Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 11, Issue 4, Oct 2022, Pages 295-302
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1114772
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1114772
Copyright © 2022 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Influence of inoculating microbes on municipal sewage sludge composting

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Bostubaeva,M., Nauanova,A., Kızılkaya,R., 2022. Influence of inoculating microbes on municipal sewage sludge composting. Eurasian J Soil Sci 11(4):295-302. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1114772
Bostubaeva,M.,Nauanova,A.,& Kızılkaya,R. Influence of inoculating microbes on municipal sewage sludge composting Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 11(4):295-302. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1114772
Bostubaeva,M.,Nauanova,A., and ,Kızılkaya,R."Influence of inoculating microbes on municipal sewage sludge composting" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 11.4 (2022):295-302. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1114772
Bostubaeva,M.,Nauanova,A., and ,Kızılkaya,R. "Influence of inoculating microbes on municipal sewage sludge composting" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,11(Oct 2022):295-302 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1114772
M,Bostubaeva.A,Nauanova.R,Kızılkaya "Influence of inoculating microbes on municipal sewage sludge composting" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.11, no.4, pp.295-302 (Oct 2022), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1114772
Bostubaeva,Makpal B. ;Nauanova,Ainash P. ;Kızılkaya,Rıdvan Influence of inoculating microbes on municipal sewage sludge composting. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2022),11.4:295-302. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1114772

How to cite

Bostubaeva, M., Nauanova, A., Kızılkaya, R., 2022. Influence of inoculating microbes on municipal sewage sludge composting. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 11(4): 295-302. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1114772

Author information

Makpal B. Bostubaeva , S.Seifullin Kazakh Agro Technical University, Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
Ainash P. Nauanova , S.Seifullin Kazakh Agro Technical University, Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
Rıdvan Kızılkaya , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Samsun, Turkey

Publication information

Article first published online : 10 May 2022
Manuscript Accepted : 29 Apr 2022
Manuscript Received: 21 Nov 2021
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1114772
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1114772

Abstract

The influence of Ilkompost and Micromix bacterial consortium inoculation during sewage sludge (SS) with wheat straw (WS) composting was assessed. The effect of inoculation on compost quality parameters such as pH, temperature, nutrient contents and C/N, bacterial and fungal population were determined. Compared to the control treatment, the temperature of piles and population of microorganism increased after inoculated bacterial consortiums at the beginning of compost. But, WS addition did not effect on compost quality parameters and microbial population. Fungal and bacterial population, the peak temperature, or heating rate, of Micromix bacterial consortium based on Streptomyces pratensis, Bacillus mesentericus, Azotobacter chroococcum inoculated treatments was clearly higher than that of Ilkompost bacterial consortium based on Pediococcus pentosaceus, Streptomyces sindenensis, Bacillus megaterium inoculated treatments.

Keywords

Sewage sludge, composting, inoculation, bacteria, fungi.

Corresponding author

References

Andraka, D., Ospanov, K., Myrzakhmetov, M., 2016. Current state of communal sewage treatment in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Journal of Ecological Engineering 16(5): 101-109.

Asija, A.K., Pareek, R.P., Singhania, R.A., Singh, S., 1984. Effect of method of preparation and enrichment on the quality of the manure. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 32(2): 323-329.

Baheri, H., Meysami, P., 2002. Feasibility of fungi bioaugmentation in composting a flare pit soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials 89(2-3): 279–286.

Bareither, C.A., Wolfe, G.L., McMahon, K.D., Benson, C.H., 2013. Microbial diversity and dynamics during methane production from municipal solid waste. Waste Management 33(10): 1982–1992.

Barrena, R., Pagans, E., Faltys, G., Sánchez, A., 2006. Effect of inoculation dosing on the composting of source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 81(3): 420 – 425.

Bertoldi, M.D., Vallinim, G.E., Pera, A., 1983. The biology of composting: a review. Waste Management & Research 1(2): 157–176.

Biey, E.M., Mortier, H., Verstraete, W., 2000. Nitrogen transfer from grey municipal solid waste to high quality compost. Bioresource Technology 73(1): 47–52.

