Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 10, Issue 4, Sep 2021, Pages 290 - 301
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.954961
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.954961
Copyright © 2021 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Physiological behavior of olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties under different foliage nutrition and irrigation regimes in the hyper-arid zone

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El-Gioushy,S., Dobiea,I., ,., Khaitov,B., Karimov,A., Zewail,R., 2021. Physiological behavior of olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties under different foliage nutrition and irrigation regimes in the hyper-arid zone. Eurasian J Soil Sci 10(4):290 - 301. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.954961
El-Gioushy,S.Dobiea,I.,.Khaitov,B.,Karimov,A.,& Zewail,R. Physiological behavior of olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties under different foliage nutrition and irrigation regimes in the hyper-arid zone Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 10(4):290 - 301. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.954961
El-Gioushy,S.Dobiea,I.,.Khaitov,B.,Karimov,A., and ,Zewail,R."Physiological behavior of olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties under different foliage nutrition and irrigation regimes in the hyper-arid zone" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 10.4 (2021):290 - 301. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.954961
El-Gioushy,S.Dobiea,I.,.Khaitov,B.,Karimov,A., and ,Zewail,R. "Physiological behavior of olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties under different foliage nutrition and irrigation regimes in the hyper-arid zone" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,10(Sep 2021):290 - 301 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.954961
S,El-Gioushy.I,Dobiea.,.B,Khaitov.A,Karimov.R,Zewail "Physiological behavior of olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties under different foliage nutrition and irrigation regimes in the hyper-arid zone" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.10, no.4, pp.290 - 301 (Sep 2021), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.954961
El-Gioushy,Sherif ;Dobiea,Ibrahim ;, ;Khaitov,Botir ;Karimov,Aziz ;Zewail,Reda Physiological behavior of olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties under different foliage nutrition and irrigation regimes in the hyper-arid zone. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2021),10.4:290 - 301. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.954961

How to cite

El-Gioushy, S., Dobiea, I., , ., Khaitov, B., Karimov, A., Zewail, R., 2021. Physiological behavior of olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties under different foliage nutrition and irrigation regimes in the hyper-arid zone. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 10(4): 290 - 301. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.954961

Author information

Sherif El-Gioushy , Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Egypt
Ibrahim Dobiea , Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Egypt & Department of Plant Production, Desert Research Center, Egypt
,
Botir Khaitov , International Center for Biosaline Agriculture (ICBA), Regional office for Central Asia and the South Caucasus, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Aziz Karimov , International Center for Biosaline Agriculture (ICBA), Regional office for Central Asia and the South Caucasus, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Reda Zewail , Department of Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Egypt

Publication information

Article first published online : 20 Jun 2021
Manuscript Accepted : 16 Jun 2021
Manuscript Received: 24 Feb 2021
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.954961
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.954961

Abstract

Olive (Olea europaea) is an emblematic tree in the Mediterranean regions that grows an integral part of the area. The Mediterranean vegetation often undergoes challenging periods of severe drought stress, which causes significant impairment to olive trees' growth and production performance. The practical study was designed to follow up the effect of three irrigation regimes (50%, 75% and 100% ETc) in combination with four doses (0, 2, 4 and 6 g/L) of Lithovit (CaCO3+MgCO3, micronized calcium carbonate) on growth performance, yield, and fruit quality of two olive (Picual and Manzanello) varieties during 2017 and 2018 growing seasons. Regardless Lithovit doses, irrigation regime 100% of ETc exhibited the highest values of leaf water content, leaf relative water content, total chlorophyll and N, P, K, Ca and Mg concentrations of both olive varieties compared to the other watering regimes. Interestingly, proline content in the fruit was enhanced with increasing water deficit (50% of ETc) and Lithovit dose (6 g/L). However, the highest yield and fruit oil content were obtained by the combination of 75% ETc irrigation level and Lithovit treatment at a rate of 4 g/L in both olive varieties. This study contributes to developing olive production technologies, thereby ensuring sustainable olive culture farming with high-quality yield in hyper-arid zones.

Keywords

Olive, Lithovit, drought, irrigation requirements, chemical aspects, water relations, fruit quality, fruit yield.

Corresponding author

References

A.O.A.C., 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edition. Helrich, K. (Ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Agricultural Chemicals; Contaminants; Grugs. Washington DC, USA. Available at [Access date: 24.02.2021]: https://law.resource.org/pub/us/cfr/ibr/002/aoac.methods.1.1990.pdf

Abd El-Nabi, H., Dawa, K., El-Gamily, E., Imryed, Y., 2017. Effect of magnetic water, foliar application with nano material and nitrogen levels on productivity and quality of head lettuce. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences 4 (5): 171-181.

