Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 10, Issue 2, Apr 2021, Pages 161 - 170
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.859136
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.859136
Copyright © 2021 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Performance of vermicompost in zinc and boron nutrition for quality production of cabbage

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Sarker,M., Kashem,M., 2021. Performance of vermicompost in zinc and boron nutrition for quality production of cabbage. Eurasian J Soil Sci 10(2):161 - 170. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.859136
Sarker,M.,,& Kashem,M. Performance of vermicompost in zinc and boron nutrition for quality production of cabbage Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 10(2):161 - 170. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.859136
Sarker,M.,, and ,Kashem,M."Performance of vermicompost in zinc and boron nutrition for quality production of cabbage" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 10.2 (2021):161 - 170. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.859136
Sarker,M.,, and ,Kashem,M. "Performance of vermicompost in zinc and boron nutrition for quality production of cabbage" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,10(Apr 2021):161 - 170 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.859136
M,Sarker.M,Kashem "Performance of vermicompost in zinc and boron nutrition for quality production of cabbage" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.10, no.2, pp.161 - 170 (Apr 2021), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.859136
Sarker,Md. Mosharaf Hossain ;Kashem,Md. Abul Performance of vermicompost in zinc and boron nutrition for quality production of cabbage. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2021),10.2:161 - 170. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.859136

How to cite

Sarker, M., Kashem, M., 2021. Performance of vermicompost in zinc and boron nutrition for quality production of cabbage. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 10(2): 161 - 170. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.859136

Author information

Md. Mosharaf Hossain Sarker , Department of Soil Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet-3100, Bangladesh Sylhet, Bangladesh
Md. Abul Kashem , Department of Soil Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet-3100, Bangladesh

Publication information

Article first published online : 12 Jan 2021
Manuscript Accepted : 05 Jan 2021
Manuscript Received: 24 Feb 2020
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.859136
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.859136

Abstract

The quality and efficacy of vermicompost are greatly influenced by the respective feeding materials as well as earthworm species used in vermicomposting. Consequently, the variable role of applied vermicompost is reflected in crop production. With a view to observe the efficacy of vermicompost produced from various sources in supplementing zinc and boron requirement for quality production of cabbage, a field study was conducted in Floodplain soil of Bangladesh. Six treatment combinations comprising of vermicompost from different sources, and different levels of zinc and boron from mineral fertilizers were tested in the study. The vermicompost used in different treatments were produced from different combinations of feeding materials (cowdung and poultry litter) and earthworm species (Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugeniae). A control treatment having no supplement of Zn and B was tested in the study. Higher measurements were recorded for most of the parameters studied, i.e., head diameter, marketable yield and total yield in the vermicompost treated plots than the solely mineral fertilizer treated plot. Except for P, the highest uptake of each of the elements by cabbage was observed due to the application of T3 treatment (VC-ECD @2.0 t ha-1 + 1.5 kg Zn ha-1 + 1.0 kg B ha-1). The findings of this research work indicate the additional benefit of using vermicompost over the mineral fertilizer in supplying zinc and boron for better production of cabbage.

Keywords

Vermicompost, performance, zinc, boron, quality, cabbage

Corresponding author

References

Abdelmonem, M.E.M., Kuttyammoo, M., Hassanein, K., Zayed, A.E.Z., 2016. Vermicomposting: analysis of soil nutrients enrichment with indigenous species from Jazan province of Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences 3(10):131-137.

BARC, 2012. Fertilizer Recommendation Guide, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council. Farmgate, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 274p.

BBS, 2017. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Yearbook of Agricultural Statistics. Statistics and Informatics Division, Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Available at: [access date: 24.02.2020]: http://www.bbs.gov.bd/

Bray, R.H., Kurtz, L.T., 1945. Determination of total, organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science 59(1): 39-45.

Bremner, J.M., Mulvaney, C.S., 1982. Nitrogen total. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2 Chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd edition. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 595-624.