Bolta, S.V., Mihelic, R., Lobnik, F., Lestan, D., 2003. Microbial community structure during composting with and without mass inocula. Compost Science & Utilization 11(1): 6–15.

Chang, R., Li, Y., Chen, Q., Guo, Q., Jia, J., 2019. Comparing the effects of three in situ methods on nitrogen loss control, temperature dynamics and maturity during composting of agricultural wastes with a stage of temperatures over 70 °C. Journal of Environmental Management 230: 119–127.

Delibacak, S., Voronina, L., Morachevskaya, E., Ongun, A., 2020. Use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils: Useful or harmful. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 9(2): 126 - 139.

Du, J., Zhang, Y., Qu, M., Yin, Y., Fan, K., Hu, B., Zhang, H., Wei, M., Ma, C., 2019. Effects of biochar on the microbial activity and community structure during sewage sludge composting. Bioresource Technology 272: 171-179.

Fan, H., Liao, J., Abass, O.K., Liu, L., Huang, X., Wei, L., Xie, W., Yu, H., Liu, C., 2019. Effects of bulking material types on water consumption and pollutant degradation in composting process with controlled addition of different liquid manures. Bioresource Technology 288: 121517.

Gajalakshmi, S., Abbasi, S.A., 2008. Solid waste management by composting: State of the art. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 38(5): 311–400.

Germida, J.J. 1993. Cultural methods for soil microorganisms. In: Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. Carter, M.R. (Ed.). A Special Publication of the Canadian Society of Soil Science. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 263–275.

Germida, J.J., de Freitas, J.R., 2008. Cultural Methods for Soil and Root-Associated Microorganisms. In: Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. Carter, M.R., Gregorich, E.G. (Eds.). Canadian Society of Soil Science. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp. 341-354

Golueke, C.G., 1992. Bacteriology of composting. Biocycle 33: 55-57.

Gülser, C., Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., Ekberli, İ., 2015. Changes in soil quality by compost and hazelnut husk applications in a Hazelnut Orchard. Compost Science & Utilization 23(3): 135-141.

Hua, L., Wu, W., Liu, Y., McBride, M.B., Chen, Y., 2009. Reduction of nitrogen loss and Cu and Zn mobility during sludge composting with bamboo charcoal amendment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 16(1): 1-9.

Jatav, H., Singh, S., Jatav, S., Rajput, V., Sushkova, S., 2021. Feasibility of sewage sludge application in rice-wheat cropping system. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 10(3): 207-214.

Jiang, T., Schuchardt, F., Li, G., Guo, R., Zhao, Y., 2011. Effect of C/N ratio, aeration rate and moisture content on ammonia and greenhouse gas emission during the composting. Journal of Environmental Sciences 23(10): 1754-1760.

Jones, J.B., 2001. Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analyses. CRC Press, New York, USA. 363p.

Jones, J.B., Wolf, J.B., Mills, H.A., 1991. Plant Analysis Handbook: A Practical Sampling, Preparation, Analysis, and Interpretation Guide. Micro-Macro Publishing, Athens, USA. 213p.

Kızılkaya, R., Sahin, N., Tatar, D., Veyisoglu, A., Askın, T., Sushkova, S.N., Minkina, T.M., 2015.  Isolation and identification of bacterial strains from decomposing hazelnut husk. Compost Science & Utilization 23(3): 173-184.

Kızılkaya, R., Yertayeva, Z., Kaldybayev, S., Murzabayev, B., Zhapparova, A., Nurseitov, Z., 2021. Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 10(1): 38 - 50.

Li, C., Li, H., Yao, T., Su, M., Ran, F., Han, B., Li, J., Lan, X., Zhang, Y., Yang, X., Gun, S., 2019. Microbial inoculation influences bacterial community succession and physi-cochemical characteristics during pig manure composting with corn straw. Bioresource Technology 289: 121653.

Ma, C., Hua, B., Wei, M.B., Zhao, J.H., Zhang, H.Z., 2019b. Influence of matured compost inoculation on sewage sludge composting: Enzyme activity, bacterial and fungal community succession. Bioresource Technology 294: 122165.

