Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 10, Issue 4, Sep 2021, Pages 278 - 284
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.942488
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.942488
Copyright © 2021 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Effects of deforestation on soil properties and organic carbon stock of a hillslope position land in Black Sea Region of Turkey

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Gülser,C., Ekberli,İ., Gülser,F., 2021. Effects of deforestation on soil properties and organic carbon stock of a hillslope position land in Black Sea Region of Turkey. Eurasian J Soil Sci 10(4):278 - 284. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.942488
Gülser,C.,Ekberli,İ.,& Gülser,F. Effects of deforestation on soil properties and organic carbon stock of a hillslope position land in Black Sea Region of Turkey Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 10(4):278 - 284. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.942488
Gülser,C.,Ekberli,İ., and ,Gülser,F."Effects of deforestation on soil properties and organic carbon stock of a hillslope position land in Black Sea Region of Turkey" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 10.4 (2021):278 - 284. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.942488
Gülser,C.,Ekberli,İ., and ,Gülser,F. "Effects of deforestation on soil properties and organic carbon stock of a hillslope position land in Black Sea Region of Turkey" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,10(Sep 2021):278 - 284 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.942488
C,Gülser.İ,Ekberli.F,Gülser "Effects of deforestation on soil properties and organic carbon stock of a hillslope position land in Black Sea Region of Turkey" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.10, no.4, pp.278 - 284 (Sep 2021), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.942488
Gülser,Coşkun ;Ekberli,İmanverdi ;Gülser,Füsun Effects of deforestation on soil properties and organic carbon stock of a hillslope position land in Black Sea Region of Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2021),10.4:278 - 284. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.942488

How to cite

Gülser, C., Ekberli, İ., Gülser, F., 2021. Effects of deforestation on soil properties and organic carbon stock of a hillslope position land in Black Sea Region of Turkey. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 10(4): 278 - 284. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.942488

Author information

Coşkun Gülser , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Samsun, Turkey Samsun, Turkey
İmanverdi Ekberli , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Samsun, Turkey
Füsun Gülser , Van Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Van, Turkey

Publication information

Article first published online : 25 May 2021
Manuscript Accepted : 20 May 2021
Manuscript Received: 12 Nov 2020
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.942488
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.942488

Abstract

The effects of deforestation on soil properties and soil organic C (SOC) stock in adjacent pasture and forest areas located on the same hillslope position were investigated. The soil properties measured in the forest site had higher coefficient of variation compared with pasture site. Deforestation made almost 50 years ago significantly increased bulk density (Db), soil pH, exch. Mg and significantly decreased total porosity (F), gravimetric moisture content (W), EC, exch. K, soil organic matter (OM), SOC stock in 0-15 cm soil depth in pasture site. Mean Db increased fom 1.24 g/cm3 in forest to 1.42 g/cm3 in pasture while mean values of OM and SOC stock depleted from 4.41% and 30.70 ton/ha in forest to 1.89% and 15.55 ton/ha in pasture, respectively. The reduction ratios in some soil properties by changing land use type from forest to pasture were determined in the following order; OM (57.14%) > exch. K (55.88%) > SOC (49.35%) > EC (45.65%) > W (28.96%) > exch. Na (18.75%) > F (11.32%) > exch. Ca (4.07%). The values of OM and SOC stock had significant positive relations with F, W, EC, exch. K, and significant negative relations with Db, pH, exch. Mg. After deforestation, abandoning cultivated land to pasture had negative impact on the soil properties and depleted SOC stock in 0-15 cm soil layer.

Keywords

Land use, pasture, deforestation, soil organic C, soil properties.

Corresponding author

References

Assefa, D., Rewald, B., Sandén, H., Rosinger, C., Abiyu, A., Yitaferu, B., Godbold, D.L., 2017. Deforestation and land use strongly effect soil organic carbon and nitrogen stock in Northwest Ethiopia. Catena 89-99.

