Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 11, Issue 3, Jun 2022, Pages 248-258
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1078352
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1078352
Copyright © 2022 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Response of selected physical properties of Fluvisols to tillage implements and frequencies at Haramaya, Eastern Ethiopia

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Lemma,A., Tsehai,K., Wereka,B., 2022. Response of selected physical properties of Fluvisols to tillage implements and frequencies at Haramaya, Eastern Ethiopia. Eurasian J Soil Sci 11(3):248-258. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1078352
Lemma,A.,Tsehai,K.,& Wereka,B. Response of selected physical properties of Fluvisols to tillage implements and frequencies at Haramaya, Eastern Ethiopia Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 11(3):248-258. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1078352
Lemma,A.,Tsehai,K., and ,Wereka,B."Response of selected physical properties of Fluvisols to tillage implements and frequencies at Haramaya, Eastern Ethiopia" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 11.3 (2022):248-258. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1078352
Lemma,A.,Tsehai,K., and ,Wereka,B. "Response of selected physical properties of Fluvisols to tillage implements and frequencies at Haramaya, Eastern Ethiopia" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,11(Jun 2022):248-258 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1078352
A,Lemma.K,Tsehai.B,Wereka "Response of selected physical properties of Fluvisols to tillage implements and frequencies at Haramaya, Eastern Ethiopia" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.11, no.3, pp.248-258 (Jun 2022), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1078352
Lemma,Ararsa Boki ;Tsehai,Kibebew Kibret ;Wereka,Bobe Bedadi Response of selected physical properties of Fluvisols to tillage implements and frequencies at Haramaya, Eastern Ethiopia. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2022),11.3:248-258. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1078352

How to cite

Lemma, A., Tsehai, K., Wereka, B., 2022. Response of selected physical properties of Fluvisols to tillage implements and frequencies at Haramaya, Eastern Ethiopia. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 11(3): 248-258. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1078352

Author information

Ararsa Boki Lemma , Department of Plant Science, Dilla University, Ethiopia
Kibebew Kibret Tsehai , School of Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, Ethiopia
Bobe Bedadi Wereka , School of Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, Ethiopia

Publication information

Article first published online : 24 Feb 2022
Manuscript Accepted : 15 Feb 2022
Manuscript Received: 14 May 2020
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1078352
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1078352

Abstract

The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of tillage implements and frequencies on selected physical properties of Fluvisols at Haramaya University, Eastern Ethiopia, during the 2013 cropping season. Soil bulk and particle density, total porosity, texture, and soil water retention were analyzed immediately (within 72 hours) and one month after tillage for samples collected from 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with treatment combinations consisting of three levels of tillage frequencies (0, 2 and 4) and two tillage implements, oxen-drawn traditional Maresha and disc plows, with three replications. Results indicated that the mean bulk density values were significantly different (P < 0.05) at plow layers (0-20 cm). It ranged from 1.68 g cm-3 for disc plows at two passes to 1.72 g cm-3 for zero tillage and disc plows at four passes one month after tillage at a depth of 21-40 cm. Tillage with a disc plow at increased frequencies decreased total porosity, while oxen-drawn Maresha increased total porosity. Insignificant differences (P < 0.05) in mean values of particle size distribution were observed except for percent clay content immediately after tillage with disc plows at two passes, which showed significant highest mean value (26.30%). Tillage by traditional Maresha resulted in more water holding capacity at increased tillage frequencies. Tillage practice using disc plows at two passes significantly affected the bulk density, total porosity, and soil water retention characteristics. In conclusion, tillage implements and frequencies have shown a negative effect on the physical properties of Fluvisols by disrupting the structure of the soil at surface and subsurface depths, resulting in varying levels of impact on soil bulk density, total porosity, and soil water retention characteristics. Therefore, it is recommended to use the tillage implements at reduced frequencies for less disruption of soil properties while performing soil tilth for agricultural production.

Keywords

Tillage, Maresha, Disc plow, Implements, Haramaya.