Ma, J., Zhang, L., Mu, L., Zhu, K., Li, A., 2019a. Multivariate insights of bulking agents influence on co-biodrying of sewage sludge and food waste: Process performance, organics degradation and microbial community. Science of The Total Environment 681: 18–27.

Manu, M., Kumar, R., Garg, A., 2017. Performance assessment of improved composting system for food waste with varying aeration and use of microbial inoculum. Bioresource Technology 234: 167–177.

Meng, L., Li, W., Zhang, S., Wu, C., Jiang, W., Sha, C., 2016. Effect of different extra sources on nitrogen loss control and the change of bacterial populations in sewage sludge composting. Ecological Engineering 94: 238–243.

Nie, E., Zheng, G., Gao, D., Chen, T., Yang, J., Wang, Y., Wang, X., 2019. Emission characteristics of VOCs and potential ozone formation from a full-scale sewage sludge composting plant. Science of The Total Environment 659: 664–672.

Ospanov, K., Kuldeyev, E., Kenzhaliyev, B., Korotunov, A., 2022. Wastewater treatment methods and sewage treatment facilities in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Journal of Ecological Engineering 23(1): 240–251.

Rihani, M., Malamis, D., Bihaoui, B., Etahiri, S., Loizidou, M., Assobhei, O., 2010. In-vessel treatment of urban primary sludge by aerobic composting. Bioresource Technology 101(15): 5988–5995.

Shashoug, M., Abdalla, M., Elhadi, E., Rezig, F., 2017. Response of fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) to sewage sludge treatment and irrigation intervals in a dryland condition. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 6(2): 144-153.

Sivapalan, A., Morgan, W.C., Franz, P.R., 1994. Effect of inoculation fungi into compost on growth of tomato and compost micro flora. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 34(4): 541-548.

Sullivan, D.M., Miller, R.O., 2001. Compost quality attributes, measurements and variability. In: Compost utilization in horticultural cropping systems.  Stofella, P.J., Kahn, B.A. (Eds.). CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. p. 95-120.

Tiquia, S.M., Tam, N.F.Y., Hodgkiss, I.J., 1997. Effects of bacterial inoculum and moisture adjustment on composting pig manure. Environmental Pollution 96(2): 161–171.

Tong, B., Wang, X., Wang, S., Ma, L., Ma, W., 2019. Transformation of nitrogen and carbon during composting of manure litter with different methods. Bioresource Technology 293: 122046.

Vargas-Garcia, M.C., Suárez-Estrella, F., López, M.J., Moreno, J., 2010. Microbial population dynamics and enzyme activities in composting processes with different starting materials. Waste Management 30(5): 771–778.

Wan, L., Wang, X., Cong, C., Li, J., Xu, Y., Li, X., Hou, F., Wu, Y., Wang, L., 2020. Effect of inoculating microorganisms in chicken manure composting with maize straw. Bioresource Technology 301: 122730.

Wang, Q. Wang, Z., Awasthi, M.K., Jiang, Y., Li, R., Ren, X., Zhao, J., Shen, F., Wang, M., Zhang, Z., 2016. Evaluation of medical stone amendment for the reduction of nitrogen loss and bioavailability of heavy metals during pig manure composting. Bioresource Technology 220: 297-304.

Wang, J., Liu, Z., Xia, J., Chen, Y., 2019c. Effect of microbial inoculation on physico-chemical properties and bacterial community structure of citrus peel composting. Bioresource Technology 291: 121834.

Wang, X., Zhao, Y., Wang, H., Zhao, X., Cui, H., Wei, Z., 2017. Reducing nitrogen loss and phytotoxicity during beer vinasse composting with biochar addition. Waste Management 61: 150–156.

Wang, X., Zheng, G., Chen, T., Shi, X., Wang, Y., Nie, E., Liu, J., 2019a. Effect of phosphate amendments on improving the fertilizer efficiency and reducing the mobility of heavy metals during sewage sludge composting. Journal of Environmental Management 235: 124–132.

