Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 10, Issue 4, Sep 2021, Pages 269 - 277
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.935397
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.935397
Copyright © 2021 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Reduced plant uptake of PAHs from soil amended with sunflower husk biochar

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Sushkova,S., Minkina,T., Dudnikova,T., Barbashev,A., Popov,Y., Rajput,V., Bauer,T., Nazarenko,O., Kızılkaya,R., 2021. Reduced plant uptake of PAHs from soil amended with sunflower husk biochar. Eurasian J Soil Sci 10(4):269 - 277. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.935397
Sushkova,S.,Minkina,T.Dudnikova,T.Barbashev,A.Popov,Y.Rajput,V.Bauer,T.Nazarenko,O.,& Kızılkaya,R. Reduced plant uptake of PAHs from soil amended with sunflower husk biochar Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 10(4):269 - 277. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.935397
Sushkova,S.,Minkina,T.Dudnikova,T.Barbashev,A.Popov,Y.Rajput,V.Bauer,T.Nazarenko,O., and ,Kızılkaya,R."Reduced plant uptake of PAHs from soil amended with sunflower husk biochar" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 10.4 (2021):269 - 277. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.935397
Sushkova,S.,Minkina,T.Dudnikova,T.Barbashev,A.Popov,Y.Rajput,V.Bauer,T.Nazarenko,O., and ,Kızılkaya,R. "Reduced plant uptake of PAHs from soil amended with sunflower husk biochar" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,10(Sep 2021):269 - 277 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.935397
S,Sushkova.T,Minkina.T,Dudnikova.A,Barbashev.Y,Popov.V,Rajput.T,Bauer.O,Nazarenko.R,Kızılkaya "Reduced plant uptake of PAHs from soil amended with sunflower husk biochar" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.10, no.4, pp.269 - 277 (Sep 2021), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.935397
Sushkova,Svetlana ;Minkina,Tatiana ;Dudnikova,Tamara ;Barbashev,Andrey ;Popov,Yurii ;Rajput,Vishnu ;Bauer,Tatiana ;Nazarenko,Olga ;Kızılkaya,Rıdvan Reduced plant uptake of PAHs from soil amended with sunflower husk biochar. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2021),10.4:269 - 277. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.935397

How to cite

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Dudnikova, T., Barbashev, A., Popov, Y., Rajput, V., Bauer, T., Nazarenko, O., Kızılkaya, R., 2021. Reduced plant uptake of PAHs from soil amended with sunflower husk biochar. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 10(4): 269 - 277. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.935397

Author information

Svetlana Sushkova , Southern Federal University, Academy of Biology and Biotechnology D.I. Ivanovsky, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Tatiana Minkina , Southern Federal University, Academy of Biology and Biotechnology D.I. Ivanovsky, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Tamara Dudnikova , Southern Federal University, Academy of Biology and Biotechnology D.I. Ivanovsky, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Andrey Barbashev , Southern Federal University, Academy of Biology and Biotechnology D.I. Ivanovsky, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Yurii Popov , Southern Federal University, Academy of Biology and Biotechnology D.I. Ivanovsky, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Vishnu Rajput , Southern Federal University, Academy of Biology and Biotechnology D.I. Ivanovsky, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Tatiana Bauer , Southern Federal University, Academy of Biology and Biotechnology D.I. Ivanovsky, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Olga Nazarenko , Federal State Budgetary Institution State Center of the Agrochemical Service Rostov, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Rıdvan Kızılkaya , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Samsun, Turkey & Agrobigen Research & Development Trade Ltd.Co, Samsun Technopark, Samsun, Turkey

Publication information

Article first published online : 09 May 2021
Manuscript Accepted : 06 May 2021
Manuscript Received: 19 Nov 2020
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.935397
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.935397