Barber, R.G. 1995. Soil degradation in the tropical lowlands of Santa Cruz, Eastern Bolivia. Land Degradation and Rehabilitation 6(2): 95-107.

Bruce, J.P., Frome, M., Haites, E., Janzen, H., Lal, R., Paustian, K., 1999. Carbon sequestration in soils. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 54(1): 382-389.

Candemir, F., Gülser, C., 2010. Effects of different agricultural wastes on some soil quality ındexes in clay and loamy sand fields. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 42(1): 13–28.

Celik, I., 2005. Land-use effects on organic matter and physical properties of soil in a southern Mediterranean highland of Turkey. Soil and Tillage Research 83(2): 270–277.

Chen, X., Zhang, Z., Chen, X., Shi, P., 2009. The impact of land use and land cover changes on soil moisture and hydraulic conductivity along the karst hillslopes of southwest China. Environmental Earth Sciences 59(4): 811-820.

Del Galdo, I., Six, J., Peressotti, A., Francesca Cotrufo, M., 2003. Assessing the impact of land-use change on soil C sequestration in agricultural soils by means of organic matter fractionation and stable C isotopes. Global Change Biology 9(8): 1204–1213.

Demir, Z., Gülser, C., 2015. Effects of rice husk compost application on soil quality parameters in greenhouse conditions. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 4(3): 185–190.

Demir, Z., Gülser, C., 2021. Effects of rice husk compost on some soil properties, water use efficiency and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) yield under greenhouse and field conditions. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 52(9): 1051-1068.

Demiralay, I. 1993. Toprak Fiziksel Analizleri. Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları No: 143, Erzurum, Turkey. 131p. [in Turkish]

Dinesh, R., Chaudhuri, S.G., Ganeshamurthy, A.N., Dey, C., 2003. Changes in soil microbial indices and their relationships following deforestation and cultivation in wet tropical forests. Applied Soil Ecology 24(1): 17-26.

Doğan, B., Gülser, C., 2019. Assessment of soil quality for vineyard fields: A case study in Menderes District of Izmir, Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 8(2): 176-183.

Doğan, B., Gülser, C., 2020. Soil quality assessment for olive groves areas of Menderes District, Izmir-Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 9(4):298-305.

Don, A., Schumacher, J., Scherer-Lorenzen, M., Scholten, T., Schulze, E.D., 2007. Spatial and vertical variation of soil carbon at two grassland sites — Implications for measuring soil carbon stocks. Geoderma 141(3-4):272–282.

Gorte, R.W.,  Sheikh,  P.A., 2010.  Deforestation  andclimate   change.  Congressional Research Service 7-5700, R41144. Available at [Access date : 12.11.2020]: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41144.pdf

Guo, L.B., Gifford, R.M., 2002. Soil carbon stocks and land use change: a meta analysis. Global Change Biology 8: 345-360.

Gülser, C., 2006. Effect of forage cropping treatments on soil structure and relationships with fractal dimensions. Geoderma 131(1-2): 33–44.

Gülser, C., Candemir, F., 2015. Effects of agricultural wastes on the hydraulic properties of a loamy sand cropland in Turkey. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 61(3): 384–391.

Gülser, C., Candemir, F., Kanel, Y., Demirkaya, S., 2015. Effect of manure on organic carbon content and fractal dimensions of aggregates. Eur.asianJournal of Soil Science 4(1): 1–5.

Gülser, C., Minkina, T., Sushkova, S., Kızılkaya, R., 2017. Changes of soil hydraulic properties during the decomposition of organic waste in a coarse textured soil. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 174: 66-69.

Gülser, F , Salem, S , Gülser, C ., 2020. Changes in some soil properties of wheat fields under conventional and reduced tillage systems in Northern Iraq . Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 9(4): 314-320.

Hajabbasi, M.A., Jalalian, A., Karimzadeh, H.R., 1997. Deforestation effects on soil physical and chemical properties, Lordegan, Iran. Plant and Soil 190(2): 301-308.

