Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 11, Issue 3, Jun 2022, Pages 206-215
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1060314
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1060314
Copyright © 2022 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Impact of NPK fertilization on hazelnut yield and soil chemical-microbiological properties of Hazelnut Orchards in Western Georgia

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Kızılkaya,R., Dumbadze,G., Gülser,C., Jgenti,L., 2022. Impact of NPK fertilization on hazelnut yield and soil chemical-microbiological properties of Hazelnut Orchards in Western Georgia. Eurasian J Soil Sci 11(3):206-215. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1060314
Kızılkaya,R.Dumbadze,G.Gülser,C.,,& Jgenti,L. Impact of NPK fertilization on hazelnut yield and soil chemical-microbiological properties of Hazelnut Orchards in Western Georgia Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 11(3):206-215. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1060314
Kızılkaya,R.Dumbadze,G.Gülser,C.,, and ,Jgenti,L."Impact of NPK fertilization on hazelnut yield and soil chemical-microbiological properties of Hazelnut Orchards in Western Georgia" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 11.3 (2022):206-215. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1060314
Kızılkaya,R.Dumbadze,G.Gülser,C.,, and ,Jgenti,L. "Impact of NPK fertilization on hazelnut yield and soil chemical-microbiological properties of Hazelnut Orchards in Western Georgia" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,11(Jun 2022):206-215 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1060314
R,Kızılkaya.G,Dumbadze.C,Gülser.L,Jgenti "Impact of NPK fertilization on hazelnut yield and soil chemical-microbiological properties of Hazelnut Orchards in Western Georgia" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.11, no.3, pp.206-215 (Jun 2022), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1060314
Kızılkaya,Rıdvan ;Dumbadze,Guguli ;Gülser,Coşkun ;Jgenti,Lali Impact of NPK fertilization on hazelnut yield and soil chemical-microbiological properties of Hazelnut Orchards in Western Georgia. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2022),11.3:206-215. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1060314

How to cite

Kızılkaya, R., Dumbadze, G., Gülser, C., Jgenti, L., 2022. Impact of NPK fertilization on hazelnut yield and soil chemical-microbiological properties of Hazelnut Orchards in Western Georgia. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 11(3): 206-215. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1060314

Author information

Rıdvan Kızılkaya , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Samsun, Turkey & Agrobigen Research & Development Trade Ltd.Co, Samsun Technopark, Samsun, Turkey
Guguli Dumbadze , Batumi Shota Rustaveli State University, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Health Care, Department of Biology, Batumi, Georgia
Coşkun Gülser , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Samsun, Turkey
Lali Jgenti , Batumi Shota Rustaveli State University, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Health Care, Department of Biology, Batumi, Georgia

Publication information

Article first published online : 19 Jan 2022
Manuscript Accepted : 13 Jan 2022
Manuscript Received: 05 Oct 2021
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1060314
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1060314

Abstract

In this study, the effects of ground and foliar applications of the NPK fertilizers in hazelnut orchards on the soil chemical and microbiological properties and hazelnut yield were investigated. The fertilization practicesses from ground were done two times using NPK (20:10:10 +trace elements) on March and May while the fertilization practices from leaf were done three times using NK (15:12 +trace elements) on May, June and July at six different hazelnut orchards located on Samegrelo, Guria and Adjara regions in Western Georgia in 2018. The alkaline characterized fertilizer applications from soil generally increased soil reaction (pH), nutrient contents and EC values in different magnitude depends on the soil characteristics of locations. The lowest soil pH (4,40) and EC (0,107 dS m-1) values showed the highest increment (10,7% and 77,6%, respectively) over the control. The basal soil respiration and Cmic values of all hazelnut orchards were generally increased by the NPK ferilization. Increasing soil pH and EC by the fertilization also increased CA and DHA activity. The mean values of percent increase in yield and yield parameters by the NPK fertilization were obtained as 8,3% in yield, 13,3% in shelled nut weight, 10,0% in kernel weight and 5,1% in percent kernel efficiency. The hazelnut yield value had significant positive correlation with soil pH (0,669*), EC (0,652*) and Cmic (0,620*) values. The foliar fertilization and improving the soil properties of hazelnut orchards by the application of alkaline characteristic NPK fertilizer from soil increased hazelnut yield and yield parameters compare with the farmer applications or control treatments. The increments in soil microbiological properties and nutrients are considered as a desirable result in terms of sustainable soil management and plant nutrition for hazelnut orchards.

