Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 11, Issue 3, Jun 2022, Pages 225-234
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1064317
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1064317
Copyright © 2022 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Contrasting rice management systems – Site-specific effects on soil parameters

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Maftukhah,R., Ngadisih,N., Murtiningrum,M., Mentler,A., Keiblinger,K., Melcher ,A., Zehetner,F., Kral,R., 2022. Contrasting rice management systems – Site-specific effects on soil parameters. Eurasian J Soil Sci 11(3):225-234. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1064317
Maftukhah,R.Ngadisih,N.Murtiningrum,M.Mentler,A.Keiblinger,K.,Melcher ,A.Zehetner,F.,& Kral,R. Contrasting rice management systems – Site-specific effects on soil parameters Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 11(3):225-234. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1064317
Maftukhah,R.Ngadisih,N.Murtiningrum,M.Mentler,A.Keiblinger,K.,Melcher ,A.Zehetner,F., and ,Kral,R."Contrasting rice management systems – Site-specific effects on soil parameters" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 11.3 (2022):225-234. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1064317
Maftukhah,R.Ngadisih,N.Murtiningrum,M.Mentler,A.Keiblinger,K.,Melcher ,A.Zehetner,F., and ,Kral,R. "Contrasting rice management systems – Site-specific effects on soil parameters" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,11(Jun 2022):225-234 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1064317
R,Maftukhah.N,Ngadisih.M,Murtiningrum.A,Mentler.K,Keiblinger.A,Melcher .F,Zehetner.R,Kral "Contrasting rice management systems – Site-specific effects on soil parameters" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.11, no.3, pp.225-234 (Jun 2022), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1064317
Maftukhah,Rizki ;Ngadisih,Ngadisih ;Murtiningrum,Murtiningrum ;Mentler,Axel ;Keiblinger,Katharina Maria ;Melcher ,Andreas Helmut ;Zehetner,Franz ;Kral,Rosana Maria Contrasting rice management systems – Site-specific effects on soil parameters. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2022),11.3:225-234. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1064317

How to cite

Maftukhah, R., Ngadisih, N., Murtiningrum, M., Mentler, A., Keiblinger, K., Melcher , A., Zehetner, F., Kral, R., 2022. Contrasting rice management systems – Site-specific effects on soil parameters. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 11(3): 225-234. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1064317

Author information

Rizki Maftukhah , Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Department of Agricultural and Biosystem Engineering, Indonesia & University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Department of Forest and Soil Sciences,
Ngadisih Ngadisih , Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Department of Agricultural and Biosystem Engineering, Indonesia
Murtiningrum Murtiningrum , Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Department of Agricultural and Biosystem Engineering, Indonesia
Axel Mentler , University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Soil Research, Austria
Katharina Maria Keiblinger , University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Soil Research, Austria
Andreas Helmut Melcher , University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Department of Sustainable Agricultural Systems, Institute of Development Research, Austria
Franz Zehetner , University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Soil Research, Austria
Rosana Maria Kral , University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Department of Sustainable Agricultural Systems, Institute of Development Research, Austria

Publication information

Article first published online : 28 Jan 2022
Manuscript Accepted : 19 Jan 2022
Manuscript Received: 08 Oct 2021
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1064317
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1064317

Abstract

Conventional rice production systems (CRPS) with continuous flooding demand much water. While population growth increases the demand for rice and, consequently, water consumption, agricultural production needs to reduce its water demand. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is promoted as an alternative cropland management strategy to sustainably maintain rice yields while optimizing water use. Here, we aimed at investigating whether different management translates into differences in soil parameters. To this end, the two contrasting rice production systems were compared on the same soil types, at four different study sites of D.I. Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. Crop yields were estimated, and soils were analysed for soil total soil organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), macro-aggregate stability, and a fungal biomarker (ergosterol) indicative of oxidative soil conditions. Rice yields in the study area were between 6.7 and 9 t ha-1. For TOC, the combined effect of management and site was significant; in particular, in Kulonprogo and Bantul, SRI significantly exceeded CRPS’ TOC values. However, a significant management effect was observed for ergosterol and DOC concentrations. Significantly higher ergosterol concentrations in SRI vs CRPS were found in Sleman and Bantul. DOC was significantly higher under SRI compared to CRPS only in Sleman. DOC and ergosterol were most responsive to management and were improved in SRI systems. The observed site-specific effects suggest the importance to consider the prevailing site conditions for adapting management strategies.