Abstract

Biochar effect on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) uptake by spring barley (Hordeum Sativum) was studied in model experiment conditions with Haplic Chernozem spiked by the high doses of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (400, 800 and 1200 µg kg-1), as the main marker of PAHs contamination. The relevance of the study is due to the BaP stability in natural environments and its carcinogenicity in relation to all living organisms. The express method of subcritical water extraction was used for BaP extraction from samples. The soil contamination by BaP contributed to the PAHs accumulation in soil and plants uptake from the polluted soil. It was found the 1% biochar application dose in the variant with 400 µg kg-1 contamination decreased the alone BaP and total PAHs content in soil and spring barley up to 50% compared to the contaminated variant. In soil contaminated with 800 µg kg-1 the 5% of biochar application led to the BaP content decreasing in the soil up to 56% and in the plants to 40-60%. Application of 5% biochar in the soil polluted with 1200 µg kg-1 led to the BaP and total PAHs content decreasing in soil up to 47% and 30%, respectively, plants the BaP content decreased up to 37-48%. Biochar 5% amendment effectiveness has been shown on the plants grown on the highly toxic variant contaminated with 1200 µg kg-1 BaP. The earing phase was inhibited in the spring barley plants growth at the most contaminated soil of the model experiment, whereas biochar application into the soil promoted the successful formation of the corn. The used biochar showed a high sorption capacity and its effectiveness under the soil remediation contaminated with BaP.

Keywords

Carbon sorbent, vegetation experiment, remediation of soil, plant uptake, PAHs.

Corresponding author

References

Abdel-Shafy, H.I., Mansour, M.S.M., 2016. A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum 25 (1): 107-123.

Bonaglia, S., Broman, E., Brindefalk, B., Hedlund, E., Hjorth, T., Rolff, C., Nascimento, F.J.A., Udekwu, K., Gunnarsson, J.S., 2020. Activated carbon stimulates microbial diversity and PAH biodegradation under anaerobic conditions in oil-polluted sediments. Chemosphere 248: 126023.

Carvalho, M.M., Vila, M.C., Delerue-Matos, C.C., Oliva-Teles, M.T., Fiúza, A.T., 2015. Assisted bioremediation tests on three natural soils contaminated with benzene. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 4 (3): 153-160.

Chen, B., Chen, Z., 2009. Sorption of naphthalene and 1-naphthol by biochars of orange peels with different pyrolytic temperatures. Chemosphere 76 (1): 127-133.

Chen, J., Xia, X., Wang, H., Zhai, Y., Xi, N., Lin, H., Wen, W., 2019. Uptake pathway and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in spinach affected by warming in enclosed soil/water-air-plant microcosms. Journal of Hazardous Materials 379: 120831.

Eeshwarasinghe, D., Loganathan, P., Kalaruban, M., Sounthararajah, D. P., Kandasamy, J., Vigneswaran, S., 2018. Removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water using granular activated carbon: kinetic and equilibrium adsorption studies. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25 (14): 13511-13524.

GN 2.1.7.2041-06. 2.1.7., 2006. Maximum allowable concentration (MPC) of chemicals in the soil: Hygienic standards, Moscow, Russia. 15p.

GOST RISO 22030-2009, 2009. National standard of Russian Federation. Soil quality. Biological methods. Chronic phytotoxicity for higher plants, Moscow, Russia. 20p.

Hale, S., Hanley, K., Lehmann, J., Zimmerman, A., Cornelissen, G., 2011. Effects of chemical, biological, and physical aging as well as soil addition on the sorption of pyrene to activated carbon and biochar. Environmental Science & Technology 45 (24): 10445-10453.

Huggins, T.M., Haeger, A., Biffinger, J.C., Ren, Z.J., 2016. Granular biochar compared with activated carbon for wastewater treatment and resource recovery. Water Research 94: 225-232.

IARC, 2020. List of classifications, volumes 1-123. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Oorganization. Available at [Access date: 25.07.2020]: https://monographs.iarc.who.int/list-of-classifications/

Iljina, L., Rajput, V., Mazarji, M., Chernikova, N., Gülser, C., Kızılkaya, R., Nevidomskaya, D., Barahov, A., Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Mandzhieva, S., Chaplygin, V., 2020. Accumulating capacity of herbaceous plants of the Asteraceae and Poaceae families under technogenic soil pollution with zinc and cadmium. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 9 (2): 165-172.