Keywords

Hazelnut, soil, fertilization, microbiological properties

Corresponding author

References

Adeniyan, O.N., Ojo, A.O., Adediran, J.A., 2011. Comparative study of different organic manures and NPK fertilizer for improvement of soil chemical properties and dry matter yield of maize in two different soils. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management 2(1): 9-13.

Altieri, M.A., 1999. The ecological role of biodiversity in agroecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 74: 19–31.

Anderson, J.P.E., 1982. Soil respiration. In. Methods of soil analysis, Part 2- Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 831-871.

Anderson, J.P.E., K.H. Domsch. 1978. A physiological method for the quantative measurement of microbial biomass in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 10: 215 – 221.

Aziz, A., Rab, A., Jan, I., Sajid, M., 2007. Evaluation of hazelnut varieties under the climatic conditions of Kalam, Swat. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 1(1): 42–44.

Beck, T.H., 1971. Die Messung derkKatalasen aktivität Von Böden. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde 130(1): 68-81.

Bignami, C., Cammilli, C., Moretti, G., Sallusti, L., 2004, June. Growth analysis and nitrogen dynamics in hazelnut Tonda Gentile Romana. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 686: VI International Congress on Hazelnut pp. 193-200.

Bodaghabadi, M.B., Faskhodi, A.A., Salehi, M.H., Hosseinifard, S.J., Heydari, M., 2019. Soil suitability analysis and evaluation of pistachio orchard farming, using canonical multivariate analysis. Scientia Horticulturae 246: 528-534.

Bostan, Z., Islam, A., 1999. Some nut characteristics and variation of these characteristics within hazelnut cultivar Palaz. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 23(4): 367–370.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal 54: 464-465.

Bray, R.H., Kurtz, L.T., 1945. Determination of total, organic and available forms of   phosphorus in soils. Soil Science 59: 39-45.

Bremner, J.M., 1965. Total nitrogen, In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 1149-1176.

Chanishvili, M., 2019. Increased hazelnut production deal signed between Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkey. The Messenger Online. Available at: http://www.messenger.com.ge/issues/4459_august_13_2019/4459_culture.html

Chen, F., Su, S., Zhang, B., Chen, Z., Wang, W., 2014. Hazelnut yield and fruit quality with foliar N, P, K fertilizer. Journal of Zhejiang Forestry College 31(6): 932-939.

Ding, J.L., Jiang, X., Ma, M.C., Zhou, B.K., Guan, D.W., Zhao, B.S., Zhou, J., Cao, F.M., Li, L., Li, J., 2016, Effect of 35years inorganic fertilizer and manure amendment on structure of bacterial and archaeal communities inblack soil of northeast China. Applied Soil Ecology 105: 187–195.

Ellena, M., Sandoval, P., Montenegro, A., Gonzalez, A., Azocar, G., 2012, March. Effect of foliar nutrient applications on fruit set in'Chilean Barcelona'hazelnut, in Southern Chile. Acta Horticulturae 1052: 175-178.

Ewel, K.C., Cropper, W.C., Gholz, H.L., 1987. Soil CO2 evolution in Florida slash pine plantations. I. Changes through time, Canadian Journal of Forest Research 17: 325-329.

García, C., Hernández, T., 1997. Biological and biochemical indicators in derelict soils subject to erosion. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 29(2): 171–177.

