Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 11, Issue 3, Jun 2022, Pages 198-205
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1057950
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1057950
Copyright © 2022 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Effect of Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum applied together with rock phosphate on wheat yield and some soil properties in a calcareous soil

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Bayraklı,B., 2022. Effect of Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum applied together with rock phosphate on wheat yield and some soil properties in a calcareous soil. Eurasian J Soil Sci 11(3):198-205. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1057950
,& Bayraklı,B. (2022). Effect of Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum applied together with rock phosphate on wheat yield and some soil properties in a calcareous soil Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 11(3):198-205. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1057950
, and ,Bayraklı,B. "Effect of Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum applied together with rock phosphate on wheat yield and some soil properties in a calcareous soil" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 11.3 (2022):198-205. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1057950
, and ,Bayraklı,B. "Effect of Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum applied together with rock phosphate on wheat yield and some soil properties in a calcareous soil" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,11(Jun 2022):198-205 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1057950
B,Bayraklı "Effect of Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum applied together with rock phosphate on wheat yield and some soil properties in a calcareous soil" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.11, no.3, pp.198-205 (Jun 2022), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1057950
Bayraklı,Betül Effect of Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum applied together with rock phosphate on wheat yield and some soil properties in a calcareous soil. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2022),11.3:198-205. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1057950

How to cite

Bayraklı, B., 2022. Effect of Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum applied together with rock phosphate on wheat yield and some soil properties in a calcareous soil. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 11(3): 198-205. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1057950

Author information

Betül Bayraklı , Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute, Samsun, Turkey

Publication information

Article first published online : 14 Jan 2022
Manuscript Accepted : 11 Jan 2022
Manuscript Received: 19 Jun 2021
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1057950
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1057950

Abstract

This study aims to determine the effect of Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum applied together with rock phosphate on the yield of wheat grown in calcareous soil, some biological properties of soils and phosphorus fractions in the soil under greenhouse conditions. Considering the P fixation capacity of the soil used in the experiments and the amount of P present in the soil, the trial subjects were created based on randomized block designs with 3 replications, depending on whether 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the P required to be given to the wheat plant was met from rock phosphate and whether it was bacterial or not, and finally wheat was grown. In the harvested plants, grain and stem weights were determined, grain and stem P contents were analysed and the amounts removed with grain and stem were calculated. Dehydrogenase (DHA) and phosphatase (PA) enzyme activities were performed in the soil samples taken after harvest. Soluble and loosely bound-P, Calcium-bound-P (Ca-P), Reductant soluble-P (RS-P) fractions and Olsen-P were determined in soil samples taken before planting and after harvest. The percent reduction in the fractions was calculated by using the pre-sowing and post-harvest values of these samples. According to the results, Bacillus megaterium DSM 3228 strain inoculated with rock phosphate increased grain and stem yield, grain and stem P content, and P amount removed by grain and stem of wheat. These parameters were found to be higher at high doses of P applied as rock phosphate. Inoculation increased the DHA and PA values of the soils. A decrease in P fraction forms with low solubility was determined by inoculation, some of this phosphorus was removed by plants and some of it was retained in the soil in different forms.

Keywords

Bacillus mageterium var. phosphaticum, enzyme activity, inoculation, inorganic P fraction, wheat.

Corresponding author

References

Ahmad, M,, Ahmad, M,, El-Naggar, A.H., Usman, A.R.A., Abduljabbar, A., Vithanage, M, Elfaki, J., Al-Faraj, A., Al-Wabel, M.I., 2018. Aging effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on phosphorus fractionation in a calcareous sandy loam soil. Pedosphere 28(6): 873-883.

Amador, J.A., Glucksman, A.M., Lyons, J.B., Görres, J.H., 1997. Spatial distribution of soil phosphatase activity within a riparian forest1. Soil Science 162(11): 808-825.