Wang, Y., Bi, L., Liao, Y., Lu, D., Zhang, H., Liao, X., Liang, J.B., Wu, Y., 2019b. Influence and characteristics of Bacillus stearothermophilus in ammonia reduction during layer manure composting. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 180: 80–87.

Wei, Y., Zhao, Y., Xi, B., Wei, Z., Li, X., Cao, Z., 2015. Changes in phosphorus fractions during organic wastes composting from different sources. Bioresource Technology 189: 349-356.

Zhou, H.B., Ma, C., Gao, D., Chen, T.B., Zheng, G.D., Chen, J., Pan, T.H., 2014. Application of a recyclable plastic bulking agent for sewage sludge composting. Bioresource Technology 152: 329–336.

Zhou, J.M., 2017. The effect of different C/N Ratios on the composting of pig manure and edible fungus residue with rice bran. Compost Science & Utilization 25(2): 120–129.

Zhu, N., 2007. Effect of low initial C/N ratio on aerobic composting of swine manure with rice straw. Bioresource Technology 98: 9–13.

Abstract

The influence of Ilkompost and Micromix bacterial consortium inoculation during sewage sludge (SS) with wheat straw (WS) composting was assessed. The effect of inoculation on compost quality parameters such as pH, temperature, nutrient contents and C/N, bacterial and fungal population were determined. Compared to the control treatment, the temperature of piles and population of microorganism increased after inoculated bacterial consortiums at the beginning of compost. But, WS addition did not effect on compost quality parameters and microbial population. Fungal and bacterial population, the peak temperature, or heating rate, of Micromix bacterial consortium based on Streptomyces pratensis, Bacillus mesentericus, Azotobacter chroococcum inoculated treatments was clearly higher than that of Ilkompost bacterial consortium based on Pediococcus pentosaceus, Streptomyces sindenensis, Bacillus megaterium inoculated treatments.

Keywords: Sewage sludge, composting, inoculation, bacteria, fungi.

References

Andraka, D., Ospanov, K., Myrzakhmetov, M., 2016. Current state of communal sewage treatment in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Journal of Ecological Engineering 16(5): 101-109.

Asija, A.K., Pareek, R.P., Singhania, R.A., Singh, S., 1984. Effect of method of preparation and enrichment on the quality of the manure. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 32(2): 323-329.

Baheri, H., Meysami, P., 2002. Feasibility of fungi bioaugmentation in composting a flare pit soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials 89(2-3): 279–286.

Bareither, C.A., Wolfe, G.L., McMahon, K.D., Benson, C.H., 2013. Microbial diversity and dynamics during methane production from municipal solid waste. Waste Management 33(10): 1982–1992.

Barrena, R., Pagans, E., Faltys, G., Sánchez, A., 2006. Effect of inoculation dosing on the composting of source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 81(3): 420 – 425.

Bertoldi, M.D., Vallinim, G.E., Pera, A., 1983. The biology of composting: a review. Waste Management & Research 1(2): 157–176.

Biey, E.M., Mortier, H., Verstraete, W., 2000. Nitrogen transfer from grey municipal solid waste to high quality compost. Bioresource Technology 73(1): 47–52.

Bolta, S.V., Mihelic, R., Lobnik, F., Lestan, D., 2003. Microbial community structure during composting with and without mass inocula. Compost Science & Utilization 11(1): 6–15.

Chang, R., Li, Y., Chen, Q., Guo, Q., Jia, J., 2019. Comparing the effects of three in situ methods on nitrogen loss control, temperature dynamics and maturity during composting of agricultural wastes with a stage of temperatures over 70 °C. Journal of Environmental Management 230: 119–127.

Delibacak, S., Voronina, L., Morachevskaya, E., Ongun, A., 2020. Use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils: Useful or harmful. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 9(2): 126 - 139.

Du, J., Zhang, Y., Qu, M., Yin, Y., Fan, K., Hu, B., Zhang, H., Wei, M., Ma, C., 2019. Effects of biochar on the microbial activity and community structure during sewage sludge composting. Bioresource Technology 272: 171-179.