Haynes, B.E., Gower, S.T., 1995. Belowground carbon allocation in unfertilized and fertilized red pine plantations in northern Wisconsin. Tree Physiology 15: 317–325.

Iovieno, P., Morra, L., Leone, A., Pagano, L., Alfani, A., 2009. Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on soil respiration and enzyme activities of two Mediterranean horticultural soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils 45(5): 555-561.

Jenkinson, D.S., Parry, L.C., 1989. The nitrogen cycle in the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment: a model for the turnover of nitrogen through the soil microbial biomass. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 21(4): 535–541.

Kainer, K.A., Wadt, L.H., Staudhammer, C.L., 2007. Explaining variation in Brazil nut fruit production. Forest Ecology and Management 250(3): 244-255.

Kelting, M.P., Harris, J.R., Fanelli, J.K., Appleton, B.L., 1998. Effect of soil amendments and biostimulants on two-year post-transplant growth of red maple and Washington hawthorn. HortScience 33: 21–23.

Lloyd, J., Taylor, J.A., 1994. On the temperature dependence of soil respiration. Functional Ecology 8: 315-323.

Lupwayi, N.Z., Arshad, M.A., Rice, W.A., Clayton, G.W., 2001. Bacterial diversity in water-stable aggregates of soils under conventional and zero tillage management. Applied Soil Ecology 16: 251–261.

Martin, A.E., Reeve, R., 1955. A rapid manometric method for determining soil carbonate. Soil Science 79: 187-197.

Milošević, T., Milošević, N., 2017. Determination of size and shape features of hazelnuts using multivariate analysis. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum: Hortorum Cultus 16: 49-61.

Mirotadze, N., 2004, Hazelnut in Georgia. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 686: VI International Congress on Hazelnut pp. 29-34.

Nicolosi, E., Leotta, G., Raiti, G., 2009. Effect of foliar fertilization on hazelnuts growing in Mount Etna area. Acta Horticulturae 845: 373-378.

Olsen, J.L., Sanchez, E.I., Righetti, T.L., 2000. Absorption and distribution of isotopically labeled nitrogen in the hazelnut tree following ground and foliar applications. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 556: V International Congress on Hazelnut pp. 437-444.

Pepper, I.L., Gerba, C.P., Brendecke, J.W., 1995. Environmental microbiology: a laboratory manual. Academic Press, New York, USA. 197p.

Powlson, D.S., Brookes, P.C., 1987. Measurement of soil microbial biomass provides an early indication of changes in total soil organic matter due to straw incorporation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 19(2): 159–164.

Raich, J.W., Schlesinger, W.H., 1992. The global carbon dioxide flux in soil respiration and its relationship to vegetation and climate. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology 44: 81-99.

Raich, J.W., Tufekcioglu, A., 2000. Vegetation and soil respiration: Correlations and controls, Biogeochemistry 48(1): 71–90.

Rowell, D.L., 1996. Soil Science: methods and applications. Longman, UK. 350p.

Samuel, A.D., Bungau, S., Fodor, I.K., Tit, D.M., Blidar, C.F., David, A.T., Melinte, C.E., 2019. Effects of liming and fertilization on the degydrogenase and catalase activities. Revista de Chimie 70(10): 3464-3468.

Silva, A.P., Santos, A., Cavalheiro, J., Ribeiro, C., Santos, F., Goncalves, B., 2007. Fruit chemical composition of hazelnut cultivars grown in Portugal. Journal of Applied Horticulture 9(2): 157–161.

Singh, S.R., Kundu, D.K., Dey, P., Singh, P. and Mahapatra, B.S., 2018. Effect of balanced fertilizers on soil quality and lentil yield in Gangetic alluvial soils of India. The Journal of Agricultural Science 156(2): 225-240.

Skujins, J., 1973. Dehydrogenase: an indicator of biological activities in arid soils. Bulletin of Ecological Research Communication 17: 97-110.