Kacar, B., 1994. Bitki ve Toprağın Kimyasal Analizleri. Toprak Analizleri III. Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Eğitim, Araştırma ve Geliştirme Vakfı Yayınları No:3, Ankara. 705p. [in Turkish]

Karaca, S., Dengiz, O., Turan, İ.D., Özkan, B., Dedeoğlu, M., Gülser, F., Sargin, B., Demirkaya, S., Ay, A., 2021. An assessment of pasture soils quality based on multi-indicator weighting approaches in semi-arid ecosystem. Ecological Indicators 121: 107001.

Karaca, S., Gülser, F., 2015. Some heavy metal contents related with different physiographic units and land use in Van lake basin. International Journal of Secondary Metabolite 2(2): 37-42.

Karaca, S., Gülser, F., Selçuk, R., 2018. Relationships between soil properties, topography and land use in the Van Lake Basin, Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 7(2): 115-120.

Khormali, F., Ajami, M., Ayoubi, S., Srinivasarao, C., Wani, S.P., 2009. Role of deforestation and hillslope position on soil quality attributes of loess-derived soils in Golestan province, Iran. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 134(3-4): 178-189.

Koutika, L.S., Bartoli, F., Andreux, F., Cerri, C.C., Burtin, G., Choné, T., Philippy, R., 1997. Organic matter dynamics and aggregation in soils under rain forest and pastures of increasing age in the eastern Amazon Basin. Geoderma, 76(1-2): 87-112.

Lemenih, M., Karltun, E., Olsson, M., 2005. Assessing soil chemical and physical property responses to deforestation and subsequent cultivation in smallholders farming system in Ethiopia. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 105(1-2): 373–386.

Liu, S.L., Fu, B.J., Lü, Y.H., Chen, L.D., 2002. Effects of reforestation and deforestation on soil properties in humid mountainous areas: a case study in Wolong Nature Reserve, Sichuan province, China. Soil Use and Management 18(4): 376-380.

Lu, D., Moran, E., Mausel, P., 2002. Linking Amazonian secondary succession forest growth to soil properties. Land Degradation & Development 13(4): 331–343.

Magliano, P.N., Fernández, R.J., Florio, E.L., Murray, F., Jobbágy, E.G., 2017. Soil physical changes after conversion of woodlands to pastures in dry Chaco Rangelands (Argentina). Rangeland Ecology & Management 70(2): 225-229.

Ogunkunle, A.O., Eghaghara, O.O., 2007. Influence of land use on soil properties in a forest region of Southern Nigeria. Soil Use and Management 8(3): 121–124.

Puget, P., Lal, R., 2005. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen in a Mollisol in central Ohio as affected by tillage and land use. Soil and Tillage Research 80(1-2): 201-213.

Qi, Y., Chen, T., Pu, J., Yang, F., Shukla, M.K., Chang, Q., 2018. Response of soil physical, chemical and microbial biomass properties to land use changes in fixed desertified land. Catena 160: 339–344.

Rasiah, V., Florentine, S.K., Williams, B.L., Westbrooke, M.E., 2004. The impact of deforestation and pasture abandonment on soil properties in the wet tropics of Australia. Geoderma 120(1-2): 35-45.

Sahani, U., Behera, N., 2001. Impact of deforestation on soil physicochemical characteristics, microbial biomass and microbial activity of tropical soil. Land Degradation & Development 12(2): 93-105.

Saikh, H., Varadachari, C., Ghosh, K., 1998. Effects of deforestation and cultivation on soil CEC and contents of exchangeable bases: A case study in Simlipal National Park, India. Plant and Soil 204(2): 175-181.

Sharma, K.L., Ramachandra Raju, K., Das , S.K., Prasad Rao, B.R.C., Kulkarni, B.S., Srinivas, K., Kusuma Grace, J., Madhavi, M., Gajbhiye, P.N., 2009. Soil fertility and quality assessment under tree‐, crop‐, and pasture‐based land‐use systems in a rainfed environment. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 40(9-10): 1436-1461.