Fan, H., Liao, J., Abass, O.K., Liu, L., Huang, X., Wei, L., Xie, W., Yu, H., Liu, C., 2019. Effects of bulking material types on water consumption and pollutant degradation in composting process with controlled addition of different liquid manures. Bioresource Technology 288: 121517.

Gajalakshmi, S., Abbasi, S.A., 2008. Solid waste management by composting: State of the art. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 38(5): 311–400.

Germida, J.J. 1993. Cultural methods for soil microorganisms. In: Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. Carter, M.R. (Ed.). A Special Publication of the Canadian Society of Soil Science. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 263–275.

Germida, J.J., de Freitas, J.R., 2008. Cultural Methods for Soil and Root-Associated Microorganisms. In: Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. Carter, M.R., Gregorich, E.G. (Eds.). Canadian Society of Soil Science. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp. 341-354

Golueke, C.G., 1992. Bacteriology of composting. Biocycle 33: 55-57.

Gülser, C., Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., Ekberli, İ., 2015. Changes in soil quality by compost and hazelnut husk applications in a Hazelnut Orchard. Compost Science & Utilization 23(3): 135-141.

Hua, L., Wu, W., Liu, Y., McBride, M.B., Chen, Y., 2009. Reduction of nitrogen loss and Cu and Zn mobility during sludge composting with bamboo charcoal amendment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 16(1): 1-9.

Jatav, H., Singh, S., Jatav, S., Rajput, V., Sushkova, S., 2021. Feasibility of sewage sludge application in rice-wheat cropping system. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 10(3): 207-214.

Jiang, T., Schuchardt, F., Li, G., Guo, R., Zhao, Y., 2011. Effect of C/N ratio, aeration rate and moisture content on ammonia and greenhouse gas emission during the composting. Journal of Environmental Sciences 23(10): 1754-1760.

Jones, J.B., 2001. Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analyses. CRC Press, New York, USA. 363p.

Jones, J.B., Wolf, J.B., Mills, H.A., 1991. Plant Analysis Handbook: A Practical Sampling, Preparation, Analysis, and Interpretation Guide. Micro-Macro Publishing, Athens, USA. 213p.

Kızılkaya, R., Sahin, N., Tatar, D., Veyisoglu, A., Askın, T., Sushkova, S.N., Minkina, T.M., 2015.  Isolation and identification of bacterial strains from decomposing hazelnut husk. Compost Science & Utilization 23(3): 173-184.

Kızılkaya, R., Yertayeva, Z., Kaldybayev, S., Murzabayev, B., Zhapparova, A., Nurseitov, Z., 2021. Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 10(1): 38 - 50.

Li, C., Li, H., Yao, T., Su, M., Ran, F., Han, B., Li, J., Lan, X., Zhang, Y., Yang, X., Gun, S., 2019. Microbial inoculation influences bacterial community succession and physi-cochemical characteristics during pig manure composting with corn straw. Bioresource Technology 289: 121653.

Ma, C., Hua, B., Wei, M.B., Zhao, J.H., Zhang, H.Z., 2019b. Influence of matured compost inoculation on sewage sludge composting: Enzyme activity, bacterial and fungal community succession. Bioresource Technology 294: 122165.

Ma, J., Zhang, L., Mu, L., Zhu, K., Li, A., 2019a. Multivariate insights of bulking agents influence on co-biodrying of sewage sludge and food waste: Process performance, organics degradation and microbial community. Science of The Total Environment 681: 18–27.

Manu, M., Kumar, R., Garg, A., 2017. Performance assessment of improved composting system for food waste with varying aeration and use of microbial inoculum. Bioresource Technology 234: 167–177.

Meng, L., Li, W., Zhang, S., Wu, C., Jiang, W., Sha, C., 2016. Effect of different extra sources on nitrogen loss control and the change of bacterial populations in sewage sludge composting. Ecological Engineering 94: 238–243.

Nie, E., Zheng, G., Gao, D., Chen, T., Yang, J., Wang, Y., Wang, X., 2019. Emission characteristics of VOCs and potential ozone formation from a full-scale sewage sludge composting plant. Science of The Total Environment 659: 664–672.