Snare, L., 2008. Hazelnut production. Primefacts. Profitable & Sustainable Primary Industry. Primefact 765, 8p. Available at: https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/247939/Hazelnut-production.pdf

Tous, J., Romero, A., Plana, J., Sentis, X., Ferrán, J., 2004, Effect of nitrogen, boron and iron fertilization on yield and nut quality of Negret hazelnut trees. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 686: VI International Congress on Hazelnut. pp. 277-280.

Trevors, J., 1984. Effect of substrate concentration, inorganic nitrogen, O₂ concentration, temperature and pH on dehydrogenase activity in soil. Plant and Soil 77: 285-293.

Wang, J.W., Yan, X.Y., Gong, W., 2015. Effect of long-term fertilization on soil productivity on the North China Plain. Pedosphere 25(3): 450-458.

Weetall, H.H., Weliky, S.P., Vango, S.P., 1965. Detection of microorganisms in soil by their catalytic activity. Nature 206: 1019-1021.

Wei, L., Zhai, Q., 2010. The dynamics and correlation between nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium in a hazelnut fruit during its development. Frontiers of Agriculture in China 4(3): 352-357.

Zhang, Q., Miao, F., Wang, Z., Shen, Y., Wang, G., 2017. Effects of long‐term fertilization management practices on soil microbial biomass in China's cropland: A meta‐analysis. Agronomy Journal 109(4): 1183-1195.

Abstract

In this study, the effects of ground and foliar applications of the NPK fertilizers in hazelnut orchards on the soil chemical and microbiological properties and hazelnut yield were investigated. The fertilization practicesses from ground were done two times using NPK (20:10:10 +trace elements) on March and May while the fertilization practices from leaf were done three times using NK (15:12 +trace elements) on May, June and July at six different hazelnut orchards located on Samegrelo, Guria and Adjara regions in Western Georgia in 2018. The alkaline characterized fertilizer applications from soil generally increased soil reaction (pH), nutrient contents and EC values in different magnitude depends on the soil characteristics of locations. The lowest soil pH (4,40) and EC (0,107 dS m-1) values showed the highest increment (10,7% and 77,6%, respectively) over the control. The basal soil respiration and Cmic values of all hazelnut orchards were generally increased by the NPK ferilization. Increasing soil pH and EC by the fertilization also increased CA and DHA activity. The mean values of percent increase in yield and yield parameters by the NPK fertilization were obtained as 8,3% in yield, 13,3% in shelled nut weight, 10,0% in kernel weight and 5,1% in percent kernel efficiency. The hazelnut yield value had significant positive correlation with soil pH (0,669*), EC (0,652*) and Cmic (0,620*) values. The foliar fertilization and improving the soil properties of hazelnut orchards by the application of alkaline characteristic NPK fertilizer from soil increased hazelnut yield and yield parameters compare with the farmer applications or control treatments. The increments in soil microbiological properties and nutrients are considered as a desirable result in terms of sustainable soil management and plant nutrition for hazelnut orchards.

Keywords: Hazelnut, soil, fertilization, microbiological properties

References

Adeniyan, O.N., Ojo, A.O., Adediran, J.A., 2011. Comparative study of different organic manures and NPK fertilizer for improvement of soil chemical properties and dry matter yield of maize in two different soils. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management 2(1): 9-13.

Altieri, M.A., 1999. The ecological role of biodiversity in agroecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 74: 19–31.

Anderson, J.P.E., 1982. Soil respiration. In. Methods of soil analysis, Part 2- Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 831-871.

Anderson, J.P.E., K.H. Domsch. 1978. A physiological method for the quantative measurement of microbial biomass in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 10: 215 – 221.

Aziz, A., Rab, A., Jan, I., Sajid, M., 2007. Evaluation of hazelnut varieties under the climatic conditions of Kalam, Swat. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 1(1): 42–44.