Six, J., Elliott, E.T., Paustian, K., 1999. Aggregate and soil organic matter dynamics under conventional and no‐tillage systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63(5): 1350-1358.

Sun, W., Zhu, H., Guo, S., 2015. Soil organic carbon as a function of land use and topography on the Loess Plateau of China. Ecological Engineering 83: 249–257.

Vera, M., Sierra, M., Díez, M., Sierra, C., Martínez, A., Martínez, F.J., Aguilar, J., 2007. Deforestation and land use effects on micromorphological and fertility changes in acidic rainforest soils in Venezuelan Andes. Soil and Tillage Research 97(2): 184-194.

Wang, J., Fu, B., Qiu, Y., Chen, L., 2001. Soil nutrients in relation to land use and landscape position in the semi-arid small catchment on the loess plateau in China. Journal of Arid Environments 48(4): 537-550.

Zhang, K., Li, S., Peng, W., Yu, B., 2004. Erodibility of Agricultural soils on the Loess Plateau of China. Soil and Tillage Research 76(2): 157–165.

Abstract

The effects of deforestation on soil properties and soil organic C (SOC) stock in adjacent pasture and forest areas located on the same hillslope position were investigated. The soil properties measured in the forest site had higher coefficient of variation compared with pasture site. Deforestation made almost 50 years ago significantly increased bulk density (Db), soil pH, exch. Mg and significantly decreased total porosity (F), gravimetric moisture content (W), EC, exch. K, soil organic matter (OM), SOC stock in 0-15 cm soil depth in pasture site. Mean Db increased fom 1.24 g/cm3 in forest to 1.42 g/cm3 in pasture while mean values of OM and SOC stock depleted from 4.41% and 30.70 ton/ha in forest to 1.89% and 15.55 ton/ha in pasture, respectively.  The reduction ratios in some soil properties by changing land use type from forest to pasture were determined in the following order; OM (57.14%) > exch. K (55.88%) > SOC (49.35%) > EC (45.65%) > W (28.96%) > exch. Na (18.75%) > F (11.32%) > exch. Ca (4.07%). The values of OM and SOC stock had significant positive relations with F, W, EC, exch. K, and significant negative relations with Db, pH, exch. Mg. After deforestation, abandoning cultivated land to pasture had negative impact on the soil properties and depleted SOC stock in 0-15 cm soil layer.

Keywords: Land use, pasture, deforestation, soil organic C, soil properties.

References

Assefa, D., Rewald, B., Sandén, H., Rosinger, C., Abiyu, A., Yitaferu, B., Godbold, D.L., 2017. Deforestation and land use strongly effect soil organic carbon and nitrogen stock in Northwest Ethiopia. Catena 89-99.

Barber, R.G. 1995. Soil degradation in the tropical lowlands of Santa Cruz, Eastern Bolivia. Land Degradation and Rehabilitation 6(2): 95-107.

Bruce, J.P., Frome, M., Haites, E., Janzen, H., Lal, R., Paustian, K., 1999. Carbon sequestration in soils. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 54(1): 382-389.

Candemir, F., Gülser, C., 2010. Effects of different agricultural wastes on some soil quality ındexes in clay and loamy sand fields. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 42(1): 13–28.

Celik, I., 2005. Land-use effects on organic matter and physical properties of soil in a southern Mediterranean highland of Turkey. Soil and Tillage Research 83(2): 270–277.

Chen, X., Zhang, Z., Chen, X., Shi, P., 2009. The impact of land use and land cover changes on soil moisture and hydraulic conductivity along the karst hillslopes of southwest China. Environmental Earth Sciences 59(4): 811-820.

Del Galdo, I., Six, J., Peressotti, A., Francesca Cotrufo, M., 2003. Assessing the impact of land-use change on soil C sequestration in agricultural soils by means of organic matter fractionation and stable C isotopes. Global Change Biology 9(8): 1204–1213.