Bukviċ, G., Antunoviċ, M., Popoviċ, S., Rastija, M., 2003. Effect of P and Zn fertilisation on biomass yield and its uptake by maize lines (Zea mays L.). Plant, Soil and Environment 49(11): 505-510.

Cakmak, I., Torun, B., Eronoglu, B., Ozturk, L., Marschner, H., Kalayci, M., Ekiz, H., Yilmaz, A., 1998. Morphological and physiological differences in the response of cereals to zinc deficiency. Euphytica 100: 349-357.

Chapman, H.D., Pratt, P.F., 1961. Methods of Analysis for Soil, Plant and Water. Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of California, USA.

Edwards, C.A., 1988. Breakdown of animal, vegetable and industrial organic wastes by earthworms. In: Earthworms in Waste and Environmental Management. Edwards C.A., Neuhauser, E.F. (Eds.). SPB, The Hague, Netherlands, pp. 21-31.

FAO and UNDP. 1988. Land resources appraisal of Bangladesh for agricultural development. Report 2. Agroecological Regions of Bangladesh. United Nations Development Programme and Food and Agriculture Organization. pp. 212-221.

Fox, R.L., Olson, R.A., Rhoades, H.F., 1964. Evaluating the sulfur status of soils by plants and soil tests. Soil Science Society of America Journal 28(2): 243-246.

Gee, G.W., Bauder, J.W., 1986. Particle-size Analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.), 2nd Edition. Agronomy Monograph No. 9, American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 383-411.

Gomez, K.A., Gomez, A.A., 1984. Statistical procedures for agricultural research. John Wiley & Sons. New York. USA.

Hu, D., Bell, R.W., Xie, Z., 1996. Zinc and phosphor responses in transplanted oilseed rape. Soil Science and Plant Nutrient 42(2): 333-344.

Islam, M.S., 2008. Soil fertility history, present status and future scenario in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Agriculture and Environment 4: 129-151.

Jadhav, A.D., Talashilkar, S.C., Pawar, A.G., 1997. Influence of the conjunctive use of FYM, vermicompost and urea on growth and nutrient uptake in rice. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities 22: 249-250.

Jones, L.H.P., Cowling, D.W., Lockyer, D.R., 1972. Plant-available and extractable sulphur in some soils of England and Wales. Soil Science 114(2): 104-114.

Kale, R.D., Mallesh, B.C., Bano, K., Bagyaray, D.J., 1992. Influence of vermicompost application on the available macronutrients and selected microbial populations in a paddy field. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24(12): 1317-1320.

Keren, R., 1996. Boron. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3 - Chemical Methods. Sparks, D.L., Page, A.L., Helmke, P.A., Loeppert, R.H., Soltanpour, P.N., Tabatabai, M.A., Johnston, C.T., Sumner, M.E. (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 603-626.

Keren, R., Bingharn, F.T., 1985. Boron in water, soil, and plants. In: Advances in Soil Science. Steward, B.A. (Ed.). Volume 1, Springer-Verlag, New York, USA. pp.229-276.

Khattak, S.G., Rohullah, A., Malik, A., Perveen, Q., Ibrar, M., 2006. Assessing maize yield and quality as affected by Zn as soil or foliar applications. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 22: 465-472.

Knudsen, D., Peterson, G.A., Pratt, P.F., 1982. Lithium, Sodium, and Potassium. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2 Chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd edition. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 225-246.

Lindsay, W.L., Norvell, W.A., 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, ıron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal 42(3): 421-428.

Lourduraj, A.C., Yadav, B.K., 2005. Effect of vermicompost application on soil and plant growth. In Verms and Vermitechnology. Kumar, A., (Ed.). A.P.H. Publishing Corp. New Delhi, pp. 81-96.

Makulec, G., 2002. The role of Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm. In determining biotic and abiotic properties of peat soils. Polish Journal of Ecology 50(3): 301-339.

Mandal, B., Ghosh, S., Chattopadhyay, A.P., 2004. Distribution of extractable boron content in acidic soils of West Bengal in relation to soil properties. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 74(12): 658-662.