Corresponding author

References

Abu-Hamdeh, N.H., 2004. The effect of tillage treatments on soil water holding capacity and on soil physical properties. ISCO 2004. 13th international soil conservation organization conference, July 2004. Brisbane Australia. Paper No. 669, 1-6 p.

Agbede, T.M., Ojeniyi, S.O., Adekayode, F.O., 2009. Effect of tillage on Soil properties and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) in Southwest Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science 19: 1-10.

Ahmad, N., Hassan, F.U., Belford, R.K., 2009. Effect of soil compaction in the sub-humid cropping environment in Pakistan on uptake of NPK and grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum): I. Compaction. Field Crops Research 110(1): 54-60.

Anken, T., Weisskopf, P., Zihlmann, U., Forrer, H., Jansa, J., Perhacova, K., 2004. Long-term tillage system effects under moist cool conditions in Switzerland. Soil and Tillage Research 78(2): 171-183.

Aşkın, T., Özdemir, N., 2003. Soil bulk density as related to soil particle size distribution and organic matter content. Poljoprivreda/Agriculture 9: 52-55.

Baruah, T.C., Barthakur, H.P., 1998. A Text Book of Soil Analysis. Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd., Dehli, India. 12-13p.

Boloor, E., Asgari, H.R., Kiani, F., 2013. Assessment of different soil management practices on soil physical properties, microbial respiration and crop yield (A case study: Rain-fed agricultural lands of Kalale district, Golestan province). International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 5 (24): 2939-2946.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1936. Directions for making mechanical analysis by the hydrometer method. Soil Science 42(3): 225-230.

Brady, N.C., Weil, R.R., 2008. Nature and properties of soils. Prentice Hall. 965p.

Canarache, A., 1991. Factors and indices regarding excessive compactness of agricultural soils. Soil and Tillage Research 19 (2-3):145-164.

Chanyalew, D., Adenew, B., Mellor, J., 2010. Ethiopia’s Agriculture Sector Policy and Investment Framework: Ten Year Road Map (2010-2020). Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Coelho, M.B., Maateos, L., Villalobos, F.J., 2000. Influence of a compacted loam subsoil layer on growth and yield of irrigated cotton in Southern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 57(3): 129-142.

Debele B., 1980. A survey of studies conducted about soil resources appraisal and evaluation for rural development in Ethiopia, Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Foth, H.D., 1990. Fundamentals of soil science. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, USA. 360p.

Gbadamosi, J., 2013. Impact of different tillage practices on soil moisture content, soil bulk density and soil penetration resistance in Oyo Metropolis, Oyo state, Nigeria. Transnational Journal of Science and Technology 3(9): 50-57.

Gerakis, A., Baer, B., 1999. A computer program for soil textural classification. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63(4): 807–808.

Gomez, A., Gomez, A., 1984. Statistical procedure for agricultural research. John Wiley and Sons Inc. 680p.

Greenland, L.D., Lal, R., 1979. Soil physical properties and crop production in Tropics. John Willy and Sons Inc. 552p.

Hajabbasi, M.A., 2005. Soil physical properties due to different tillage systems in dryland regions of Northwestern Iran. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences 3(2): 89-97.

Hall, D.G., Reeve, M.J., Thomasson, A.J., Wright, V.F., 1977. Water retention, porosity and density of field soils. Technical Monograph No. 9. Soil Survey of England and Wales, Harpenden.

Hodnett, M.G., Tomasella, J., 2002. Marked differences between van Genuchten soil water-retention parameters for temperate and tropical soils: a new water-retention pedo-transfer functions developed for tropical soils. Geoderma 108(3-4):155-180.

Hu, W., Tabley, F., Beare, M., Tregurtha, C., Gillespie, R., Qiu, W., Gosden, P., 2018. Short-term dynamics of soil physical properties as affected by compaction and tillage in a silt loam soil. Vadose Zone Journal 17(1):1-13.