Demir, Z., Gülser, C., 2015. Effects of rice husk compost application on soil quality parameters in greenhouse conditions. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 4(3): 185–190.

Demir, Z., Gülser, C., 2021. Effects of rice husk compost on some soil properties, water use efficiency and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) yield under greenhouse and field conditions. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 52(9): 1051-1068.

Demiralay, I. 1993. Toprak Fiziksel Analizleri. Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları No: 143, Erzurum, Turkey. 131p. [in Turkish]

Dinesh, R., Chaudhuri, S.G., Ganeshamurthy, A.N., Dey, C., 2003. Changes in soil microbial indices and their relationships following deforestation and cultivation in wet tropical forests. Applied Soil Ecology 24(1): 17-26.

Doğan, B., Gülser, C., 2019. Assessment of soil quality for vineyard fields: A case study in Menderes District of Izmir, Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 8(2): 176-183.

Doğan, B., Gülser, C., 2020. Soil quality assessment for olive groves areas of Menderes District, Izmir-Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 9(4):298-305.

Don, A., Schumacher, J., Scherer-Lorenzen, M., Scholten, T., Schulze, E.D., 2007. Spatial and vertical variation of soil carbon at two grassland sites — Implications for measuring soil carbon stocks. Geoderma 141(3-4):272–282.

Gorte, R.W.,  Sheikh,  P.A., 2010.  Deforestation  andclimate   change.  Congressional Research Service 7-5700, R41144. Available at [Access date : 12.11.2020]: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41144.pdf

Guo, L.B., Gifford, R.M., 2002. Soil carbon stocks and land use change: a meta analysis. Global Change Biology 8: 345-360.

Gülser, C., 2006. Effect of forage cropping treatments on soil structure and relationships with fractal dimensions. Geoderma 131(1-2): 33–44.

Gülser, C., Candemir, F., 2015. Effects of agricultural wastes on the hydraulic properties of a loamy sand cropland in Turkey. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 61(3): 384–391.

Gülser, C., Candemir, F., Kanel, Y., Demirkaya, S., 2015. Effect of manure on organic carbon content and fractal dimensions of aggregates. Eur.asianJournal of Soil Science 4(1): 1–5.

Gülser, C., Minkina, T., Sushkova, S., Kızılkaya, R., 2017. Changes of soil hydraulic properties during the decomposition of organic waste in a coarse textured soil. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 174: 66-69.

Gülser, F , Salem, S , Gülser, C ., 2020. Changes in some soil properties of wheat fields under conventional and reduced tillage systems in Northern Iraq . Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 9(4): 314-320.

Hajabbasi, M.A., Jalalian, A., Karimzadeh, H.R., 1997. Deforestation effects on soil physical and chemical properties, Lordegan, Iran. Plant and Soil 190(2): 301-308.

Kacar, B., 1994. Bitki ve Toprağın Kimyasal Analizleri. Toprak Analizleri III. Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Eğitim, Araştırma ve Geliştirme Vakfı Yayınları No:3, Ankara. 705p. [in Turkish]

Karaca, S., Dengiz, O., Turan, İ.D., Özkan, B., Dedeoğlu, M., Gülser, F., Sargin, B., Demirkaya, S., Ay, A., 2021. An assessment of pasture soils quality based on multi-indicator weighting approaches in semi-arid ecosystem. Ecological Indicators 121: 107001.

Karaca, S., Gülser, F., 2015. Some heavy metal contents related with different physiographic units and land use in Van lake basin. International Journal of Secondary Metabolite 2(2): 37-42.

Karaca, S., Gülser, F., Selçuk, R., 2018. Relationships between soil properties, topography and land use in the Van Lake Basin, Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 7(2): 115-120.

Khormali, F., Ajami, M., Ayoubi, S., Srinivasarao, C., Wani, S.P., 2009. Role of deforestation and hillslope position on soil quality attributes of loess-derived soils in Golestan province, Iran. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 134(3-4): 178-189.