ISO 13877–2005, 2005. Soil Quality – Determination of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons – Method Using High-performance Liquid Chromatography. 20p.

Kang, F., Chen, D., Gao, Y., Zhang, Y., 2010. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in subcellular root tissues of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorumLam.). BMC Plant Biology 10 (1): 210.

Kołtowski, M., Hilber, I., Bucheli, T.D., Charmas, B., Skubiszewska-Zięba, J., Oleszczuk, P., 2017. Activated biochars reduce the exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrially contaminated soils. Chemical Engineering Journal 310: 33-40.

Kuppusamy, S., Thavamani, P., Venkateswarlu, K., Lee, Y. B., Naidu, R., Megharaj, M., 2017 Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions. Chemosphere 168: 944-968.

Li, H., Ma, Y., 2016. Field study on the uptake, accumulation, translocation and risk assessment of PAHs in a soil-wheat system with amendments of sewage sludge. Science of the Total Environment 560-561: 55-61.

Li, R., Zhu, Y., Zhang, Y., 2015. In situ investigation of the mechanisms of the transport to tissues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed onto the root surface of Kandelia obovata seedlings. Environmental Pollution 201: 100-106.

Li, F., Chen, J., Hu, X., He, F., Bean, E., Tsang, D.C., Ok, Y.S., Gao, B., 2020. Applications of carbonaceous adsorbents in the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production 255: 120263.

Lima, E.C., 2018. Removal of emerging contaminants from the environment by adsorption. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 150: 1-17.

Liu, W., Wang, Y., Chen, Y., Tao, S., Liu, W., 2017. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air, surface soil and wheat grain near a large steel-smelting manufacturer in northern China. Journal of Environmental Sciences 57: 93-103.

Manzetti, S., 2013. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment: environmental fate and transformation. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds 33 (4): 311-330.

MUK 4.1.1274-03. 4.1., 2003. Control methods. Chemical factors. Measurement of the mass fraction of benzo (a) pyrene in samples of soils, grounds, bottom sediments and solid waste by HPLC using a fluorometric detector. Methodological guidelines (approved by the Ministry of Health of Russia on 01.04.2003) // Measurement of the mass concentration of chemicals by luminescent methods in environmental objects: Collection of guidelines, Moscow, Russia. 244-267p. [in Russian].

Ni, N., Song, Y., Shi, R., Liu, Z., Bian, Y., Wang, F., Yang, X., Gu, C., Jiang, X., 2017. Biochar reduces the bioaccumulation of PAHs from soil to carrot (Daucus carota L.) in the rhizosphere: A mechanism study. Science of the Total Environment 601: 1015-1023.

Pretorius, T.R., Charest, C., Kimpe, L.E., Blais, J.M., 2018. The accumulation of metals, PAHs and alkyl PAHs in the roots of Echinacea purpurea. PloS One 13 (12): 1-18.

Qin, G., Gong, D., Fan, M.Y., 2013. Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil by biostimulation amended with biochar. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 85: 150-155.

Procedure of measurements benzo(a)pyrene content in soils, sediments and sludges by highly effective liquid chromatography method, 2008. Certificate 27-08: Moscow. 27p. [in Russian].

Roszko, M.Ł., Juszczyk, K., Szczepańska, M., Świder, O., Szymczyk, K., 2020. Background levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and legacy organochlorine pesticides in wheat sampled in 2017 and 2018 in Poland. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 192 (2): 142.

Sushkova, S.N., Minkina, T.M., Mandzhieva, S.S., Vasilyeva, G.K., Borisenko, N.I., Turina, I.G., Bolotova, O.V., Varduni T.V., Kızılkaya, R., 2016. New alternative method of benzo[a]pyrene extractionfrom soils and its approbation in soil under technogenic pressure. Journal of Soils and Sediments 16 (4): 1323-1329.