Abd El-Nabi, H.A., Eid., R.S., 2018. Effect of foliar spray with Lithovit and amino acids on growth, bioconstituents, anatomical and yield features of soybean plant. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor 56 (4th ICBAA): 187-201.

Abdelghafar, M.S., Al-Abd, M.T., Helaly, A.A., Rashwan, A.M., 2016. Foliar application of lithovit and rose water as factor for increasing onion seed production. Natural Sciences 14(3): 53-61.

Abo-Sedera, F.A., Shams, A.S., Mohamed, H.M., Hamoda, A.M., 2016. Effect of organic fertilizer and foliar spray with some safety compounds on growth and productivity of snap bean. Annals of Agricultural Sciences 54(1): 105-118.

Ainsworth, A.E., Rogers, A., 2007. The response of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to rising [CO2]: mechanisms and environmental interactions. Plant, Cell and Environment 30(3): 258-270.  

Anonymous, 2008. Statistix 9 user's manual. Analytical Software, Tallahassee, FL. 454.

Arji, I., Arzani, K., 2008. Effect of water stress on some biochemical changes in leaf of five olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars. Acta Horticulture 791: 523-526.

Arzani, K., Arji, I., Javadi, T., 2009. Pruning and Training Systems for Modern Olive Growing. Pub. By Agricultural Education Publisher, Ministry of Agriculture, Karaj, Iran. 232 p.

Asik, S., Kaya, U., Camoglu, G., Akkuzu, E., Olmez, H.A., Avci, M., 2014. Effect of different ırrigation levels on the yield and traits of memecik olive trees (Olea europaea L.) in the Aegean Coastal Region of Turkey. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 140(8): 4401-4025.

Bacelar, E.A., Moutinho-Pereira, J.M., Goncalves, B.C., Lopes, J.I., Correia. C.M., 2009. Physiological responses of different olive genotypes to drought conditions. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 31(3):611-621.

Bacelar, E.A., Santos, D.L., Moutinho-Pereira, J.M., Gonçalves, B.C., Ferreira, H.F., Correia, C.M., 2006. Immediate responses and adaptative strategies of three olive cultivars under contrasting water availability regimes: Changes on structure and chemical composition of foliage and oxidative damage. Plant Science 170:596-605.

Bates, L.S., Walderm, R.P., Tare. I.D., 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil 39: 205-208.

Ben Rouina, B., Trigui, A., d’Andria, R., Boukhris, M., Chaieb, M., 2007. Effects of water stress and soil type on photosynthesis, leaf water potential and yield of olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali Sfax).  Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 47(12): 1484-1490.

Benlloch-González, M., Arquero, O., Fournier, J.M., Barranco, D., Benlloch, M., 2008. K+ starvation inhibits water-stress-induced stomatal closure. Journal of Plant Physiology 165(6): 623-630.

Berenguer, M.J., Grattam, S.R., Connel, J.H., Polito, V.S., Vossen, P.M., 2004. Irrigation management to optimize olive oil production and quality. Acta Horticulture 644: 79-85.

Boughalleb, F., Hajlaoui, H., 2011. Physiological and anatomical changes induced by drought in two olive cultivars (cv Zalmati and Chemlali). Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 33(1):53-65.

Brito, C., Dinis, L.T., Moutinho-Pereira, J., Correia, C.M., 2019. Drought stress effects and olive tree acclimation under a changing climate. Plants 8(7):232-241.

Bunce, J.A., 2003. Carbon dioxide effects on stomatal responses to the environment and water use by crops under field conditions. Journal of Oecologia 140:1-10.

Carmen, B., Sumalan, R., Gade, S., Vatca, S., 2014. Physiological Indicators Study Involvedin Productivity Increasing in Tomato.  Journal of ProEnvironment 7: 218- 224.

Chapman, H.D., Pratt, P.F., 1961. Methods of Analysis for Soil, Plant and Water. Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of California, USA.

Dobiea, I.M., El-Badawy, H.E.M., El-Gioushy, S.F., Hegazy, A.A.H., 2019. Effect of Spraying Dolomite Nano-Particles on Growth, Flowering and Fruit Setting of Picual Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivar Under Water Stress Conditions. 5th International Conference on Biotechnology Applications in Agriculture (ICBAA), Benha University, Moshtohor and Hurghada, Egypt.