Atafar, Z., Mesdaghinia, A., Nouri, J., Homaee, M., Yunesian, M., Ahmadimoghaddam, M., Mahvi, A.H., 2010. Effect of fertilizer application on soil heavy metal concentration. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 160: 83–89.

Audette, Y., O'Halloran, I.P., Evans. L.J., Martin, R.C., Voroney, R.P., 2016. Kinetics of phosphorus forms applied as inorganic and organic amendments to a calcareous soil II: effects of plant growth on plant available and uptake phosphorus. Geoderma 279: 70-76.

Banik, S., Dey, B.K., 1982. Available phosphate content of an alluvial soil as influenced by inoculation of some isolated phosphate-solubilizing micro-organisms. Plant and Soil 69: 353-364.

Batool, S., Iqbal, A., 2018. Phosphate solubilizing rhizobacteria as alternative of chemical fertilizer for growth and yield of Triticum aestivum (Var. Galaxy 2013). Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 26(7): 1400-1410.

Behera, B.C., Yadav, H., Singh, S.K., Mishra, R.R., Sethi, B.K., Dutta, S.K., Thatoi, H.N., 2017. Phosphate solubilization and acid phosphatase activity of Serratia sp. isolated from mangrove soil of Mahanadi river delta, Odisha, India. Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology 15(1): 169–178.

Bolan, N.S., Hedley, M.J., 1990. Dissolution of phosphate rocks in soils. 2. Effect of pH on the dissolution and plant availability of phosphate rock in soil with pH dependent charge. Fertilizer Research 24: 125-134.

Chien, S.H., Menon, R.G., 1995. Factors affecting the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock for direct application. Fertilizer Research 41: 227-234.

Chunga, H., Parka, M., Madhaiyana, M., Seshadria, S., Songb, J., Chob, H., Saa, T., 2005. Isolation and characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria from the rhizosphere of crop plants of Korea. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37: 1970–1974.

Correll, D.L., 1998. The role of phosphorus in the eutrophication of receiving waters: A review. Journal of Environmental Quality 27(2): 261-266.

Çağatay, M., Kacar, B., Ülgen, N., Turan, C., 1973. Türkiye şartlarında Türkiye ham fosfatlarının ziraate faydalılık nispetlerinin tayini üzerine bir araştırma. TÜBİTAK Tarım Orman Araştırma Grubu Yay. Sayı: 25. [in Turkish]

Daniel, T.C., Sharpley, A.N., Lemunyon, J.L., 1998. Agricultural phosphorus and eutrophication: A Symposium overview. Journal of Environmental Quality 27:251-257.

Dawwam, G.E., Elbeltagy, A., Emara, H.M., Abbas, I.H., Hassan, M.M., 2013. Beneficial effect of plant growth promoting bacteria isolated from the roots of potato plant. Annals of Agricultural Science 58(2): 195–201.

Chaya, D.S., Bijoy, N., 2015. Effects of AM Fungi and plant growth-promoting Rhizobacteria on enzymatic activities of soil under Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) cultivation. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 63(4): 442-448.

Fernández, L.A., Zalba, P., Gómez, M.A., Sagardoy, M.A., 2007. Phosphate-solubilization activity of bacterial strains in soil and their effect on soybean growth under greenhouse conditions. Biology and Fertility of Soils 43(6): 805-809.

Goldstein, A.H., 1986. Bacterial solubilization of mineral phosphates: historical perspective and future prospects. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 1(2): 51-57.

Goldstein, A.H., 1995. Recent progress in understanding the molecular genetics and biochemistry of calcium phosphate solubilization by gram negative bacteria. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 12(2): 185-193.

Gong, M., Du. P., Liu, X., Zhu, C., 2014. Transformation of inorganic P fractions of soil and plant growth promotion by phosphate-solubilizing ability of Penicillium oxalicum I1.  Journal of Microbiology 52(12): 1012-1019.

Grinsted, M.J., Hedley, M.J., White, R.E., Nye, P.H., 1982. Plant‐induced changes in the rhizosphere of rape (Brassica napus var. emerald) seedlings: I. pH change and the increase in P concentration in the soil solution. New Phytologist 91(1): 19-29.