Keywords

System of rice intensification (SRI), water use efficiency, soil parameters, on-site farm studies, Indonesia.

Corresponding author

References

Agus, F., Yustika, R.D., Haryati, U., 2006. 3. Penetapan berat volum tanah. In: Sifat fisik tanah dan metode analisisnya. Kurnia, U., Agus, F., Adimihardja, A., Dariah, A. (Eds.). Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian, Jakarta, pp. 31–34.

Bandyopadhyay, K.K., Misra, A.K., Ghosh, P.K., Hati, K.M., 2010. Effect of integrated use of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers on soil physical properties and productivity of soybean. Soil and Tillage Research 110: 115–125.

Bertora, C., Alexandra, M., Lerda, C., Peyron, M., Bardi, L., Gorra, R., Sacco, D., Celi, L., Said-Pullicino, D., 2018. Dissolved organic carbon cycling, methane emissions and related microbial populations in temperate rice paddies with contrasting straw and water management. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 265: 292–306.

Bodner, G., Mentler, A., Keiblinger, K., 2021. Plant roots for sustainable soil structure management in cropping systems. In: The Root Systems in Sustainable Agricultural Intensification. Rengel, Z., Djalovic, I. (Eds.). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 45–90.

Brandstetter, A., Sletten, R.S., Mentler, A., Wenzel, W.W., 1996. Estimating dissolved organic carbon in natural waters by UV absorbance (254 nm). Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 159: 605–607.

De Datta, S.K., 1983. Principles and Practices of Rice Production. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 260p.

Dawe, D., Dobermann, A., Ladha, J.K., Yadav, R.L., Bao, L., Gupta, R.K., Lal, P., Panaullah, G., Sariam, O., Singh, Y., Swarup, A., Zhen, Q.-X., 2003. Do organic amendments improve yield trends and profitability in intensive rice systems? Field Crops Research 83: 191–213.

Dobermann, A., 2004. A critical assessment of the system of rice intensification (SRI). Agricultural Systems 79: 261–281.

FAO, 2013. FAO Statistical Yearbook 2013. World food and agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 289p. Available at [Access date: 08.10.2021]: https://www.fao.org/3/i3107e/i3107e.PDF

FAO, 2015. World reference base for soil resources 2014. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. Update 2015. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 192p. Available at [Access date: 08.10.2021]: http://www.fao.org/3/i3794en/I3794en.pdf

Ferretti, G., Keiblinger, K.M., Giuseppe, D.D.I., Faccini, B., 2018. Short-term response of soil microbial biomass to different chabazite zeolite amendments. Pedosphere 28: 277–287.

Gathorne-hardy, A., Reddy, D.N., Venkatanarayana, M., Harriss-White, B., 2016. System of Rice Intensification provides environmental and economic gains but at the expense of social sustainability — A multidisciplinary analysis in India. Agricultural Systems 143: 159–168.

Gong, P., Guan, X., Witter, E., 2001. A rapid method to extract ergosterol from soil by physical disruption. Applied Soil Ecology 17: 285–289.

Huang, S., Peng, X., Huang, Q., Zhang, W., 2010. Soil aggregation and organic carbon fractions affected by long-term fertilization in a red soil of subtropical China. Geoderma 154: 364–369.

Jones, D.L., Simfukwe, P., Hill, P.W., Mills, R.T.E., Emmett, B.A., 2014. Evaluation of dissolved organic carbon as a soil quality ındicator in national monitoring schemes. PLoS ONE 9: 1–6.

Kementerian Pertanian, 2007. Peraturan Menteri Pertanian No. 40/Permentan/OT.140/4/2007 tentang Rekomendasi Pemupukan N, P, dan K pada Padi Sawah Spesifik Lokasi. 1–34.

Krupnik, T.J., Shennan, C., Rodenburg, J., 2012. Yield, water productivity and nutrient balances under the System of Rice Intensification and Recommended Management Practices in the Sahel. Field Crops Research 130: 155–167.

Kurniadiningsih, Y., Legowo, S., 2012. Evaluasi untung rugi penerapan metode SRI (System of Rice Intensification) di D.I. Cihea Kabupaten Cianjur Jawa Barat. Wartazoa 18: 1–16.