Duncan, D.B., 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11:1-24.

Ennajeh, M., Vadel, A.M., Khemira, H., Ben Mimoun, M., Hellali, R., 2006. Defense mechanisms against water deficit in two olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars ‘Meski’ and ‘Chemlali’. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 81(1): 99-104.

FAO, 2020. Food and Agriculture Statistics. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Available at [Access date : 24.02.2021]: http://www.fao.org/food-agriculture-statistics/en/

Farouk, S., 2015. Imroving growth and productivity of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by some biostimulants and lithovit with or without boron. Journal Plant Production 6 (12): 2187-2206.

Fathelrahman, E.M., Hussein, K.A., Paramban, S., Green, T.R., Vandenberg, B.C., 2020. Chlorophyll-a concentration assessment using remotely sensed data over multiple years along the coasts of the United Arab Emirates. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 32(5): 345-357.

Ghatas, Y.A., Mohamed, Y.F., 2018. Influence of mineral, micro-nutrients and Lithovit on growth, oil productivity and volatile oil constituents of Cymbopogon citruts L. plants. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research 7(1): 162-174.

Guerfel, M., Baccouri, O., Boujnah, D., Chaibi, W., Zarrouk, M., 2009. Impacts of water stress on gas exchange, water relations, chlorophyll content and leaf structure in the two main Tunisian olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae 119: 257-263.

Hamoda, S.A., Attia, A.N., El-Hendi, M.H., El-Sayed, O.S., 2016. Effect of nano-fertilizer (Lithovit) and potassium on growth, fruiting and yield of Egyptian cotton under different planting dates. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences 3(12): 361-372.

Kumar, V.P., Guleria, V.K., Yadav, S.K., 2013. Gold nanoparticle exposure induces growth and yield enhancement in Arabidopsis thaliana. Science of the Total Environment 461-462: 462-468.

Lavee, S., Nashef, M., Wonder, M., Harchemesh, H., 1990. The effect of complementary irrigation adds to old olive trees cv Souri on fruit characteristics, yield and oil production. Advances in Horticultural Science 4(3): 135-138.

Lelago, A., Buraka, T., 2019. Determination of physico-chemical properties and agricultural potentials of soils in Tembaro District, KembataTembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 8 (2): 118-130.

Maswada, H.F., Abd El-Rahman, L.A., 2014. Inducing salinity tolerance in wheat plants by hydrogen peroxide and lithovit "a nano-CaCO3 fertilizer. Journal of Agricultural Research - Kafr El-Sheikh University 40(4): 696-719.

Morsy, A.S.M., Awadalla, A., Sherif, M.M., 2018. Effect of irrigation, foliar spray with nano-fertilizer (lithovit) and n-levels on productivity and quality of durum wheat under Toshka Conditions. Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences 49(3): 1-26.

Parkinson, J.A., Allen, S.E., 1975. A wet oxidation procedure suitable for the determination of nitrogen and mineral nutrients in biological material. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 6(1): 1-11.

Plummer, D.T., 1971. An Introduction to Practical Biochemistry. McGraw-Hill Book Company, UK. 332p.

Rosecrance, R.C., Krueger, W.H., Milliron, L., Bloese, J., Garcia, C., Mori, B., 2015.  Moderate regulated deficit irrigation can increase olive oil yields and decrease tree growth in super high density ‘Arbequina’ olive orchards. Scientia Horticulturae 190:75 - 82.

Sabina, P.D., 2013. Research concerning the use of some seed and material preparation method in the production of biological material in generative Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. Journal of Horticulture, Forestry and Biotechnology 17(2): 185- 188.

Shaheen, M.A., Hegaz, A.A., Hmmam, I.A., 2011. Effect of water stress on vegetative characteristics and leaves chemical constituents of some transplants olive cultivars. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences 11(5): 663-670..

Shallan, M.A., Hassan, M.H., Namich, A.A., Ibrahim, A.A., 2016. The Influence of Lithovit fertilizer on the chemical constituents and yield characteristics of cotton plant under drought stress. International Journal of ChemTech Research 9(8): 1-11.

Sharma, S., 2006. Influence of rootstocks and paclobutrazol on growth and physiology of pear cv. Flemish beauty under different soil moisture regimes. Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni Solan, HP, India. Ph.D. Thesis.