Iqbal,M., Khan,A. G., Anwar-ul-Hassan., Islam, K.R., 2013. Tillage and nitrogen fertilization impact on irrigated corn yields, and soil chemical and physical properties under semi¬arid climate. Journal of Sustainable Watershed Science and Management 1(3): 90-98.

Jamshidi, A.R., Almassi, M., Minaei, M., Naemi, K.J., 2013. Effects of tillage intensity and tractor traffic on soil compaction in potato yield in North of Khuzestan, Iran. Advances in Environmental Biology 7(4): 730-734.

Ji, B., Zhao, Y., Mu, X., Liu, K., Li, C., 2013. Effects of tillage on soil physical properties and root growth of maize in loam and clay in central China. Plant, Soil and Environment 59: 295-302.

Kishor, P., Ghosh, A.K., Claramma, P.V., 2013. Influence of tillage on soil physical environment. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production 4(10): 2592-2597.

Blake, G.R. Hartge, K.H., 1986a. Bulk Density.  In: Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Methods, 5.1, Second Edition. Klute, A. (Ed.). Agronomy Monograph No. 9, American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Soil Science Society of America, Inc. Madison Wisconsin, USA. pp. 363-375.

Blake, G.R. Hartge, K.H., 1986b. Particle Density. In: Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Methods, 5.1, Second Edition. Klute, A. (Ed.). Agronomy Monograph No. 9, American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Soil Science Society of America, Inc. Madison Wisconsin, USA. pp. 377-382.

Lipiec, J., Stepniewski W., 1995. Effects of soil compaction and tillage systems on uptake and losses of nutrients. Soil and Tillage Research 35(1-2): 35-52.

Mada, D.A., Ibrahm, S., Hussain, I.D., 2013.  The effect of soil compaction on soil physical properties southern adamawa state agricultural soils. The International Journal of Engineering and Science (IJES) 2(9): 70-74.

Martínez, E., Fuentes, J., Silva, P., Valle, P., Acevedo, E., 2008. Soil physical properties and wheat root growth as affected by no-tillage and conventional tillage systems in a Mediterranean environment of Chile. Soil and Tillage Research 99(2): 232-244.

Mamo, T., Haque, I., 1991. Phosphorus status of some Ethiopian soils. III. Evaluation of soil test methods for available phosphorus. Tropial Agriculture 68(1): 51-56.

Miriti, J.M., Kironchi, G., Esilaba, A.O., Gachene, C.K.K., Heng, L.K., Mwangi, D.M., 2013. The effects of tillage systems on soil physical properties and water conservation in a sandy loam soil in Eastern Kenya. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management 4(7): 146-154.

Monneveux, P., Quillérou, E., Sanchez, C., Lopez-Cesati, J., 2006. Effect of zero tillage and residues conservation on continuous maize cropping in a subtropical environment (Mexico). Plant and Soil 279(1-2): 95- 105.

Montgomery, D.R., 2007. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America - PNAS 104(33): 13268-13272.

Nath, T.N., 2014. Soil bulk density and its impact on soil texture, organic matter content and available macronutrients of tea cultivated soil in Dibrugarh district of Assam, India. International Journal of Development Research 4(2):343-346.

Nuhu, H., Tashiwa, I.Y., 2006. The effects of soil compaction on early emergence and growth of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L). Journal of League of Researchers in Nigeria 7(2): 83-89.

Qin, R., Stamp, P., Richmer, W., 2006. Impact of tillage on maize rooting in a Cambisol and Luvisol in Switzerland. Soil and Tillage Research 85(1-2): 50-61.

Ramzan M., Khan, G.D., Hanif, M., Ali, S., 2012. Impact of soil compaction on root length and yield of corn (Zea mays) under irrigated condition. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 11(3): 382-385.

Ramzan. M., Khan, G.D., Khan, S., 2014. Emergence in wheat as affected by different tillage implements and soil compaction levels. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 30(1): 93-100.

Raper, R.L., 2005. Agricultural traffic impacts on soil. Journal of Terramechanics 42(3-4): 259-280.