Lilienfein, J., Qualls, R.G., Uselman, S.M., Bridgham, S.D., 2004. Adsorption of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in soils of a weathering chronosequence. Soil Science Society of America Journal 68: 292–305.

Maftukhah, R., Erni, R., Benito, H.P., Sri, R., Sigit, S.A., 2015. Shallow water depth management to enhance rice performances under system of rice intensification (SRI) framework. Jurnal Irigasi 10: 41–48.

Menete, M.Z.L., van Es, H.M., Brito, R.M.L., DeGloria, S.D., Famba, S., 2008. Evaluation of system of rice intensification (SRI) component practices and their synergies on salt-affected soils. Field Crops Research 109: 34–44.

Mentler, A., Mayer, H., 2004. Characterisation of soil aggregate stability by ultrasonic dispersion. International Agrophysics 18: 39–45.

Murugan, R., Kumar, S., 2013. Influence of long-term fertilisation and crop rotation on changes in fungal and bacterial residues in a tropical rice-field soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 49: 847–856.

Mustafa, A., Minggang, X., Ali Shah, S.A., Abrar, M.M., Nan, S., Baoren, W., Zejiang, C., Saeed, Q., Naveed, M., Mehmood, K., Núñez-Delgado, A., 2020. Soil aggregation and soil aggregate stability regulate organic carbon and nitrogen storage in a red soil of southern China. Journal of Environmental Management 270: 110894.

Reichardt, W., Mascarina, G., Padre, B., Doll, J., 1997. Microbial communities of continuously cropped, irrigated rice fields. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63: 233– 238.

Ritz, K., Young, I.M., 2004. Interactions between soil structure and fungi. Mycologist 18: 52–59.

Russell, E.W., Balcerek, W., 1944. The determination of the volume and air space of soil clods. The Journal of Agricultural Science 34: 123–132.

Said-Pullicino, D., Miniotti, E.F., Sodano, M., Bertora, C., Lerda, C., Chiaradia, E.A., Romani, M., Maria, S.C. De, Sacco, D., Celi, L., 2016. Linking dissolved organic carbon cycling to organic carbon fluxes in rice paddies under different water management practices. Plant and Soil 401: 273–290.

Sae-Tun, O., Bodner, G., Rosinger, C., Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S., Mentler, A., Keiblinger, K.M., (in revision). Fungal biomass and microbial necromass facilitate soil carbon sequestration and aggregate stability under different soil tillage intensities. Applied Soil Ecology.

Schomakers, J., Mentler, A., Steurer, T., Klik, A., Mayer, H., 2011. Characterization of soil aggregate stability using low intensity ultrasonic vibrations. International Agrophysics 25: 165–172.

Shen, B., Zhu, Z., Yuan, H., Wang, J., Ge, T., Chen, M., Wu, X., Wu, J., 2015. Effects of flooded rice cultivation on soil organic carbon and active organic carbon content : A microcosm experiment. Journal of Agricultural Science 7: 196–202.

Srzednicki, G., Craske, J., Nimmuntavin, C., Mantais, L.G., Wattananon, S., 2004. Determination of ergosterol in paddy rice using solid phase extraction. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 84: 2041–2046.

Stoop, W.A., Uphoff, N., Kassam, A., 2002. A review of agricultural research issues raised by the system of rice intensification (SRI) from Madagascar: opportunities for improving farming systems for resource-poor farmers. Agricultural Systems 71: 249–274.

Suryavanshi, P., Singh, Y. V, Prasanna, R., Bhatia, A., Shivay, Y.S., 2013. Pattern of methane emission and water productivity under different methods of rice crop establishment. Paddy and Water Environment 11: 321–329.

Tang, X., Luo, Y., Lv, J., Wei, C., 2011. Mechanisms of soil aggregates stability in purple paddy soil under conservation tillage of Sichuan Basin, China.  In: Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture V. CCTA 2011. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Li, D., Chen, Y. (Eds.). Vol 368. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp.355–370.

Thakur, A.K., Mandal, K.G., Mohanty, R.K., Uphoff, N., 2022. How agroecological rice intensification can assist in reaching the Sustainable Development Goals. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability

Tsujimoto, Y., Horie, T., Randriamihary, H., Shiraiwa, T., Homma, K., 2009. Soil management : The key factors for higher productivity in the fields utilizing the system of rice intensification ( SRI ) in the central highland of Madagascar. Agricultural Systems 100: 61–71.