Smith, D., Polsen, G.M., Raguse, C.A., 1964. Extraction of total carbohydrates from grassa and legumes tissues. Plant Physiology 39(6): 960-962.

Stocker, B.D., Zscheischler, J., Keenan, T.F., Prentice, I.C., Seneviratne, S.I., Peñuelas, J., 2019. Drought impacts on terrestrial primary production underestimated by satellite monitoring. Nature Geoscience 12(4): 264-270.

Tangu, N.A., 2014. Effects on plant morphology of drought in olive. Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Natural Sciences 1(S1): 900-904.

Tombesi, A., Proietti, P., Nottiani, G., 1986. Effect of water stress on photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal resistance and carbohydrate level in olive tree. Olea 17: 35-40.

Truog, E., Meyer, A.H., 1929. Improvementsin the deniges colorometric methodfor phosphorus and arsenic. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Analytical Edition 1(3): 136-139.

Wang, L., Feng, Z., Schjoerring, J.K., 2013. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on physiology and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): A meta-analytic test of current hypotheses. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 178: 57–63.

Wood, C.W., Reeves, D.W., Himelrick, D.G., 1993. Relationships between chlorophyll meter readings and leaf chlorophyll concentration. N status and crop yield: a review. Proceedings Agronomy Society of New Zealand 23: 1-9.

Xiloyannis, C., Dichio, B., Nuzzo, V., Celano, G., 1999. Defence strategies of olive against water stress. Acta Horticulturae 4(3): 423-426.

Abstract

Olive (Olea europaea) is an emblematic tree in the Mediterranean regions that grows an integral part of the area. The Mediterranean vegetation often undergoes challenging periods of severe drought stress, which causes significant impairment to olive trees' growth and production performance. The practical study was designed to follow up the effect of three irrigation regimes (50%, 75% and 100% ETc) in combination with four doses (0, 2, 4 and 6 g/L) of Lithovit (CaCO3+MgCO3, micronized calcium carbonate) on growth performance, yield, and fruit quality of two olive (Picual and Manzanello) varieties during 2017 and 2018 growing seasons. Regardless Lithovit doses, irrigation regime 100% of ETc exhibited the highest values of leaf water content, leaf relative water content, total chlorophyll and N, P, K, Ca and Mg concentrations of both olive varieties compared to the other watering regimes. Interestingly, proline content in the fruit was enhanced with increasing water deficit (50% of ETc) and Lithovit dose (6 g/L). However, the highest yield and fruit oil content were obtained by the combination of 75% ETc irrigation level and Lithovit treatment at a rate of 4 g/L in both olive varieties. This study contributes to developing olive production technologies, thereby ensuring sustainable olive culture farming with high-quality yield in hyper-arid zones.

Keywords: Olive, Lithovit, drought, irrigation requirements, chemical aspects, water relations, fruit quality, fruit yield.

References

A.O.A.C., 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edition. Helrich, K. (Ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Agricultural Chemicals; Contaminants; Grugs. Washington DC, USA. Available at [Access date: 24.02.2021]: https://law.resource.org/pub/us/cfr/ibr/002/aoac.methods.1.1990.pdf

Abd El-Nabi, H., Dawa, K., El-Gamily, E., Imryed, Y., 2017. Effect of magnetic water, foliar application with nano material and nitrogen levels on productivity and quality of head lettuce. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences 4 (5): 171-181.

Abd El-Nabi, H.A., Eid., R.S., 2018. Effect of foliar spray with Lithovit and amino acids on growth, bioconstituents, anatomical and yield features of soybean plant. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor 56 (4th ICBAA): 187-201.

Abdelghafar, M.S., Al-Abd, M.T., Helaly, A.A., Rashwan, A.M., 2016. Foliar application of lithovit and rose water as factor for increasing onion seed production. Natural Sciences 14(3): 53-61.

Abo-Sedera, F.A., Shams, A.S., Mohamed, H.M., Hamoda, A.M., 2016. Effect of organic fertilizer and foliar spray with some safety compounds on growth and productivity of snap bean. Annals of Agricultural Sciences 54(1): 105-118.

Ainsworth, A.E., Rogers, A., 2007. The response of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to rising [CO2]: mechanisms and environmental interactions. Plant, Cell and Environment 30(3): 258-270.  

Anonymous, 2008. Statistix 9 user's manual. Analytical Software, Tallahassee, FL. 454.

Arji, I., Arzani, K., 2008. Effect of water stress on some biochemical changes in leaf of five olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars. Acta Horticulture 791: 523-526.