Gupta, M.M., Kiran, S., Gulati. A., Singh, B., Tewaria, R., 2012. Isolation and identification of phosphate solubilizing bacteria able to enhance the growth and aloin-A biosynthesis of Aloe barbadensis. Microbiological Research 167(6): 358-363.

Güneş, A., Turan, M., Güllüce, M., Şahin, F., Karaman, M.R., 2013. Effects of different bacteria application on solubility of rock phosphate. Toprak Su Dergisi 2(1): 53-61. [in Turkish]

Huang, S.W., Jin, J.Y., 2008. Status of heavy metals in agricultural soils as affected by different patterns of land use. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 139(1–3): 317–327.

Hussain, A., Adnan, M., Iqbal, S., Fahad, S., Saeed, M., Mian, I. A., Muhammad, M.W., ……… Andaleeb, S., 2019. Combining phosphorus (P) with phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) improved wheat yield and P uptake in alkaline soil. Pure and Applied Biology 8(2): 1809-1817.

Illmer, P., Schinner, F., 1992. Solubilization of inorganic phosphates by microorganisms isolated from forest soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24(4): 389-395.

Iyer, B., Rajput, M.S., Rajkumar, S., 2017. Effect of succinate on phosphate solubilization in nitrogen fixing bacteria harbouring chick pea and their effect on plant growth. Microbiological Research 202: 43-50.

Jones, J.B., 2001. Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analyses. CRC Press, New York, USA. 363p.

Kamprath, E.J., Watson, M.E., 1980. Conventional soil and tissue tests for assessing the phosphorus status of soils. In: The role of phosphorus in agriculture. Khasawneh, F.E. (Ed.) ASA, Madison, WI, pp. 433-469.

Kanabo, I.A.K., Gilkes, R.J., 1987. The role of soil pH in the dissolution of phosphate rock fertilizers. Fertilizer Research 12: 165-173.

Kaur, G., Reddy, M.S., 2014. Influence of P-solubilizing bacteria on crop yield and soil fertility at multi locational sites. European Journal of Soil Biology 61: 35-40.

Kaur, G., Reddy, M.S., 2015. Effects of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, rock phosphate and chemical fertilizers on maize-wheat cropping cycle and economics. Pedosphere 25(3): 428–437.

Khan, A.L., Halo, B.A., Elyassi, A., Ali, S., Al-Hosni, K., Hussain, J., Al-Harrasi, A., Lee, I. J., 2016. Indole acetic acid and ACC deaminase from endophytic bacteria improves the growth of Solanum lycopersicum. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 21: 58-64.

Kızılkaya, R., 2008. Dehydrogenase activity in Lumbricus terrestris casts and surrounding soil affected by addition of different organic wastes and Zn. Bioresource Technology 99(5): 946–953.

Kızılkaya, R., Bayraklı, B., 2005. Effects of N-enriched sewage sludge on soil enzyme activities. Applied Soil Ecology 30(3): 192-202.

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen, Ş., 2004. Effect of biosolid amendment on enzyme activities in earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) casts. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 167(2): 202-208.

Kızılkaya, R., Bayraklı, F., Sürücü, A., 2007. Relationships between phosphatase activity and phosphorus fractions in agricultural soils. International Journal of Soil Science 2(2): 107-118.

Mahmoud, E., Ibrahim, M., Abd El-Rahman, L. Khader, A., 2018. Effects of biochar and phosphorus fertilizers on phosphorus fractions, wheat yield and microbial biomass carbon in vertic torrifluvents. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 50(3): 362-372.

Mamta, B., Rahic, P., Pathaniad, V., Gulatic, A., Singhd, B., Bhanwrae, R.K., Tewaria, R., 2010. Stimulatory effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria on plant growth, stevioside and rebaudioside-A contents of Stevia rebaudiana. Applied Soil Ecology 46(2): 222–229.