Uphoff, N., 1999. Agroecological implications of the system of rice intensification (SRI) in Madagascar. Environment, Development and Sustainability 1: 297–313.

Uphoff, N., 2003. Higher yields with fewer external inputs? The System of rice intensification and potential contributions to agricultural sustainability. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 1: 38–50.

Uphoff, N., 2011. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as a System of Agricultural Innovation. Jurnal Ilmu Tanah Dan Lingkungan 10.

Uphoff, N., Thakur, A.K., 2019. An agroecological strategy for adapting to climate change: The system of rice intensification (SRI). In: Sustainable solutions for food security : Combating climate change by adaptation. Sarkar, A., Sensarma, S.R., vanLoon, G.W. (Eds.). Springer Cham. pp. 229–254.

Uphoff, N., Kassam, A., Harwood, R., 2011. SRI as a methodology for raising crop and water productivity: productive adaptations in rice agronomy and irrigation water management. Paddy and Water Environment 9: 3–11.

Wang, W., Lai, D.Y.F., Wang, C., Pan, T., Zeng, C., 2015. Effects of rice straw incorporation on active soil organic carbon pools in a subtropical paddy field. Soil and Tillage Research 152: 8–16.

Yang, C., Yang, L., Ouyang, Z., 2005. Organic carbon and its fractions in paddy soil as affected by different nutrient and water regimes. Geoderma 124: 133–142.

Zhang, S., Wang, R., Yang, X., Sun, B., Li, Q., 2016. Soil aggregation and aggregating agents as affected by long term contrasting management of an Anthrosol. Scientific Reports 6: 39107.

Abstract

Conventional rice production systems (CRPS) with continuous flooding demand much water. While population growth increases the demand for rice and, consequently, water consumption, agricultural production needs to reduce its water demand. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is promoted as an alternative cropland management strategy to sustainably maintain rice yields while optimizing water use. Here, we aimed at investigating whether different management translates into differences in soil parameters. To this end, the two contrasting rice production systems were compared on the same soil types, at four different study sites of D.I. Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. Crop yields were estimated, and soils were analysed for soil total soil organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), macro-aggregate stability, and a fungal biomarker (ergosterol) indicative of oxidative soil conditions. Rice yields in the study area were between 6.7 and 9 t ha-1. For TOC, the combined effect of management and site was significant; in particular, in Kulonprogo and Bantul, SRI significantly exceeded CRPS’ TOC values. However, a significant management effect was observed for ergosterol and DOC concentrations. Significantly higher ergosterol concentrations in SRI vs CRPS were found in Sleman and Bantul. DOC was significantly higher under SRI compared to CRPS only in Sleman. DOC and ergosterol were most responsive to management and were improved in SRI systems. The observed site-specific effects suggest the importance to consider the prevailing site conditions for adapting management strategies.

Keywords: System of rice intensification (SRI), water use efficiency, soil parameters, on-site farm studies, Indonesia.

References

Agus, F., Yustika, R.D., Haryati, U., 2006. 3. Penetapan berat volum tanah. In: Sifat fisik tanah dan metode analisisnya. Kurnia, U., Agus, F., Adimihardja, A., Dariah, A. (Eds.). Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian, Jakarta, pp. 31–34.

Bandyopadhyay, K.K., Misra, A.K., Ghosh, P.K., Hati, K.M., 2010. Effect of integrated use of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers on soil physical properties and productivity of soybean. Soil and Tillage Research 110: 115–125.

Bertora, C., Alexandra, M., Lerda, C., Peyron, M., Bardi, L., Gorra, R., Sacco, D., Celi, L., Said-Pullicino, D., 2018. Dissolved organic carbon cycling, methane emissions and related microbial populations in temperate rice paddies with contrasting straw and water management. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 265: 292–306.

Bodner, G., Mentler, A., Keiblinger, K., 2021. Plant roots for sustainable soil structure management in cropping systems. In: The Root Systems in Sustainable Agricultural Intensification. Rengel, Z., Djalovic, I. (Eds.). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 45–90.

Brandstetter, A., Sletten, R.S., Mentler, A., Wenzel, W.W., 1996. Estimating dissolved organic carbon in natural waters by UV absorbance (254 nm). Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 159: 605–607.

De Datta, S.K., 1983. Principles and Practices of Rice Production. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 260p.