Arzani, K., Arji, I., Javadi, T., 2009. Pruning and Training Systems for Modern Olive Growing. Pub. By Agricultural Education Publisher, Ministry of Agriculture, Karaj, Iran. 232 p.

Asik, S., Kaya, U., Camoglu, G., Akkuzu, E., Olmez, H.A., Avci, M., 2014. Effect of different ırrigation levels on the yield and traits of memecik olive trees (Olea europaea L.) in the Aegean Coastal Region of Turkey. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 140(8): 4401-4025.

Bacelar, E.A., Moutinho-Pereira, J.M., Goncalves, B.C., Lopes, J.I., Correia. C.M., 2009. Physiological responses of different olive genotypes to drought conditions. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 31(3):611-621.

Bacelar, E.A., Santos, D.L., Moutinho-Pereira, J.M., Gonçalves, B.C., Ferreira, H.F., Correia, C.M., 2006. Immediate responses and adaptative strategies of three olive cultivars under contrasting water availability regimes: Changes on structure and chemical composition of foliage and oxidative damage. Plant Science 170:596-605.

Bates, L.S., Walderm, R.P., Tare. I.D., 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil 39: 205-208.

Ben Rouina, B., Trigui, A., d’Andria, R., Boukhris, M., Chaieb, M., 2007. Effects of water stress and soil type on photosynthesis, leaf water potential and yield of olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali Sfax).  Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 47(12): 1484-1490.

Benlloch-González, M., Arquero, O., Fournier, J.M., Barranco, D., Benlloch, M., 2008. K+ starvation inhibits water-stress-induced stomatal closure. Journal of Plant Physiology 165(6): 623-630.

Berenguer, M.J., Grattam, S.R., Connel, J.H., Polito, V.S., Vossen, P.M., 2004. Irrigation management to optimize olive oil production and quality. Acta Horticulture 644: 79-85.

Boughalleb, F., Hajlaoui, H., 2011. Physiological and anatomical changes induced by drought in two olive cultivars (cv Zalmati and Chemlali). Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 33(1):53-65.

Brito, C., Dinis, L.T., Moutinho-Pereira, J., Correia, C.M., 2019. Drought stress effects and olive tree acclimation under a changing climate. Plants 8(7):232-241.

Bunce, J.A., 2003. Carbon dioxide effects on stomatal responses to the environment and water use by crops under field conditions. Journal of Oecologia 140:1-10.

Carmen, B., Sumalan, R., Gade, S., Vatca, S., 2014. Physiological Indicators Study Involvedin Productivity Increasing in Tomato.  Journal of ProEnvironment 7: 218- 224.

Chapman, H.D., Pratt, P.F., 1961. Methods of Analysis for Soil, Plant and Water. Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of California, USA.

Dobiea, I.M., El-Badawy, H.E.M., El-Gioushy, S.F., Hegazy, A.A.H., 2019. Effect of Spraying Dolomite Nano-Particles on Growth, Flowering and Fruit Setting of Picual Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivar Under Water Stress Conditions. 5th International Conference on Biotechnology Applications in Agriculture (ICBAA), Benha University, Moshtohor and Hurghada, Egypt.

Duncan, D.B., 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11:1-24.

Ennajeh, M., Vadel, A.M., Khemira, H., Ben Mimoun, M., Hellali, R., 2006. Defense mechanisms against water deficit in two olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars ‘Meski’ and ‘Chemlali’. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 81(1): 99-104.

FAO, 2020. Food and Agriculture Statistics. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Available at [Access date : 24.02.2021]: http://www.fao.org/food-agriculture-statistics/en/

Farouk, S., 2015. Imroving growth and productivity of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by some biostimulants and lithovit with or without boron. Journal Plant Production 6 (12): 2187-2206.

Fathelrahman, E.M., Hussein, K.A., Paramban, S., Green, T.R., Vandenberg, B.C., 2020. Chlorophyll-a concentration assessment using remotely sensed data over multiple years along the coasts of the United Arab Emirates. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 32(5): 345-357.

Ghatas, Y.A., Mohamed, Y.F., 2018. Influence of mineral, micro-nutrients and Lithovit on growth, oil productivity and volatile oil constituents of Cymbopogon citruts L. plants. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research 7(1): 162-174.

Guerfel, M., Baccouri, O., Boujnah, D., Chaibi, W., Zarrouk, M., 2009. Impacts of water stress on gas exchange, water relations, chlorophyll content and leaf structure in the two main Tunisian olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae 119: 257-263.