Masciandaro, G., Ceccanti, B., Ronchi, V., Bauer, C., 2000. Kinetic parameters of dehydrogenase in the assessment of the response of soil to vermicompost and inorganic fertilisers. Biology and Fertility of Soils 32(6): 479–483.

Milić, S., Ninkov, J., Zeremski, T., Latković, D., Šeremešić, S., Radovanović, V. & Žarković, B., 2019. Soil fertility and phosphorus fractions in a calcareous chernozem after a long-term field experiment. Geoderma 339: 9-19.

Oberson, A., Friesen, D.K., Rao, I.M., Bühler, S., Frossard, E., 2001. Phosphorus transformations in an Oxisol under contrasting land-use systems: The role of the soil microbial biomass. Plant and Soil 237(2): 197-210.

Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanabe, F.S., Dean, L.A., 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Circular No 939, USA, 19p.

Pande, A., Pandey, P., Mehra, S., Singh, M., Kaushik, S., 2017.  Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their efficiency on the growth of maize. Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology 15: 379–391.

Pepper, I.L., Gerba, C.P., Brendecke, J.W., 1995. Environmental microbiology: a laboratory manual. Academic Press. New York, USA. 197p.

Samadi, A., 2006. Contribution of inorganic phosphorus fractions to plant nutrition in alkaline-calcareous soils. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 8: 77-89.

Self-Davis, M.L., Moore, P.A., Joern, B.C., 2009. Water- or Dilute Salt-Extractable Phosphorus in Soil. In: Methods for Phosphorus Analysis for Soils, Sediments, Residuals, and Waters. Kovar, J.L., Pierzynski, G.M. (Eds.). Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin, Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, pp. 22-24.

Shen, J., Li, R., Zhang, F., Fan, J., Tang, C., Rengel, Z., 2004. Crop yields, soil fertility and phosphorus fractions in response to long-term fertilization under the rice monoculture system on a calcareous soil. Field Crops Research 86(2-3): 225-238.

Singh, H., Reddy, M.S., 2011. Effect of inoculation with phosphate solubilizing fungus on growth and nutrient uptake of wheat and maize plants fertilized with rock phosphate in alkaline soils. European Journal of Soil Biology 47:30-34.

Solis, P., Torrent, J., 1989. Phosphate fractions in calcareous Vertisols and Inceptisols of Spain. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53(2): 462-466.

Tabatabai, M.A., Bremner, J.M., 1969. Use of p-nitrophenyl phosphate for assay of soil phosphatase activity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 1(4): 301-307.

Wang, J., Liu, W.Z., Mu, H.F., Dang, T.H., 2010. Inorganic phosphorus fractions and phosphorus availability in a calcareous soil receiving 21-year superphosphate application. Pedosphere 20(3): 304-310.

Yang, J.E., Jacobsen, J.S., 1990. Soil inorganic phosphorus fractions and their uptake relationships in calcareous soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 54(6): 1666-1669.

Abstract

This study aims to determine the effect of Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum applied together with rock phosphate on the yield of wheat grown in calcareous soil, some biological properties of soils and phosphorus fractions in the soil under greenhouse conditions. Considering the P fixation capacity of the soil used in the experiments and the amount of P present in the soil, the trial subjects were created based on randomized block designs with 3 replications, depending on whether 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the P required to be given to the wheat plant was met from rock phosphate and whether it was bacterial or not, and finally wheat was grown. In the harvested plants, grain and stem weights were determined, grain and stem P contents were analysed and the amounts removed with grain and stem were calculated. Dehydrogenase (DHA) and phosphatase (PA) enzyme activities were performed in the soil samples taken after harvest. Soluble and loosely bound-P, Calcium-bound-P (Ca-P), Reductant soluble-P (RS-P) fractions and Olsen-P were determined in soil samples taken before planting and after harvest. The percent reduction in the fractions was calculated by using the pre-sowing and post-harvest values of these samples. According to the results, Bacillus megaterium DSM 3228 strain inoculated with rock phosphate increased grain and stem yield, grain and stem P content, and P amount removed by grain and stem of wheat. These parameters were found to be higher at high doses of P applied as rock phosphate. Inoculation increased the DHA and PA values of the soils. A decrease in P fraction forms with low solubility was determined by inoculation, some of this phosphorus was removed by plants and some of it was retained in the soil in different forms.