Dawe, D., Dobermann, A., Ladha, J.K., Yadav, R.L., Bao, L., Gupta, R.K., Lal, P., Panaullah, G., Sariam, O., Singh, Y., Swarup, A., Zhen, Q.-X., 2003. Do organic amendments improve yield trends and profitability in intensive rice systems? Field Crops Research 83: 191–213.

Dobermann, A., 2004. A critical assessment of the system of rice intensification (SRI). Agricultural Systems 79: 261–281.

FAO, 2013. FAO Statistical Yearbook 2013. World food and agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 289p. Available at [Access date: 08.10.2021]: https://www.fao.org/3/i3107e/i3107e.PDF

FAO, 2015. World reference base for soil resources 2014. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. Update 2015. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 192p. Available at [Access date: 08.10.2021]: http://www.fao.org/3/i3794en/I3794en.pdf

Ferretti, G., Keiblinger, K.M., Giuseppe, D.D.I., Faccini, B., 2018. Short-term response of soil microbial biomass to different chabazite zeolite amendments. Pedosphere 28: 277–287.

Gathorne-hardy, A., Reddy, D.N., Venkatanarayana, M., Harriss-White, B., 2016. System of Rice Intensification provides environmental and economic gains but at the expense of social sustainability — A multidisciplinary analysis in India. Agricultural Systems 143: 159–168.

Gong, P., Guan, X., Witter, E., 2001. A rapid method to extract ergosterol from soil by physical disruption. Applied Soil Ecology 17: 285–289.

Huang, S., Peng, X., Huang, Q., Zhang, W., 2010. Soil aggregation and organic carbon fractions affected by long-term fertilization in a red soil of subtropical China. Geoderma 154: 364–369.

Jones, D.L., Simfukwe, P., Hill, P.W., Mills, R.T.E., Emmett, B.A., 2014. Evaluation of dissolved organic carbon as a soil quality ındicator in national monitoring schemes. PLoS ONE 9: 1–6.

Kementerian Pertanian, 2007. Peraturan Menteri Pertanian No. 40/Permentan/OT.140/4/2007 tentang Rekomendasi Pemupukan N, P, dan K pada Padi Sawah Spesifik Lokasi. 1–34.

Krupnik, T.J., Shennan, C., Rodenburg, J., 2012. Yield, water productivity and nutrient balances under the System of Rice Intensification and Recommended Management Practices in the Sahel. Field Crops Research 130: 155–167.

Kurniadiningsih, Y., Legowo, S., 2012. Evaluasi untung rugi penerapan metode SRI (System of Rice Intensification) di D.I. Cihea Kabupaten Cianjur Jawa Barat. Wartazoa 18: 1–16.

Lilienfein, J., Qualls, R.G., Uselman, S.M., Bridgham, S.D., 2004. Adsorption of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in soils of a weathering chronosequence. Soil Science Society of America Journal 68: 292–305.

Maftukhah, R., Erni, R., Benito, H.P., Sri, R., Sigit, S.A., 2015. Shallow water depth management to enhance rice performances under system of rice intensification (SRI) framework. Jurnal Irigasi 10: 41–48.

Menete, M.Z.L., van Es, H.M., Brito, R.M.L., DeGloria, S.D., Famba, S., 2008. Evaluation of system of rice intensification (SRI) component practices and their synergies on salt-affected soils. Field Crops Research 109: 34–44.

Mentler, A., Mayer, H., 2004. Characterisation of soil aggregate stability by ultrasonic dispersion. International Agrophysics 18: 39–45.

Murugan, R., Kumar, S., 2013. Influence of long-term fertilisation and crop rotation on changes in fungal and bacterial residues in a tropical rice-field soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 49: 847–856.

Mustafa, A., Minggang, X., Ali Shah, S.A., Abrar, M.M., Nan, S., Baoren, W., Zejiang, C., Saeed, Q., Naveed, M., Mehmood, K., Núñez-Delgado, A., 2020. Soil aggregation and soil aggregate stability regulate organic carbon and nitrogen storage in a red soil of southern China. Journal of Environmental Management 270: 110894.

Reichardt, W., Mascarina, G., Padre, B., Doll, J., 1997. Microbial communities of continuously cropped, irrigated rice fields. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63: 233– 238.

Ritz, K., Young, I.M., 2004. Interactions between soil structure and fungi. Mycologist 18: 52–59.