Maqsood, M.A., Rahmatullah, Ranjha, A.M., Hussain, M., 2009. Differential growth response and zinc utilization efficiency of wheat genotype in cultivars buffered nutrient solution. Soil and Environment 28(2): 174-178.

Maret, W., Sandstead, H.H., 2006. Zinc requirements and the risks and benefits of zinc supplementation. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 20(1): 3-18.

McLean, E.O., 1982. Soil pH and Lime Requirement. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2 Chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd edition. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R., (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, WI, USA. pp. 199-224.

Mousavi, S.R., 2011. Zinc in crop production and interaction with phosphorus. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 5(9): 1503-1509.

Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E., 1996. Total Carbon, Organic Carbon, and Organic Matter. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3, Chemical Methods. Sparks, D.L., Page, A.L., Helmke, P.A., Loeppert, R.H., Soltanpour, P.N., Tabatabai, M.A., Johnston, C.T., Sumner, M.E. (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 961-1010.

Olsen, S.R., Sommers, L.E., 1982. Phosphorus. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2 Chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd edition. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R., (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, WI, USA. pp. 403-430.

Piper, C.S., 1950. Soil and Plant Analysis. Adelaide University Hassel press. Australia.

Prabakaran, J., 2005. Biomass resources in vermicomposting. In Proceedings of the State Level Symposium on Vermicomposting Techonolgy for Rural Development. Jayakumar, E., (Ed.). Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India, pp. 27-40.

Rajendran, M., Thivyatharsan, R., 2014. Performance of different species of earthworms on vermicomposting. International Journal of Research in Agriculture and Food Sciences 2(3):1-6.

Reisenauer, H.M., Walsh, L.M., Hoeft, R.G., 1973. Testing soils for sulphur, boron, molybdenum and chlorine. In Soil testing and plant analysis. Walsh, L.M., Beaton, J.D., (Eds.) SSSA, Madison, WI, pp. 73–200.

Rijpma, J., Jahiruddin, M., 2004. Strategy and plan for use of soil nutrient balance in Bangladesh.  Final report of short-term assignment, SFFP/DANIDA.

Shi-wei, Z., Fu-zhen, H., 1991. The nitrogen uptake efficiency from 15N labeled chemical fertilizer in the presence of earthworm manure (cast). In: Advances in Management and Conservation of Soil Fauna. Veeresh, G.K., Rajagopal, D., Viraktamath, C.A., (Eds.). Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi, India. pp. 539-542.

Shorrocks, V.M., 1997. The occurrence and correction of boron deficiency. Plant and Soil 193:121-148.

Singh, A., Singh, R.V., Saxena, A.K., Shivay, Y.S., Nain, L., 2014. Comparative studies on composting efficiency of Eisenia fetida (Savigny) and Perionyx excavates (Perrier). Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences 2(5):508-517.

Sinha, R.K., Heart, S., Bharambe, G., Patil, S., Bapat, P.D., Chauhan, K., Valani, D., 2009. Vermiculture Biotechnology: The emerging cost-effective and sustainable technology of the 21st century for multiple uses from waste and land management to safe and sustained food production. Environmental Research Journal 3(1):41-110.

Sreenivas, C., Muralidhar, S., Rao, M.S., 2000. Vermicompost, a viable component of IPNSS in nitrogen nutrition of ridge gourd. Annals of Agricultural Research 21(1): 108–113.

Suthar, S., 2007. Nutrient changes and biodynamics of epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) during recycling of some agriculture wastes. Bioresource Technology 98(8): 1608-1614.

Tabatabai, M.A., 1996. Sulphur. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3 - Chemical Methods. Sparks, D.L., Page, A.L., Helmke, P.A., Loeppert, R.H., Soltanpour, P.N., Tabatabai, M.A., Johnston, C.T., Sumner, M.E. (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 921-960.

Theunissen, J., Ndakidemi, P.A., Laubscher, C.P., 2010. Potential of vermicompost produced from plant waste on the growth and nutrient status in vegetable production. International Journal of the Physical Sciences 5(13): 1964-1973.