Reynoldsm W.D., Drury, C.F., Tan, C.S., Fox, C.A., Yang, X.M., 2009. Use of indicators and pore volume-function characteristics to quantify soil physical quality. Geoderma 152(3-4): 252-263.

Rühlmann, J., Körschens, M., Graefe, M., 2006.  A new approach to calculate the particle density of soils considering properties of the soil organic matter and the mineral matrix. Geoderma 130(3-4): 272–283.

Sahay J., 2008. Elements of Agricultural Engineering. Standard Publishers Distributors Ansari road, Daryaganj, New Delhi, 233-235p.

Sarker, M.M., Matin, M.A., Hossain, M.G., Ahmed, M., 2011. Effect of tillage intensity, fertilizer and manuring on physical properties of soil and rice yield. Journal of Experimental Biosciences 2(2): 61-66.

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Sauwa, M.M., Waniyo, U.U., Ngala, A.L., Yakubu, M., Lnoma, S.S., 2013. Influence of tillage practices on physical properties of a sandy loam in semi-arid region. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 6(2): 76-83.

Saxton, K.E., Rawls, W.J., 2006. Soil water characteristic estimates by texture and organic matter for hydrologic solutions. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70(5): 1569-1578.

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Abstract

The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of tillage implements and frequencies on selected physical properties of Fluvisols at Haramaya University, Eastern Ethiopia, during the 2013 cropping season. Soil bulk and particle density, total porosity, texture, and soil water retention were analyzed immediately (within 72 hours) and one month after tillage for samples collected from 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with treatment combinations consisting of three levels of tillage frequencies (0, 2 and 4) and two tillage implements, oxen-drawn traditional Maresha and disc plows, with three replications. Results indicated that the mean bulk density values were significantly different (P < 0.05) at plow layers (0-20 cm). It ranged from 1.68 g cm-3 for disc plows at two passes to 1.72 g cm-3 for zero tillage and disc plows at four passes one month after tillage at a depth of 21-40 cm. Tillage with a disc plow at increased frequencies decreased total porosity, while oxen-drawn Maresha increased total porosity. Insignificant differences (P < 0.05) in mean values of particle size distribution were observed except for percent clay content immediately after tillage with disc plows at two passes, which showed significant highest mean value (26.30%). Tillage by traditional Maresha resulted in more water holding capacity at increased tillage frequencies. Tillage practice using disc plows at two passes significantly affected the bulk density, total porosity, and soil water retention characteristics. In conclusion, tillage implements and frequencies have shown a negative effect on the physical properties of Fluvisols by disrupting the structure of the soil at surface and subsurface depths, resulting in varying levels of impact on soil bulk density, total porosity, and soil water retention characteristics. Therefore, it is recommended to use the tillage implements at reduced frequencies for less disruption of soil properties while performing soil tilth for agricultural production.

Keywords: Tillage, Maresha, Disc plow, Implements, Haramaya.

References

Abu-Hamdeh, N.H., 2004. The effect of tillage treatments on soil water holding capacity and on soil physical properties. ISCO 2004. 13th international soil conservation organization conference, July 2004. Brisbane Australia. Paper No. 669, 1-6 p.

Agbede, T.M., Ojeniyi, S.O., Adekayode, F.O., 2009. Effect of tillage on Soil properties and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) in Southwest Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science 19: 1-10.

Ahmad, N., Hassan, F.U., Belford, R.K., 2009. Effect of soil compaction in the sub-humid cropping environment in Pakistan on uptake of NPK and grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum): I. Compaction. Field Crops Research 110(1): 54-60.

Anken, T., Weisskopf, P., Zihlmann, U., Forrer, H., Jansa, J., Perhacova, K., 2004. Long-term tillage system effects under moist cool conditions in Switzerland. Soil and Tillage Research 78(2): 171-183.

Aşkın, T., Özdemir, N., 2003. Soil bulk density as related to soil particle size distribution and organic matter content. Poljoprivreda/Agriculture 9: 52-55.