Koutika, L.S., Bartoli, F., Andreux, F., Cerri, C.C., Burtin, G., Choné, T., Philippy, R., 1997. Organic matter dynamics and aggregation in soils under rain forest and pastures of increasing age in the eastern Amazon Basin. Geoderma, 76(1-2): 87-112.

Lemenih, M., Karltun, E., Olsson, M., 2005. Assessing soil chemical and physical property responses to deforestation and subsequent cultivation in smallholders farming system in Ethiopia. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 105(1-2): 373–386.

Liu, S.L., Fu, B.J., Lü, Y.H., Chen, L.D., 2002. Effects of reforestation and deforestation on soil properties in humid mountainous areas: a case study in Wolong Nature Reserve, Sichuan province, China. Soil Use and Management 18(4): 376-380.

Lu, D., Moran, E., Mausel, P., 2002. Linking Amazonian secondary succession forest growth to soil properties. Land Degradation & Development 13(4): 331–343.

Magliano, P.N., Fernández, R.J., Florio, E.L., Murray, F., Jobbágy, E.G., 2017. Soil physical changes after conversion of woodlands to pastures in dry Chaco Rangelands (Argentina). Rangeland Ecology & Management 70(2): 225-229.

Ogunkunle, A.O., Eghaghara, O.O., 2007. Influence of land use on soil properties in a forest region of Southern Nigeria. Soil Use and Management 8(3): 121–124.

Puget, P., Lal, R., 2005. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen in a Mollisol in central Ohio as affected by tillage and land use. Soil and Tillage Research 80(1-2): 201-213.

Qi, Y., Chen, T., Pu, J., Yang, F., Shukla, M.K., Chang, Q., 2018. Response of soil physical, chemical and microbial biomass properties to land use changes in fixed desertified land. Catena 160: 339–344.

Rasiah, V., Florentine, S.K., Williams, B.L., Westbrooke, M.E., 2004. The impact of deforestation and pasture abandonment on soil properties in the wet tropics of Australia. Geoderma 120(1-2): 35-45.

Sahani, U., Behera, N., 2001. Impact of deforestation on soil physicochemical characteristics, microbial biomass and microbial activity of tropical soil. Land Degradation & Development 12(2): 93-105.

Saikh, H., Varadachari, C., Ghosh, K., 1998. Effects of deforestation and cultivation on soil CEC and contents of exchangeable bases: A case study in Simlipal National Park, India. Plant and Soil 204(2): 175-181.

Sharma, K.L., Ramachandra Raju, K., Das , S.K., Prasad Rao, B.R.C., Kulkarni, B.S., Srinivas, K., Kusuma Grace, J., Madhavi, M., Gajbhiye, P.N., 2009. Soil fertility and quality assessment under tree‐, crop‐, and pasture‐based land‐use systems in a rainfed environment. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 40(9-10): 1436-1461.

Six, J., Elliott, E.T., Paustian, K., 1999. Aggregate and soil organic matter dynamics under conventional and no‐tillage systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63(5): 1350-1358.

Sun, W., Zhu, H., Guo, S., 2015. Soil organic carbon as a function of land use and topography on the Loess Plateau of China. Ecological Engineering 83: 249–257.

Vera, M., Sierra, M., Díez, M., Sierra, C., Martínez, A., Martínez, F.J., Aguilar, J., 2007. Deforestation and land use effects on micromorphological and fertility changes in acidic rainforest soils in Venezuelan Andes. Soil and Tillage Research 97(2): 184-194.

Wang, J., Fu, B., Qiu, Y., Chen, L., 2001. Soil nutrients in relation to land use and landscape position in the semi-arid small catchment on the loess plateau in China. Journal of Arid Environments 48(4): 537-550.

Zhang, K., Li, S., Peng, W., Yu, B., 2004. Erodibility of Agricultural soils on the Loess Plateau of China. Soil and Tillage Research 76(2): 157–165.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science