Webb, M.J., Loneagan, J.F., 1988. Effect of zinc deficiency on growth, phosphorus concentration and phosphorus toxicity of wheat plants. Soil Science Society of America Journal 52(6): 1676-1680.

Yadav, A., Garg, V.K., 2011. Recycling of organic wastes by employing Eisenia fetida. Bioresource Technology 102(3): 2874-2880.

Yilmaz, A., Ekiz, H., Torun, B., Gultekin, I., Karanalik, S., Bagsi, S.A., Cakmak, I., 1997. Effect of different zinc application methods on grain yield and zinc concentration in wheat cultivars grown on zinc‐deficient calcareous soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition 20(4-5) :461-471.

Yoshida, S., Forno, A.D., Cock, J.A., Gomez, K.A., 1976. Physiological Studies of Rice. 2nd Ed. International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines.

Abstract

The quality and efficacy of vermicompost are greatly influenced by the respective feeding materials as well as earthworm species used in vermicomposting. Consequently, the variable role of applied vermicompost is reflected in crop production. With a view to observe the efficacy of vermicompost produced from various sources in supplementing zinc and boron requirement for quality production of cabbage, a field study was conducted in Floodplain soil of Bangladesh. Six treatment combinations comprising of vermicompost from different sources, and different levels of zinc and boron from mineral fertilizers were tested in the study. The vermicompost used in different treatments were produced from different combinations of feeding materials (cowdung and poultry litter) and earthworm species (Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugeniae). A control treatment having no supplement of Zn and B was tested in the study. Higher measurements were recorded for most of the parameters studied, i.e., head diameter, marketable yield and total yield in the vermicompost treated plots than the solely mineral fertilizer treated plot. Except for P, the highest uptake of each of the elements by cabbage was observed due to the application of T3 treatment (VC-ECD @2.0 t ha-1 + 1.5 kg Zn ha-1 + 1.0 kg B ha-1). The findings of this research work indicate the additional benefit of using vermicompost over the mineral fertilizer in supplying zinc and boron for better production of cabbage.

Keywords: Vermicompost, performance, zinc, boron, quality, cabbage.

References

Abdelmonem, M.E.M., Kuttyammoo, M., Hassanein, K., Zayed, A.E.Z., 2016. Vermicomposting: analysis of soil nutrients enrichment with indigenous species from Jazan province of Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences 3(10):131-137.

BARC, 2012. Fertilizer Recommendation Guide, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council. Farmgate, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 274p.

BBS, 2017. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Yearbook of Agricultural Statistics. Statistics and Informatics Division, Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Available at: [access date: 24.02.2020]: http://www.bbs.gov.bd/

Bray, R.H., Kurtz, L.T., 1945. Determination of total, organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science 59(1): 39-45.

Bremner, J.M., Mulvaney, C.S., 1982. Nitrogen total. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2 Chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd edition. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 595-624.

Bukviċ, G., Antunoviċ, M., Popoviċ, S., Rastija, M., 2003. Effect of P and Zn fertilisation on biomass yield and its uptake by maize lines (Zea mays L.). Plant, Soil and Environment 49(11): 505-510.

Cakmak, I., Torun, B., Eronoglu, B., Ozturk, L., Marschner, H., Kalayci, M., Ekiz, H., Yilmaz, A., 1998. Morphological and physiological differences in the response of cereals to zinc deficiency. Euphytica 100: 349-357.

Chapman, H.D., Pratt, P.F., 1961. Methods of Analysis for Soil, Plant and Water. Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of California, USA.

Edwards, C.A., 1988. Breakdown of animal, vegetable and industrial organic wastes by earthworms. In: Earthworms in Waste and Environmental Management. Edwards C.A., Neuhauser, E.F. (Eds.). SPB, The Hague, Netherlands, pp. 21-31.