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Deryabkina, I., Antonenko, E., Mandzhieva, S., Zamulina, I., Bauer, T., Gromakova, N., Vasilyeva, G., 2017. Phytoaccumulation of Benzo[a]pyrene by the barley in artificially contaminated soil. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds 39(5): 395-403.

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Tarigholizadeh, S., Antonenko, E., Konstantinova, E., Gülser, C., Dudnikova, T., Barbashev, A., Kızılkaya, R., 2020. PAHs accumulation in soil-plant system of Phragmites australis Cav. in soil under long-term chemical contamination. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 9 (3): 242-253.

Tian, K., Bao, H., Zhang, X., Shi, T., Liu, X., Wu, F., 2018. Residuals, bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of PAHs in winter wheat grains from areas influenced by coal combustion in China. Science of The Total Environment 618: 777-784.

Tobiszewski, M., Namieśnik, J., 2012. PAH diagnostic ratios for the identification of pollution emission sources. Environmental Pollution 162: 110-119.

Tsibart, A.S., Gennadiev, A.N., 2013. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils: sources, behavior, and indication significance (a review). Eurasian Soil Science 46 (7): 728-741.

Vardhan, K.H., Kumar, P.S., Panda, R.C., 2019. A review on heavy metal pollution, toxicity and remedial measures: Current trends and future perspectives. Journal of Molecular Liquids 290: 111197.

Vasilyeva, G., Kondrashina, V., Strijakova, E., Ortega-Calvo, J.J., 2020. Adsorptive bioremediation of soil highly contaminated with crude oil. Science of the Total Environment 706: 135739.

Yakovleva, E.V., Gabov, D.N., Beznosikov, V.A., Kondratenok, B.M., Dubrovskiy, Y.A., 2017. Accumulation of PAHs in tundra plants and soils under the ınfluence of coal mining. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds 37 (2-3): 203-218.

Abstract

Biochar effect on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) uptake by spring barley (Hordeum Sativum) was studied in model experiment conditions with Haplic Chernozem spiked by the high doses of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (400, 800 and 1200 µg kg-1), as the main marker of PAHs contamination. The relevance of the study is due to the BaP stability in natural environments and its carcinogenicity in relation to all living organisms. The express method of subcritical water extraction was used for BaP extraction from samples. The soil contamination by BaP contributed to the PAHs accumulation in soil and plants uptake from the polluted soil. It was found the 1% biochar application dose in the variant with 400 µg kg-1 contamination decreased the alone BaP and total PAHs content in soil and spring barley up to 50% compared to the contaminated variant. In soil contaminated with 800 µg kg-1 the 5% of biochar application led to the BaP content decreasing in the soil up to 56% and in the plants to 40-60%. Application of 5% biochar in the soil polluted with 1200 µg kg-1 led to the BaP and total PAHs content decreasing in soil up to 47% and 30%, respectively, plants the BaP content decreased up to 37-48%. Biochar 5% amendment effectiveness has been shown on the plants grown on the highly toxic variant contaminated with 1200 µg kg-1 BaP. The earing phase was inhibited in the spring barley plants growth at the most contaminated soil of the model experiment, whereas biochar application into the soil promoted the successful formation of the corn. The used biochar showed a high sorption capacity and its effectiveness under the soil remediation contaminated with BaP.

Keywords: Carbon sorbent, vegetation experiment, remediation of soil, plant uptake, PAHs.

References

Abdel-Shafy, H.I., Mansour, M.S.M., 2016. A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum 25 (1): 107-123.

Bonaglia, S., Broman, E., Brindefalk, B., Hedlund, E., Hjorth, T., Rolff, C., Nascimento, F.J.A., Udekwu, K., Gunnarsson, J.S., 2020. Activated carbon stimulates microbial diversity and PAH biodegradation under anaerobic conditions in oil-polluted sediments. Chemosphere 248: 126023.