Beck, T.H., 1971. Die Messung derkKatalasen aktivität Von Böden. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde 130(1): 68-81.

Bignami, C., Cammilli, C., Moretti, G., Sallusti, L., 2004, June. Growth analysis and nitrogen dynamics in hazelnut Tonda Gentile Romana. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 686: VI International Congress on Hazelnut pp. 193-200.

Bodaghabadi, M.B., Faskhodi, A.A., Salehi, M.H., Hosseinifard, S.J., Heydari, M., 2019. Soil suitability analysis and evaluation of pistachio orchard farming, using canonical multivariate analysis. Scientia Horticulturae 246: 528-534.

Bostan, Z., Islam, A., 1999. Some nut characteristics and variation of these characteristics within hazelnut cultivar Palaz. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 23(4): 367–370.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal 54: 464-465.

Bray, R.H., Kurtz, L.T., 1945. Determination of total, organic and available forms of   phosphorus in soils. Soil Science 59: 39-45.

Bremner, J.M., 1965. Total nitrogen, In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 1149-1176.

Chanishvili, M., 2019. Increased hazelnut production deal signed between Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkey. The Messenger Online. Available at: http://www.messenger.com.ge/issues/4459_august_13_2019/4459_culture.html

Chen, F., Su, S., Zhang, B., Chen, Z., Wang, W., 2014. Hazelnut yield and fruit quality with foliar N, P, K fertilizer. Journal of Zhejiang Forestry College 31(6): 932-939.

Ding, J.L., Jiang, X., Ma, M.C., Zhou, B.K., Guan, D.W., Zhao, B.S., Zhou, J., Cao, F.M., Li, L., Li, J., 2016, Effect of 35years inorganic fertilizer and manure amendment on structure of bacterial and archaeal communities inblack soil of northeast China. Applied Soil Ecology 105: 187–195.

Ellena, M., Sandoval, P., Montenegro, A., Gonzalez, A., Azocar, G., 2012, March. Effect of foliar nutrient applications on fruit set in'Chilean Barcelona'hazelnut, in Southern Chile. Acta Horticulturae 1052: 175-178.

Ewel, K.C., Cropper, W.C., Gholz, H.L., 1987. Soil CO2 evolution in Florida slash pine plantations. I. Changes through time, Canadian Journal of Forest Research 17: 325-329.

García, C., Hernández, T., 1997. Biological and biochemical indicators in derelict soils subject to erosion. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 29(2): 171–177.

Haynes, B.E., Gower, S.T., 1995. Belowground carbon allocation in unfertilized and fertilized red pine plantations in northern Wisconsin. Tree Physiology 15: 317–325.

Iovieno, P., Morra, L., Leone, A., Pagano, L., Alfani, A., 2009. Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on soil respiration and enzyme activities of two Mediterranean horticultural soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils 45(5): 555-561.

Jenkinson, D.S., Parry, L.C., 1989. The nitrogen cycle in the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment: a model for the turnover of nitrogen through the soil microbial biomass. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 21(4): 535–541.

Kainer, K.A., Wadt, L.H., Staudhammer, C.L., 2007. Explaining variation in Brazil nut fruit production. Forest Ecology and Management 250(3): 244-255.

Kelting, M.P., Harris, J.R., Fanelli, J.K., Appleton, B.L., 1998. Effect of soil amendments and biostimulants on two-year post-transplant growth of red maple and Washington hawthorn. HortScience 33: 21–23.

Lloyd, J., Taylor, J.A., 1994. On the temperature dependence of soil respiration. Functional Ecology 8: 315-323.

Lupwayi, N.Z., Arshad, M.A., Rice, W.A., Clayton, G.W., 2001. Bacterial diversity in water-stable aggregates of soils under conventional and zero tillage management. Applied Soil Ecology 16: 251–261.

Martin, A.E., Reeve, R., 1955. A rapid manometric method for determining soil carbonate. Soil Science 79: 187-197.