Ospanov, K., Kuldeyev, E., Kenzhaliyev, B., Korotunov, A., 2022. Wastewater treatment methods and sewage treatment facilities in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Journal of Ecological Engineering 23(1): 240–251.

Rihani, M., Malamis, D., Bihaoui, B., Etahiri, S., Loizidou, M., Assobhei, O., 2010. In-vessel treatment of urban primary sludge by aerobic composting. Bioresource Technology 101(15): 5988–5995.

Shashoug, M., Abdalla, M., Elhadi, E., Rezig, F., 2017. Response of fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) to sewage sludge treatment and irrigation intervals in a dryland condition. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 6(2): 144-153.

Sivapalan, A., Morgan, W.C., Franz, P.R., 1994. Effect of inoculation fungi into compost on growth of tomato and compost micro flora. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 34(4): 541-548.

Sullivan, D.M., Miller, R.O., 2001. Compost quality attributes, measurements and variability. In: Compost utilization in horticultural cropping systems.  Stofella, P.J., Kahn, B.A. (Eds.). CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. p. 95-120.

Tiquia, S.M., Tam, N.F.Y., Hodgkiss, I.J., 1997. Effects of bacterial inoculum and moisture adjustment on composting pig manure. Environmental Pollution 96(2): 161–171.

Tong, B., Wang, X., Wang, S., Ma, L., Ma, W., 2019. Transformation of nitrogen and carbon during composting of manure litter with different methods. Bioresource Technology 293: 122046.

Vargas-Garcia, M.C., Suárez-Estrella, F., López, M.J., Moreno, J., 2010. Microbial population dynamics and enzyme activities in composting processes with different starting materials. Waste Management 30(5): 771–778.

Wan, L., Wang, X., Cong, C., Li, J., Xu, Y., Li, X., Hou, F., Wu, Y., Wang, L., 2020. Effect of inoculating microorganisms in chicken manure composting with maize straw. Bioresource Technology 301: 122730.

Wang, Q. Wang, Z., Awasthi, M.K., Jiang, Y., Li, R., Ren, X., Zhao, J., Shen, F., Wang, M., Zhang, Z., 2016. Evaluation of medical stone amendment for the reduction of nitrogen loss and bioavailability of heavy metals during pig manure composting. Bioresource Technology 220: 297-304.

Wang, J., Liu, Z., Xia, J., Chen, Y., 2019c. Effect of microbial inoculation on physico-chemical properties and bacterial community structure of citrus peel composting. Bioresource Technology 291: 121834.

Wang, X., Zhao, Y., Wang, H., Zhao, X., Cui, H., Wei, Z., 2017. Reducing nitrogen loss and phytotoxicity during beer vinasse composting with biochar addition. Waste Management 61: 150–156.

Wang, X., Zheng, G., Chen, T., Shi, X., Wang, Y., Nie, E., Liu, J., 2019a. Effect of phosphate amendments on improving the fertilizer efficiency and reducing the mobility of heavy metals during sewage sludge composting. Journal of Environmental Management 235: 124–132.

Wang, Y., Bi, L., Liao, Y., Lu, D., Zhang, H., Liao, X., Liang, J.B., Wu, Y., 2019b. Influence and characteristics of Bacillus stearothermophilus in ammonia reduction during layer manure composting. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 180: 80–87.

Wei, Y., Zhao, Y., Xi, B., Wei, Z., Li, X., Cao, Z., 2015. Changes in phosphorus fractions during organic wastes composting from different sources. Bioresource Technology 189: 349-356.

Zhou, H.B., Ma, C., Gao, D., Chen, T.B., Zheng, G.D., Chen, J., Pan, T.H., 2014. Application of a recyclable plastic bulking agent for sewage sludge composting. Bioresource Technology 152: 329–336.

Zhou, J.M., 2017. The effect of different C/N Ratios on the composting of pig manure and edible fungus residue with rice bran. Compost Science & Utilization 25(2): 120–129.

Zhu, N., 2007. Effect of low initial C/N ratio on aerobic composting of swine manure with rice straw. Bioresource Technology 98: 9–13.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science