Keywords: Bacillus mageterium var. phosphaticum, enzyme activity, inoculation, inorganic P fraction, wheat.

References

Ahmad, M,, Ahmad, M,, El-Naggar, A.H., Usman, A.R.A., Abduljabbar, A., Vithanage, M, Elfaki, J., Al-Faraj, A., Al-Wabel, M.I., 2018. Aging effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on phosphorus fractionation in a calcareous sandy loam soil. Pedosphere 28(6): 873-883.

Amador, J.A., Glucksman, A.M., Lyons, J.B., Görres, J.H., 1997. Spatial distribution of soil phosphatase activity within a riparian forest1. Soil Science 162(11): 808-825.

Atafar, Z., Mesdaghinia, A., Nouri, J., Homaee, M., Yunesian, M., Ahmadimoghaddam, M., Mahvi, A.H., 2010. Effect of fertilizer application on soil heavy metal concentration. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 160: 83–89.

Audette, Y., O'Halloran, I.P., Evans. L.J., Martin, R.C., Voroney, R.P., 2016. Kinetics of phosphorus forms applied as inorganic and organic amendments to a calcareous soil II: effects of plant growth on plant available and uptake phosphorus. Geoderma 279: 70-76.

Banik, S., Dey, B.K., 1982. Available phosphate content of an alluvial soil as influenced by inoculation of some isolated phosphate-solubilizing micro-organisms. Plant and Soil 69: 353-364.

Batool, S., Iqbal, A., 2018. Phosphate solubilizing rhizobacteria as alternative of chemical fertilizer for growth and yield of Triticum aestivum (Var. Galaxy 2013). Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 26(7): 1400-1410.

Behera, B.C., Yadav, H., Singh, S.K., Mishra, R.R., Sethi, B.K., Dutta, S.K., Thatoi, H.N., 2017. Phosphate solubilization and acid phosphatase activity of Serratia sp. isolated from mangrove soil of Mahanadi river delta, Odisha, India. Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology 15(1): 169–178.

Bolan, N.S., Hedley, M.J., 1990. Dissolution of phosphate rocks in soils. 2. Effect of pH on the dissolution and plant availability of phosphate rock in soil with pH dependent charge. Fertilizer Research 24: 125-134.

Chien, S.H., Menon, R.G., 1995. Factors affecting the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock for direct application. Fertilizer Research 41: 227-234.

Chunga, H., Parka, M., Madhaiyana, M., Seshadria, S., Songb, J., Chob, H., Saa, T., 2005. Isolation and characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria from the rhizosphere of crop plants of Korea. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37: 1970–1974.

Correll, D.L., 1998. The role of phosphorus in the eutrophication of receiving waters: A review. Journal of Environmental Quality 27(2): 261-266.

Çağatay, M., Kacar, B., Ülgen, N., Turan, C., 1973. Türkiye şartlarında Türkiye ham fosfatlarının ziraate faydalılık nispetlerinin tayini üzerine bir araştırma. TÜBİTAK Tarım Orman Araştırma Grubu Yay. Sayı: 25. [in Turkish]

Daniel, T.C., Sharpley, A.N., Lemunyon, J.L., 1998. Agricultural phosphorus and eutrophication: A Symposium overview. Journal of Environmental Quality 27:251-257.

Dawwam, G.E., Elbeltagy, A., Emara, H.M., Abbas, I.H., Hassan, M.M., 2013. Beneficial effect of plant growth promoting bacteria isolated from the roots of potato plant. Annals of Agricultural Science 58(2): 195–201.