Milošević, T., Milošević, N., 2017. Determination of size and shape features of hazelnuts using multivariate analysis. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum: Hortorum Cultus 16: 49-61.

Mirotadze, N., 2004, Hazelnut in Georgia. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 686: VI International Congress on Hazelnut pp. 29-34.

Nicolosi, E., Leotta, G., Raiti, G., 2009. Effect of foliar fertilization on hazelnuts growing in Mount Etna area. Acta Horticulturae 845: 373-378.

Olsen, J.L., Sanchez, E.I., Righetti, T.L., 2000. Absorption and distribution of isotopically labeled nitrogen in the hazelnut tree following ground and foliar applications. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 556: V International Congress on Hazelnut pp. 437-444.

Pepper, I.L., Gerba, C.P., Brendecke, J.W., 1995. Environmental microbiology: a laboratory manual. Academic Press, New York, USA. 197p.

Powlson, D.S., Brookes, P.C., 1987. Measurement of soil microbial biomass provides an early indication of changes in total soil organic matter due to straw incorporation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 19(2): 159–164.

Raich, J.W., Schlesinger, W.H., 1992. The global carbon dioxide flux in soil respiration and its relationship to vegetation and climate. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology 44: 81-99.

Raich, J.W., Tufekcioglu, A., 2000. Vegetation and soil respiration: Correlations and controls, Biogeochemistry 48(1): 71–90.

Rowell, D.L., 1996. Soil Science: methods and applications. Longman, UK. 350p.

Samuel, A.D., Bungau, S., Fodor, I.K., Tit, D.M., Blidar, C.F., David, A.T., Melinte, C.E., 2019. Effects of liming and fertilization on the degydrogenase and catalase activities. Revista de Chimie 70(10): 3464-3468.

Silva, A.P., Santos, A., Cavalheiro, J., Ribeiro, C., Santos, F., Goncalves, B., 2007. Fruit chemical composition of hazelnut cultivars grown in Portugal. Journal of Applied Horticulture 9(2): 157–161.

Singh, S.R., Kundu, D.K., Dey, P., Singh, P. and Mahapatra, B.S., 2018. Effect of balanced fertilizers on soil quality and lentil yield in Gangetic alluvial soils of India. The Journal of Agricultural Science 156(2): 225-240.

Skujins, J., 1973. Dehydrogenase: an indicator of biological activities in arid soils. Bulletin of Ecological Research Communication 17: 97-110.

Snare, L., 2008. Hazelnut production. Primefacts. Profitable & Sustainable Primary Industry. Primefact 765, 8p. Available at: https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/247939/Hazelnut-production.pdf

Tous, J., Romero, A., Plana, J., Sentis, X., Ferrán, J., 2004, Effect of nitrogen, boron and iron fertilization on yield and nut quality of Negret hazelnut trees. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 686: VI International Congress on Hazelnut. pp. 277-280.

Trevors, J., 1984. Effect of substrate concentration, inorganic nitrogen, O₂ concentration, temperature and pH on dehydrogenase activity in soil. Plant and Soil 77: 285-293.

Wang, J.W., Yan, X.Y., Gong, W., 2015. Effect of long-term fertilization on soil productivity on the North China Plain. Pedosphere 25(3): 450-458.

Weetall, H.H., Weliky, S.P., Vango, S.P., 1965. Detection of microorganisms in soil by their catalytic activity. Nature 206: 1019-1021.

Wei, L., Zhai, Q., 2010. The dynamics and correlation between nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium in a hazelnut fruit during its development. Frontiers of Agriculture in China 4(3): 352-357.

Zhang, Q., Miao, F., Wang, Z., Shen, Y., Wang, G., 2017. Effects of long‐term fertilization management practices on soil microbial biomass in China's cropland: A meta‐analysis. Agronomy Journal 109(4): 1183-1195.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science