FAO and UNDP. 1988. Land resources appraisal of Bangladesh for agricultural development. Report 2. Agroecological Regions of Bangladesh. United Nations Development Programme and Food and Agriculture Organization. pp. 212-221.

Fox, R.L., Olson, R.A., Rhoades, H.F., 1964. Evaluating the sulfur status of soils by plants and soil tests. Soil Science Society of America Journal 28(2): 243-246.

Gee, G.W., Bauder, J.W., 1986. Particle-size Analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.), 2nd Edition. Agronomy Monograph No. 9, American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 383-411.

Gomez, K.A., Gomez, A.A., 1984. Statistical procedures for agricultural research. John Wiley & Sons. New York. USA.

Hu, D., Bell, R.W., Xie, Z., 1996. Zinc and phosphor responses in transplanted oilseed rape. Soil Science and Plant Nutrient 42(2): 333-344.

Islam, M.S., 2008. Soil fertility history, present status and future scenario in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Agriculture and Environment 4: 129-151.

Jadhav, A.D., Talashilkar, S.C., Pawar, A.G., 1997. Influence of the conjunctive use of FYM, vermicompost and urea on growth and nutrient uptake in rice. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities 22: 249-250.

Jones, L.H.P., Cowling, D.W., Lockyer, D.R., 1972. Plant-available and extractable sulphur in some soils of England and Wales. Soil Science 114(2): 104-114.

Kale, R.D., Mallesh, B.C., Bano, K., Bagyaray, D.J., 1992. Influence of vermicompost application on the available macronutrients and selected microbial populations in a paddy field. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24(12): 1317-1320.

Keren, R., 1996. Boron. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3 - Chemical Methods. Sparks, D.L., Page, A.L., Helmke, P.A., Loeppert, R.H., Soltanpour, P.N., Tabatabai, M.A., Johnston, C.T., Sumner, M.E. (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 603-626.

Keren, R., Bingharn, F.T., 1985. Boron in water, soil, and plants. In: Advances in Soil Science. Steward, B.A. (Ed.). Volume 1, Springer-Verlag, New York, USA. pp.229-276.

Khattak, S.G., Rohullah, A., Malik, A., Perveen, Q., Ibrar, M., 2006. Assessing maize yield and quality as affected by Zn as soil or foliar applications. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 22: 465-472.

Knudsen, D., Peterson, G.A., Pratt, P.F., 1982. Lithium, Sodium, and Potassium. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2 Chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd edition. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 225-246.

Lindsay, W.L., Norvell, W.A., 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, ıron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal 42(3): 421-428.

Lourduraj, A.C., Yadav, B.K., 2005. Effect of vermicompost application on soil and plant growth. In Verms and Vermitechnology. Kumar, A., (Ed.). A.P.H. Publishing Corp. New Delhi, pp. 81-96.

Makulec, G., 2002. The role of Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm. In determining biotic and abiotic properties of peat soils. Polish Journal of Ecology 50(3): 301-339.

Mandal, B., Ghosh, S., Chattopadhyay, A.P., 2004. Distribution of extractable boron content in acidic soils of West Bengal in relation to soil properties. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 74(12): 658-662.

Maqsood, M.A., Rahmatullah, Ranjha, A.M., Hussain, M., 2009. Differential growth response and zinc utilization efficiency of wheat genotype in cultivars buffered nutrient solution. Soil and Environment 28(2): 174-178.

Maret, W., Sandstead, H.H., 2006. Zinc requirements and the risks and benefits of zinc supplementation. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 20(1): 3-18.

McLean, E.O., 1982. Soil pH and Lime Requirement. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2 Chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd edition. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R., (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, WI, USA. pp. 199-224.

Mousavi, S.R., 2011. Zinc in crop production and interaction with phosphorus. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 5(9): 1503-1509.

Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E., 1996. Total Carbon, Organic Carbon, and Organic Matter. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3, Chemical Methods. Sparks, D.L., Page, A.L., Helmke, P.A., Loeppert, R.H., Soltanpour, P.N., Tabatabai, M.A., Johnston, C.T., Sumner, M.E. (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 961-1010.