Russell, E.W., Balcerek, W., 1944. The determination of the volume and air space of soil clods. The Journal of Agricultural Science 34: 123–132.

Said-Pullicino, D., Miniotti, E.F., Sodano, M., Bertora, C., Lerda, C., Chiaradia, E.A., Romani, M., Maria, S.C. De, Sacco, D., Celi, L., 2016. Linking dissolved organic carbon cycling to organic carbon fluxes in rice paddies under different water management practices. Plant and Soil 401: 273–290.

Sae-Tun, O., Bodner, G., Rosinger, C., Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S., Mentler, A., Keiblinger, K.M., (in revision). Fungal biomass and microbial necromass facilitate soil carbon sequestration and aggregate stability under different soil tillage intensities. Applied Soil Ecology.

Schomakers, J., Mentler, A., Steurer, T., Klik, A., Mayer, H., 2011. Characterization of soil aggregate stability using low intensity ultrasonic vibrations. International Agrophysics 25: 165–172.

Shen, B., Zhu, Z., Yuan, H., Wang, J., Ge, T., Chen, M., Wu, X., Wu, J., 2015. Effects of flooded rice cultivation on soil organic carbon and active organic carbon content : A microcosm experiment. Journal of Agricultural Science 7: 196–202.

Srzednicki, G., Craske, J., Nimmuntavin, C., Mantais, L.G., Wattananon, S., 2004. Determination of ergosterol in paddy rice using solid phase extraction. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 84: 2041–2046.

Stoop, W.A., Uphoff, N., Kassam, A., 2002. A review of agricultural research issues raised by the system of rice intensification (SRI) from Madagascar: opportunities for improving farming systems for resource-poor farmers. Agricultural Systems 71: 249–274.

Suryavanshi, P., Singh, Y. V, Prasanna, R., Bhatia, A., Shivay, Y.S., 2013. Pattern of methane emission and water productivity under different methods of rice crop establishment. Paddy and Water Environment 11: 321–329.

Tang, X., Luo, Y., Lv, J., Wei, C., 2011. Mechanisms of soil aggregates stability in purple paddy soil under conservation tillage of Sichuan Basin, China.  In: Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture V. CCTA 2011. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Li, D., Chen, Y. (Eds.). Vol 368. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp.355–370.

Thakur, A.K., Mandal, K.G., Mohanty, R.K., Uphoff, N., 2022. How agroecological rice intensification can assist in reaching the Sustainable Development Goals. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability

Tsujimoto, Y., Horie, T., Randriamihary, H., Shiraiwa, T., Homma, K., 2009. Soil management : The key factors for higher productivity in the fields utilizing the system of rice intensification ( SRI ) in the central highland of Madagascar. Agricultural Systems 100: 61–71.

Uphoff, N., 1999. Agroecological implications of the system of rice intensification (SRI) in Madagascar. Environment, Development and Sustainability 1: 297–313.

Uphoff, N., 2003. Higher yields with fewer external inputs? The System of rice intensification and potential contributions to agricultural sustainability. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 1: 38–50.

Uphoff, N., 2011. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as a System of Agricultural Innovation. Jurnal Ilmu Tanah Dan Lingkungan 10.

Uphoff, N., Thakur, A.K., 2019. An agroecological strategy for adapting to climate change: The system of rice intensification (SRI). In: Sustainable solutions for food security : Combating climate change by adaptation. Sarkar, A., Sensarma, S.R., vanLoon, G.W. (Eds.). Springer Cham. pp. 229–254.

Uphoff, N., Kassam, A., Harwood, R., 2011. SRI as a methodology for raising crop and water productivity: productive adaptations in rice agronomy and irrigation water management. Paddy and Water Environment 9: 3–11.

Wang, W., Lai, D.Y.F., Wang, C., Pan, T., Zeng, C., 2015. Effects of rice straw incorporation on active soil organic carbon pools in a subtropical paddy field. Soil and Tillage Research 152: 8–16.

Yang, C., Yang, L., Ouyang, Z., 2005. Organic carbon and its fractions in paddy soil as affected by different nutrient and water regimes. Geoderma 124: 133–142.

Zhang, S., Wang, R., Yang, X., Sun, B., Li, Q., 2016. Soil aggregation and aggregating agents as affected by long term contrasting management of an Anthrosol. Scientific Reports 6: 39107.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science