Baruah, T.C., Barthakur, H.P., 1998. A Text Book of Soil Analysis. Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd., Dehli, India. 12-13p.

Boloor, E., Asgari, H.R., Kiani, F., 2013. Assessment of different soil management practices on soil physical properties, microbial respiration and crop yield (A case study: Rain-fed agricultural lands of Kalale district, Golestan province). International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 5 (24): 2939-2946.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1936. Directions for making mechanical analysis by the hydrometer method. Soil Science 42(3): 225-230.

Brady, N.C., Weil, R.R., 2008. Nature and properties of soils. Prentice Hall. 965p.

Canarache, A., 1991. Factors and indices regarding excessive compactness of agricultural soils. Soil and Tillage Research 19 (2-3):145-164.

Chanyalew, D., Adenew, B., Mellor, J., 2010. Ethiopia’s Agriculture Sector Policy and Investment Framework: Ten Year Road Map (2010-2020). Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Coelho, M.B., Maateos, L., Villalobos, F.J., 2000. Influence of a compacted loam subsoil layer on growth and yield of irrigated cotton in Southern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 57(3): 129-142.

Debele B., 1980. A survey of studies conducted about soil resources appraisal and evaluation for rural development in Ethiopia, Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Foth, H.D., 1990. Fundamentals of soil science. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, USA. 360p.

Gbadamosi, J., 2013. Impact of different tillage practices on soil moisture content, soil bulk density and soil penetration resistance in Oyo Metropolis, Oyo state, Nigeria. Transnational Journal of Science and Technology 3(9): 50-57.

Gerakis, A., Baer, B., 1999. A computer program for soil textural classification. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63(4): 807–808.

Gomez, A., Gomez, A., 1984. Statistical procedure for agricultural research. John Wiley and Sons Inc. 680p.

Greenland, L.D., Lal, R., 1979. Soil physical properties and crop production in Tropics. John Willy and Sons Inc. 552p.

Hajabbasi, M.A., 2005. Soil physical properties due to different tillage systems in dryland regions of Northwestern Iran. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences 3(2): 89-97.

Hall, D.G., Reeve, M.J., Thomasson, A.J., Wright, V.F., 1977. Water retention, porosity and density of field soils. Technical Monograph No. 9. Soil Survey of England and Wales, Harpenden.

Hodnett, M.G., Tomasella, J., 2002. Marked differences between van Genuchten soil water-retention parameters for temperate and tropical soils: a new water-retention pedo-transfer functions developed for tropical soils. Geoderma 108(3-4):155-180.

Hu, W., Tabley, F., Beare, M., Tregurtha, C., Gillespie, R., Qiu, W., Gosden, P., 2018. Short-term dynamics of soil physical properties as affected by compaction and tillage in a silt loam soil. Vadose Zone Journal 17(1):1-13.

Iqbal,M., Khan,A. G., Anwar-ul-Hassan., Islam, K.R., 2013. Tillage and nitrogen fertilization impact on irrigated corn yields, and soil chemical and physical properties under semi¬arid climate. Journal of Sustainable Watershed Science and Management 1(3): 90-98.

Jamshidi, A.R., Almassi, M., Minaei, M., Naemi, K.J., 2013. Effects of tillage intensity and tractor traffic on soil compaction in potato yield in North of Khuzestan, Iran. Advances in Environmental Biology 7(4): 730-734.

Ji, B., Zhao, Y., Mu, X., Liu, K., Li, C., 2013. Effects of tillage on soil physical properties and root growth of maize in loam and clay in central China. Plant, Soil and Environment 59: 295-302.

Kishor, P., Ghosh, A.K., Claramma, P.V., 2013. Influence of tillage on soil physical environment. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production 4(10): 2592-2597.

Blake, G.R. Hartge, K.H., 1986a. Bulk Density.  In: Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Methods, 5.1, Second Edition. Klute, A. (Ed.). Agronomy Monograph No. 9, American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Soil Science Society of America, Inc. Madison Wisconsin, USA. pp. 363-375.