Carvalho, M.M., Vila, M.C., Delerue-Matos, C.C., Oliva-Teles, M.T., Fiúza, A.T., 2015. Assisted bioremediation tests on three natural soils contaminated with benzene. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 4 (3): 153-160.

Chen, B., Chen, Z., 2009. Sorption of naphthalene and 1-naphthol by biochars of orange peels with different pyrolytic temperatures. Chemosphere 76 (1): 127-133.

Chen, J., Xia, X., Wang, H., Zhai, Y., Xi, N., Lin, H., Wen, W., 2019. Uptake pathway and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in spinach affected by warming in enclosed soil/water-air-plant microcosms. Journal of Hazardous Materials 379: 120831.

Eeshwarasinghe, D., Loganathan, P., Kalaruban, M., Sounthararajah, D. P., Kandasamy, J., Vigneswaran, S., 2018. Removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water using granular activated carbon: kinetic and equilibrium adsorption studies. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25 (14): 13511-13524.

GN 2.1.7.2041-06. 2.1.7., 2006. Maximum allowable concentration (MPC) of chemicals in the soil: Hygienic standards, Moscow, Russia. 15p.

GOST RISO 22030-2009, 2009. National standard of Russian Federation. Soil quality. Biological methods. Chronic phytotoxicity for higher plants, Moscow, Russia. 20p.

Hale, S., Hanley, K., Lehmann, J., Zimmerman, A., Cornelissen, G., 2011. Effects of chemical, biological, and physical aging as well as soil addition on the sorption of pyrene to activated carbon and biochar. Environmental Science & Technology 45 (24): 10445-10453.

Huggins, T.M., Haeger, A., Biffinger, J.C., Ren, Z.J., 2016. Granular biochar compared with activated carbon for wastewater treatment and resource recovery. Water Research 94: 225-232.

IARC, 2020. List of classifications, volumes 1-123. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Oorganization. Available at [Access date: 25.07.2020]: https://monographs.iarc.who.int/list-of-classifications/

Iljina, L., Rajput, V., Mazarji, M., Chernikova, N., Gülser, C., Kızılkaya, R., Nevidomskaya, D., Barahov, A., Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Mandzhieva, S., Chaplygin, V., 2020. Accumulating capacity of herbaceous plants of the Asteraceae and Poaceae families under technogenic soil pollution with zinc and cadmium. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 9 (2): 165-172.

ISO 13877–2005, 2005. Soil Quality – Determination of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons – Method Using High-performance Liquid Chromatography. 20p.

Kang, F., Chen, D., Gao, Y., Zhang, Y., 2010. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in subcellular root tissues of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorumLam.). BMC Plant Biology 10 (1): 210.

Kołtowski, M., Hilber, I., Bucheli, T.D., Charmas, B., Skubiszewska-Zięba, J., Oleszczuk, P., 2017. Activated biochars reduce the exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrially contaminated soils. Chemical Engineering Journal 310: 33-40.

Kuppusamy, S., Thavamani, P., Venkateswarlu, K., Lee, Y. B., Naidu, R., Megharaj, M., 2017 Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions. Chemosphere 168: 944-968.

Li, H., Ma, Y., 2016. Field study on the uptake, accumulation, translocation and risk assessment of PAHs in a soil-wheat system with amendments of sewage sludge. Science of the Total Environment 560-561: 55-61.

Li, R., Zhu, Y., Zhang, Y., 2015. In situ investigation of the mechanisms of the transport to tissues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed onto the root surface of Kandelia obovata seedlings. Environmental Pollution 201: 100-106.

Li, F., Chen, J., Hu, X., He, F., Bean, E., Tsang, D.C., Ok, Y.S., Gao, B., 2020. Applications of carbonaceous adsorbents in the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production 255: 120263.

Lima, E.C., 2018. Removal of emerging contaminants from the environment by adsorption. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 150: 1-17.

Liu, W., Wang, Y., Chen, Y., Tao, S., Liu, W., 2017. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air, surface soil and wheat grain near a large steel-smelting manufacturer in northern China. Journal of Environmental Sciences 57: 93-103.