Olsen, S.R., Sommers, L.E., 1982. Phosphorus. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2 Chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd edition. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R., (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, WI, USA. pp. 403-430.

Piper, C.S., 1950. Soil and Plant Analysis. Adelaide University Hassel press. Australia.

Prabakaran, J., 2005. Biomass resources in vermicomposting. In Proceedings of the State Level Symposium on Vermicomposting Techonolgy for Rural Development. Jayakumar, E., (Ed.). Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India, pp. 27-40.

Rajendran, M., Thivyatharsan, R., 2014. Performance of different species of earthworms on vermicomposting. International Journal of Research in Agriculture and Food Sciences 2(3):1-6.

Reisenauer, H.M., Walsh, L.M., Hoeft, R.G., 1973. Testing soils for sulphur, boron, molybdenum and chlorine. In Soil testing and plant analysis. Walsh, L.M., Beaton, J.D., (Eds.) SSSA, Madison, WI, pp. 73–200.

Rijpma, J., Jahiruddin, M., 2004. Strategy and plan for use of soil nutrient balance in Bangladesh.  Final report of short-term assignment, SFFP/DANIDA.

Shi-wei, Z., Fu-zhen, H., 1991. The nitrogen uptake efficiency from 15N labeled chemical fertilizer in the presence of earthworm manure (cast). In: Advances in Management and Conservation of Soil Fauna. Veeresh, G.K., Rajagopal, D., Viraktamath, C.A., (Eds.). Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi, India. pp. 539-542.

Shorrocks, V.M., 1997. The occurrence and correction of boron deficiency. Plant and Soil 193:121-148.

Singh, A., Singh, R.V., Saxena, A.K., Shivay, Y.S., Nain, L., 2014. Comparative studies on composting efficiency of Eisenia fetida (Savigny) and Perionyx excavates (Perrier). Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences 2(5):508-517.

Sinha, R.K., Heart, S., Bharambe, G., Patil, S., Bapat, P.D., Chauhan, K., Valani, D., 2009. Vermiculture Biotechnology: The emerging cost-effective and sustainable technology of the 21st century for multiple uses from waste and land management to safe and sustained food production. Environmental Research Journal 3(1):41-110.

Sreenivas, C., Muralidhar, S., Rao, M.S., 2000. Vermicompost, a viable component of IPNSS in nitrogen nutrition of ridge gourd. Annals of Agricultural Research 21(1): 108–113.

Suthar, S., 2007. Nutrient changes and biodynamics of epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) during recycling of some agriculture wastes. Bioresource Technology 98(8): 1608-1614.

Tabatabai, M.A., 1996. Sulphur. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3 - Chemical Methods. Sparks, D.L., Page, A.L., Helmke, P.A., Loeppert, R.H., Soltanpour, P.N., Tabatabai, M.A., Johnston, C.T., Sumner, M.E. (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 921-960.

Theunissen, J., Ndakidemi, P.A., Laubscher, C.P., 2010. Potential of vermicompost produced from plant waste on the growth and nutrient status in vegetable production. International Journal of the Physical Sciences 5(13): 1964-1973.

Webb, M.J., Loneagan, J.F., 1988. Effect of zinc deficiency on growth, phosphorus concentration and phosphorus toxicity of wheat plants. Soil Science Society of America Journal 52(6): 1676-1680.

Yadav, A., Garg, V.K., 2011. Recycling of organic wastes by employing Eisenia fetida. Bioresource Technology 102(3): 2874-2880.

Yilmaz, A., Ekiz, H., Torun, B., Gultekin, I., Karanalik, S., Bagsi, S.A., Cakmak, I., 1997. Effect of different zinc application methods on grain yield and zinc concentration in wheat cultivars grown on zinc‐deficient calcareous soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition 20(4-5) :461-471.

Yoshida, S., Forno, A.D., Cock, J.A., Gomez, K.A., 1976. Physiological Studies of Rice. 2nd Ed. International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science