Chaya, D.S., Bijoy, N., 2015. Effects of AM Fungi and plant growth-promoting Rhizobacteria on enzymatic activities of soil under Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) cultivation. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 63(4): 442-448.

Fernández, L.A., Zalba, P., Gómez, M.A., Sagardoy, M.A., 2007. Phosphate-solubilization activity of bacterial strains in soil and their effect on soybean growth under greenhouse conditions. Biology and Fertility of Soils 43(6): 805-809.

Goldstein, A.H., 1986. Bacterial solubilization of mineral phosphates: historical perspective and future prospects. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 1(2): 51-57.

Goldstein, A.H., 1995. Recent progress in understanding the molecular genetics and biochemistry of calcium phosphate solubilization by gram negative bacteria. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 12(2): 185-193.

Gong, M., Du. P., Liu, X., Zhu, C., 2014. Transformation of inorganic P fractions of soil and plant growth promotion by phosphate-solubilizing ability of Penicillium oxalicum I1.  Journal of Microbiology 52(12): 1012-1019.

Grinsted, M.J., Hedley, M.J., White, R.E., Nye, P.H., 1982. Plant‐induced changes in the rhizosphere of rape (Brassica napus var. emerald) seedlings: I. pH change and the increase in P concentration in the soil solution. New Phytologist 91(1): 19-29.

Gupta, M.M., Kiran, S., Gulati. A., Singh, B., Tewaria, R., 2012. Isolation and identification of phosphate solubilizing bacteria able to enhance the growth and aloin-A biosynthesis of Aloe barbadensis. Microbiological Research 167(6): 358-363.

Güneş, A., Turan, M., Güllüce, M., Şahin, F., Karaman, M.R., 2013. Effects of different bacteria application on solubility of rock phosphate. Toprak Su Dergisi 2(1): 53-61. [in Turkish]

Huang, S.W., Jin, J.Y., 2008. Status of heavy metals in agricultural soils as affected by different patterns of land use. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 139(1–3): 317–327.

Hussain, A., Adnan, M., Iqbal, S., Fahad, S., Saeed, M., Mian, I. A., Muhammad, M.W., ……… Andaleeb, S., 2019. Combining phosphorus (P) with phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) improved wheat yield and P uptake in alkaline soil. Pure and Applied Biology 8(2): 1809-1817.

Illmer, P., Schinner, F., 1992. Solubilization of inorganic phosphates by microorganisms isolated from forest soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24(4): 389-395.

Iyer, B., Rajput, M.S., Rajkumar, S., 2017. Effect of succinate on phosphate solubilization in nitrogen fixing bacteria harbouring chick pea and their effect on plant growth. Microbiological Research 202: 43-50.

Jones, J.B., 2001. Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analyses. CRC Press, New York, USA. 363p.

Kamprath, E.J., Watson, M.E., 1980. Conventional soil and tissue tests for assessing the phosphorus status of soils. In: The role of phosphorus in agriculture. Khasawneh, F.E. (Ed.) ASA, Madison, WI, pp. 433-469.

Kanabo, I.A.K., Gilkes, R.J., 1987. The role of soil pH in the dissolution of phosphate rock fertilizers. Fertilizer Research 12: 165-173.

Kaur, G., Reddy, M.S., 2014. Influence of P-solubilizing bacteria on crop yield and soil fertility at multi locational sites. European Journal of Soil Biology 61: 35-40.

Kaur, G., Reddy, M.S., 2015. Effects of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, rock phosphate and chemical fertilizers on maize-wheat cropping cycle and economics. Pedosphere 25(3): 428–437.

Khan, A.L., Halo, B.A., Elyassi, A., Ali, S., Al-Hosni, K., Hussain, J., Al-Harrasi, A., Lee, I. J., 2016. Indole acetic acid and ACC deaminase from endophytic bacteria improves the growth of Solanum lycopersicum. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 21: 58-64.