Manzetti, S., 2013. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment: environmental fate and transformation. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds 33 (4): 311-330.

MUK 4.1.1274-03. 4.1., 2003. Control methods. Chemical factors. Measurement of the mass fraction of benzo (a) pyrene in samples of soils, grounds, bottom sediments and solid waste by HPLC using a fluorometric detector. Methodological guidelines (approved by the Ministry of Health of Russia on 01.04.2003) // Measurement of the mass concentration of chemicals by luminescent methods in environmental objects: Collection of guidelines, Moscow, Russia. 244-267p. [in Russian].

Ni, N., Song, Y., Shi, R., Liu, Z., Bian, Y., Wang, F., Yang, X., Gu, C., Jiang, X., 2017. Biochar reduces the bioaccumulation of PAHs from soil to carrot (Daucus carota L.) in the rhizosphere: A mechanism study. Science of the Total Environment 601: 1015-1023.

Pretorius, T.R., Charest, C., Kimpe, L.E., Blais, J.M., 2018. The accumulation of metals, PAHs and alkyl PAHs in the roots of Echinacea purpurea. PloS One 13 (12): 1-18.

Qin, G., Gong, D., Fan, M.Y., 2013. Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil by biostimulation amended with biochar. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 85: 150-155.

Procedure of measurements benzo(a)pyrene content in soils, sediments and sludges by highly effective liquid chromatography method, 2008. Certificate 27-08: Moscow. 27p. [in Russian].

Roszko, M.Ł., Juszczyk, K., Szczepańska, M., Świder, O., Szymczyk, K., 2020. Background levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and legacy organochlorine pesticides in wheat sampled in 2017 and 2018 in Poland. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 192 (2): 142.

Sushkova, S.N., Minkina, T.M., Mandzhieva, S.S., Vasilyeva, G.K., Borisenko, N.I., Turina, I.G., Bolotova, O.V., Varduni T.V., Kızılkaya, R., 2016. New alternative method of benzo[a]pyrene extractionfrom soils and its approbation in soil under technogenic pressure. Journal of Soils and Sediments 16 (4): 1323-1329.

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Deryabkina, I., Antonenko, E., Mandzhieva, S., Zamulina, I., Bauer, T., Gromakova, N., Vasilyeva, G., 2017. Phytoaccumulation of Benzo[a]pyrene by the barley in artificially contaminated soil. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds 39(5): 395-403.

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Tarigholizadeh, S., Antonenko, E., Konstantinova, E., Gülser, C., Dudnikova, T., Barbashev, A., Kızılkaya, R., 2020. PAHs accumulation in soil-plant system of Phragmites australis Cav. in soil under long-term chemical contamination. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 9 (3): 242-253.

Tian, K., Bao, H., Zhang, X., Shi, T., Liu, X., Wu, F., 2018. Residuals, bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of PAHs in winter wheat grains from areas influenced by coal combustion in China. Science of The Total Environment 618: 777-784.

Tobiszewski, M., Namieśnik, J., 2012. PAH diagnostic ratios for the identification of pollution emission sources. Environmental Pollution 162: 110-119.

Tsibart, A.S., Gennadiev, A.N., 2013. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils: sources, behavior, and indication significance (a review). Eurasian Soil Science 46 (7): 728-741.

Vardhan, K.H., Kumar, P.S., Panda, R.C., 2019. A review on heavy metal pollution, toxicity and remedial measures: Current trends and future perspectives. Journal of Molecular Liquids 290: 111197.

Vasilyeva, G., Kondrashina, V., Strijakova, E., Ortega-Calvo, J.J., 2020. Adsorptive bioremediation of soil highly contaminated with crude oil. Science of the Total Environment 706: 135739.

Yakovleva, E.V., Gabov, D.N., Beznosikov, V.A., Kondratenok, B.M., Dubrovskiy, Y.A., 2017. Accumulation of PAHs in tundra plants and soils under the ınfluence of coal mining. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds 37 (2-3): 203-218.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science