Blake, G.R. Hartge, K.H., 1986b. Particle Density. In: Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Methods, 5.1, Second Edition. Klute, A. (Ed.). Agronomy Monograph No. 9, American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Soil Science Society of America, Inc. Madison Wisconsin, USA. pp. 377-382.

Lipiec, J., Stepniewski W., 1995. Effects of soil compaction and tillage systems on uptake and losses of nutrients. Soil and Tillage Research 35(1-2): 35-52.

Mada, D.A., Ibrahm, S., Hussain, I.D., 2013.  The effect of soil compaction on soil physical properties southern adamawa state agricultural soils. The International Journal of Engineering and Science (IJES) 2(9): 70-74.

Martínez, E., Fuentes, J., Silva, P., Valle, P., Acevedo, E., 2008. Soil physical properties and wheat root growth as affected by no-tillage and conventional tillage systems in a Mediterranean environment of Chile. Soil and Tillage Research 99(2): 232-244.

Mamo, T., Haque, I., 1991. Phosphorus status of some Ethiopian soils. III. Evaluation of soil test methods for available phosphorus. Tropial Agriculture 68(1): 51-56.

Miriti, J.M., Kironchi, G., Esilaba, A.O., Gachene, C.K.K., Heng, L.K., Mwangi, D.M., 2013. The effects of tillage systems on soil physical properties and water conservation in a sandy loam soil in Eastern Kenya. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management 4(7): 146-154.

Monneveux, P., Quillérou, E., Sanchez, C., Lopez-Cesati, J., 2006. Effect of zero tillage and residues conservation on continuous maize cropping in a subtropical environment (Mexico). Plant and Soil 279(1-2): 95- 105.

Montgomery, D.R., 2007. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America - PNAS 104(33): 13268-13272.

Nath, T.N., 2014. Soil bulk density and its impact on soil texture, organic matter content and available macronutrients of tea cultivated soil in Dibrugarh district of Assam, India. International Journal of Development Research 4(2):343-346.

Nuhu, H., Tashiwa, I.Y., 2006. The effects of soil compaction on early emergence and growth of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L). Journal of League of Researchers in Nigeria 7(2): 83-89.

Qin, R., Stamp, P., Richmer, W., 2006. Impact of tillage on maize rooting in a Cambisol and Luvisol in Switzerland. Soil and Tillage Research 85(1-2): 50-61.

Ramzan M., Khan, G.D., Hanif, M., Ali, S., 2012. Impact of soil compaction on root length and yield of corn (Zea mays) under irrigated condition. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 11(3): 382-385.

Ramzan. M., Khan, G.D., Khan, S., 2014. Emergence in wheat as affected by different tillage implements and soil compaction levels. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 30(1): 93-100.

Raper, R.L., 2005. Agricultural traffic impacts on soil. Journal of Terramechanics 42(3-4): 259-280.

Reynoldsm W.D., Drury, C.F., Tan, C.S., Fox, C.A., Yang, X.M., 2009. Use of indicators and pore volume-function characteristics to quantify soil physical quality. Geoderma 152(3-4): 252-263.

Rühlmann, J., Körschens, M., Graefe, M., 2006.  A new approach to calculate the particle density of soils considering properties of the soil organic matter and the mineral matrix. Geoderma 130(3-4): 272–283.

Sahay J., 2008. Elements of Agricultural Engineering. Standard Publishers Distributors Ansari road, Daryaganj, New Delhi, 233-235p.

Sarker, M.M., Matin, M.A., Hossain, M.G., Ahmed, M., 2011. Effect of tillage intensity, fertilizer and manuring on physical properties of soil and rice yield. Journal of Experimental Biosciences 2(2): 61-66.

SAS, 2008. SAS Institute. SAS for Widows Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., NC, USA.

Sauwa, M.M., Waniyo, U.U., Ngala, A.L., Yakubu, M., Lnoma, S.S., 2013. Influence of tillage practices on physical properties of a sandy loam in semi-arid region. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 6(2): 76-83.

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