Kızılkaya, R., 2008. Dehydrogenase activity in Lumbricus terrestris casts and surrounding soil affected by addition of different organic wastes and Zn. Bioresource Technology 99(5): 946–953.

Kızılkaya, R., Bayraklı, B., 2005. Effects of N-enriched sewage sludge on soil enzyme activities. Applied Soil Ecology 30(3): 192-202.

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen, Ş., 2004. Effect of biosolid amendment on enzyme activities in earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) casts. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 167(2): 202-208.

Kızılkaya, R., Bayraklı, F., Sürücü, A., 2007. Relationships between phosphatase activity and phosphorus fractions in agricultural soils. International Journal of Soil Science 2(2): 107-118.

Mahmoud, E., Ibrahim, M., Abd El-Rahman, L. Khader, A., 2018. Effects of biochar and phosphorus fertilizers on phosphorus fractions, wheat yield and microbial biomass carbon in vertic torrifluvents. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 50(3): 362-372.

Mamta, B., Rahic, P., Pathaniad, V., Gulatic, A., Singhd, B., Bhanwrae, R.K., Tewaria, R., 2010. Stimulatory effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria on plant growth, stevioside and rebaudioside-A contents of Stevia rebaudiana. Applied Soil Ecology 46(2): 222–229.

Masciandaro, G., Ceccanti, B., Ronchi, V., Bauer, C., 2000. Kinetic parameters of dehydrogenase in the assessment of the response of soil to vermicompost and inorganic fertilisers. Biology and Fertility of Soils 32(6): 479–483.

Milić, S., Ninkov, J., Zeremski, T., Latković, D., Šeremešić, S., Radovanović, V. & Žarković, B., 2019. Soil fertility and phosphorus fractions in a calcareous chernozem after a long-term field experiment. Geoderma 339: 9-19.

Oberson, A., Friesen, D.K., Rao, I.M., Bühler, S., Frossard, E., 2001. Phosphorus transformations in an Oxisol under contrasting land-use systems: The role of the soil microbial biomass. Plant and Soil 237(2): 197-210.

Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanabe, F.S., Dean, L.A., 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Circular No 939, USA, 19p.

Pande, A., Pandey, P., Mehra, S., Singh, M., Kaushik, S., 2017.  Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their efficiency on the growth of maize. Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology 15: 379–391.

Pepper, I.L., Gerba, C.P., Brendecke, J.W., 1995. Environmental microbiology: a laboratory manual. Academic Press. New York, USA. 197p.

Samadi, A., 2006. Contribution of inorganic phosphorus fractions to plant nutrition in alkaline-calcareous soils. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 8: 77-89.

Self-Davis, M.L., Moore, P.A., Joern, B.C., 2009. Water- or Dilute Salt-Extractable Phosphorus in Soil. In: Methods for Phosphorus Analysis for Soils, Sediments, Residuals, and Waters. Kovar, J.L., Pierzynski, G.M. (Eds.). Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin, Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, pp. 22-24.

Shen, J., Li, R., Zhang, F., Fan, J., Tang, C., Rengel, Z., 2004. Crop yields, soil fertility and phosphorus fractions in response to long-term fertilization under the rice monoculture system on a calcareous soil. Field Crops Research 86(2-3): 225-238.

Singh, H., Reddy, M.S., 2011. Effect of inoculation with phosphate solubilizing fungus on growth and nutrient uptake of wheat and maize plants fertilized with rock phosphate in alkaline soils. European Journal of Soil Biology 47:30-34.

Solis, P., Torrent, J., 1989. Phosphate fractions in calcareous Vertisols and Inceptisols of Spain. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53(2): 462-466.

Tabatabai, M.A., Bremner, J.M., 1969. Use of p-nitrophenyl phosphate for assay of soil phosphatase activity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 1(4): 301-307.

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Eurasian Journal of Soil Science