Hamoda, S.A., Attia, A.N., El-Hendi, M.H., El-Sayed, O.S., 2016. Effect of nano-fertilizer (Lithovit) and potassium on growth, fruiting and yield of Egyptian cotton under different planting dates. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences 3(12): 361-372.

Kumar, V.P., Guleria, V.K., Yadav, S.K., 2013. Gold nanoparticle exposure induces growth and yield enhancement in Arabidopsis thaliana. Science of the Total Environment 461-462: 462-468.

Lavee, S., Nashef, M., Wonder, M., Harchemesh, H., 1990. The effect of complementary irrigation adds to old olive trees cv Souri on fruit characteristics, yield and oil production. Advances in Horticultural Science 4(3): 135-138.

Lelago, A., Buraka, T., 2019. Determination of physico-chemical properties and agricultural potentials of soils in Tembaro District, KembataTembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 8 (2): 118-130.

Maswada, H.F., Abd El-Rahman, L.A., 2014. Inducing salinity tolerance in wheat plants by hydrogen peroxide and lithovit "a nano-CaCO3 fertilizer. Journal of Agricultural Research - Kafr El-Sheikh University 40(4): 696-719.

Morsy, A.S.M., Awadalla, A., Sherif, M.M., 2018. Effect of irrigation, foliar spray with nano-fertilizer (lithovit) and n-levels on productivity and quality of durum wheat under Toshka Conditions. Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences 49(3): 1-26.

Parkinson, J.A., Allen, S.E., 1975. A wet oxidation procedure suitable for the determination of nitrogen and mineral nutrients in biological material. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 6(1): 1-11.

Plummer, D.T., 1971. An Introduction to Practical Biochemistry. McGraw-Hill Book Company, UK. 332p.

Rosecrance, R.C., Krueger, W.H., Milliron, L., Bloese, J., Garcia, C., Mori, B., 2015.  Moderate regulated deficit irrigation can increase olive oil yields and decrease tree growth in super high density ‘Arbequina’ olive orchards. Scientia Horticulturae 190:75 - 82.

Sabina, P.D., 2013. Research concerning the use of some seed and material preparation method in the production of biological material in generative Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. Journal of Horticulture, Forestry and Biotechnology 17(2): 185- 188.

Shaheen, M.A., Hegaz, A.A., Hmmam, I.A., 2011. Effect of water stress on vegetative characteristics and leaves chemical constituents of some transplants olive cultivars. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences 11(5): 663-670..

Shallan, M.A., Hassan, M.H., Namich, A.A., Ibrahim, A.A., 2016. The Influence of Lithovit fertilizer on the chemical constituents and yield characteristics of cotton plant under drought stress. International Journal of ChemTech Research 9(8): 1-11.

Sharma, S., 2006. Influence of rootstocks and paclobutrazol on growth and physiology of pear cv. Flemish beauty under different soil moisture regimes. Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni Solan, HP, India. Ph.D. Thesis.

Smith, D., Polsen, G.M., Raguse, C.A., 1964. Extraction of total carbohydrates from grassa and legumes tissues. Plant Physiology 39(6): 960-962.

Stocker, B.D., Zscheischler, J., Keenan, T.F., Prentice, I.C., Seneviratne, S.I., Peñuelas, J., 2019. Drought impacts on terrestrial primary production underestimated by satellite monitoring. Nature Geoscience 12(4): 264-270.

Tangu, N.A., 2014. Effects on plant morphology of drought in olive. Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Natural Sciences 1(S1): 900-904.

Tombesi, A., Proietti, P., Nottiani, G., 1986. Effect of water stress on photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal resistance and carbohydrate level in olive tree. Olea 17: 35-40.

Truog, E., Meyer, A.H., 1929. Improvementsin the deniges colorometric methodfor phosphorus and arsenic. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Analytical Edition 1(3): 136-139.

Wang, L., Feng, Z., Schjoerring, J.K., 2013. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on physiology and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): A meta-analytic test of current hypotheses. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 178: 57–63.

Wood, C.W., Reeves, D.W., Himelrick, D.G., 1993. Relationships between chlorophyll meter readings and leaf chlorophyll concentration. N status and crop yield: a review. Proceedings Agronomy Society of New Zealand 23: 1-9.

Xiloyannis, C., Dichio, B., Nuzzo, V., Celano, G., 1999. Defence strategies of olive against water stress. Acta Horticulturae 4(3): 423-426.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science