentrations in the soil (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Hg) were 0.096, 40.26, 26.51, 72.43, 32.24, 7.05 mg kg-1, 158.28 µg kg-1 and in the corn (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Hg) were 0.01, 1.09, 2.05, 22.00, 0.54, 0.24 mg kg-1, 12.15 µg kg-1. The heavy metal concentrations in soil samples were as follows:  Hg < Cd < Pb < Cu < Ni < Cr < Zn and in corn samples were as follows: Hg < Cd < Pb < Ni < Cr < Cu < Zn. Also, the mean activity concentrations in the soils (226Ra, 232Th, 40K) were 36.2±2, 32±1, 615.44±7 Bq kg-1. The 226Ra and 232Th concentrations in the corn samples are smaller than the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). However, the mean activity concentration of 40K in the corn samples is 310.7±8 Bq kg-1. These values considered are acceptable for human health according to UNSCEAR (2000). The heavy metal concentrations in the soil and corn samples are within acceptable limits for Turkish Government. The level of radionuclide activity and heavy metal concentrations, as well as both transfer and bio-concentration factors are comparable with those of a handful of other countries. Long-term research on radio-ecological risks is very important for agricultural control. In addition, the data set of radiation levels and pollutant elements do not have a fixed amount in related materials such as soil and plants. On the other hand, the quantity of pollutants soil (via plants) has risen due to activity from non-controlled industrial facilities. Researchers and governments alike therefore must monitor ecological pollution of terrestrial radionuclides and heavy elements on a routine basis.  

Keywords: Radioecology, agronomy, heavy metals, soil, corn.

References

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Akakçe, N., 2008. The determination of radioactivity and heavy metal pollutions in Küçük Menderes basin.  MSc Thesis. Ege University, Bornova, İzmir, Turkey.  67p. [in Turkish].

Al-Hamarneh, I.F., Alkhomashi, N., Almasoud, F.I., 2016. Study on the radioactivity and soil-to-plant transfer factor of 226Ra, 234U and 238U radionuclides in irrigated farms from the northwestern Saudi Arabia. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 160: 1–7.

Alharbi, A., El-Taher, A., 2013. A study on transfer factors of radionuclides from soil to plant. Life Science Journal 10(2):  532–539.

Ali, J., Khan, S., Khan, A., Waqas, M., Nasir, M.J., 2020. Contamination of soil with potentially toxic metals and their bioaccumulation in wheat and associated health risk. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 192: 138.

Anagnostakis, M.J., Hinis, E.P., Simopoulos, S.E., Angelopoulos, M.G., 1996. Natural radioactivity mapping of Greek surface soils. Environment International 22: 3-8.

Baeza, A., Paniagua, J., Rufo, M., Barandica, J., 1996. Bio-availability and transfer of natural radionuclides in a mediterranean ecosystem. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 47(9-10): 939-945.

Bella, S., Brai, M., Hauser, S., Puccio, P., Rizzo, S., 1997. Natural radioactivity in a volcanic island: Ustica, Southern Italy. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 48(2): 287-293.

Bolca, M., Saç, M.M., Cokuysal, B., Karalı, T., Ekdal, E., 2007. Radioactivity in soils and various foodstuffs from the Gediz River Basin of Turkey. Radiation Measurements 42(2): 263-270.

Camgöz, Y., Yaprak, G., 2009. Determination natural radioactivity levels agricultural soils Küçük Menderes Basin. Ekoloji 18(70): 74-80. [in Turkish].

Camelo, L.G.L, de Miguez, S.R., Marbán, L., 1997. Heavy metals input with phosphate fertilizers used in Argentina. Science of the Total Environment 204(3): 245-250.

Canbaz Öztürk, B., 2015. Investigation of natural radioactivity levels in West Anatolia granite plutons with multi variate statistical analysis methods. PhD Thesis. Ege University, Bornova, İzmir, Turkey.  129p. [in Turkish].

Carnelo, L.G.L., de Miguez, S.R., Marbán, L., 1997. Heavy metals input with phosphate fertilizers used in Argentina. Science of the Total Environment 204(3): 245-250.

Cui, Y.J., Zhu, Y.G., Zhai, R.H., Chen, D.Y., Huang, Y.Z., Qiu, Y., Liang, J.Z., 2004. Transfer of metals from soil to vegetables in an area near a smelter in Nanning, China. Environment International 30(6): 785–791.

Çevre ve Orman Bakanlığı, 2005. Toprak Kirliliğinin Kontrolü Yönetmeliği. Available at [access date: 07.12.2021]: https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2005/05/20050531-6.htm#:~:text=Y%C3%B6netmelik&text=Madde%201%20%E2%80%94%20Bu%20Y%C3%B6netmeli%C4%9Fin%20amac%C4%B1,uyumlu%20bir%20%C5%9Fekilde%20ortaya%20koymakt%C4%B1r

Djuric, G., Popovic, D., Todorovic, D., 1996. Activity variations and concentration factors for natural radionuclides in a “soil-plant-honey” system. Environment International 22: 361-363.

Dora, O., Kun, N., Candan, O., 1992. Geotectonic position and metamorphic history of the Menderes massif. Geological Bulletin of Turkey 35(1): 1-14. [in Turkish].

dos Santos Amaral, R., de Vasconcelos, W.E., Borges, E., Silveira, S.V., Mazzilli, B.P., 2005. Intake of uranium and radium-226 due to food crops consumption in the phosphate region of Pernambuco – Brazil. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 82(3): 383-393.

Dowdall, M., Gerland, S., Lind, B., 2003. Gamma-emitting natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the terrestrial environment of Kongsfjord, Svalbard. Science of The Total Environment 305(1-3): 229-240.

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