Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 4, Issue 2, Apr 2015, Pages 100 - 106
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.70419
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.70419
Copyright © 2015 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Comparative mineralogical characteristics of red soils from South Bulgaria

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Yaneva,M., Stanimirova,T., Kenderova,R., 2015. Comparative mineralogical characteristics of red soils from South Bulgaria. Eurasian J Soil Sci 4(2):100 - 106. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.70419
Yaneva,M.,Stanimirova,T.,& Kenderova,R. Comparative mineralogical characteristics of red soils from South Bulgaria Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.70419
Yaneva,M.,Stanimirova,T., and ,Kenderova,R."Comparative mineralogical characteristics of red soils from South Bulgaria" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.70419
Yaneva,M.,Stanimirova,T., and ,Kenderova,R. "Comparative mineralogical characteristics of red soils from South Bulgaria" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.70419
M,Yaneva.T,Stanimirova.R,Kenderova "Comparative mineralogical characteristics of red soils from South Bulgaria" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol., no., pp., DOI : 10.18393/ejss.70419
Yaneva,Marlena ;Stanimirova,Tsveta ;Kenderova,Rositsa Comparative mineralogical characteristics of red soils from South Bulgaria. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.70419

How to cite

Yaneva, M., Stanimirova, T., Kenderova, R., 2015. Comparative mineralogical characteristics of red soils from South Bulgaria. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 4(2): 100 - 106. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.70419

Author information

Marlena Yaneva , Bulgarian Academy of Science, Geological Institute, Sofia, Bulgaria
Tsveta Stanimirova , Sofia University ”St. Kliment Ohridski”, Faculty of Geology and Geography, Sofia, Bulgaria
Rositsa Kenderova , Sofia University ”St. Kliment Ohridski”, Faculty of Geology and Geography, Sofia, Bulgaria

Publication information

Issue published online: 01 Apr 2015
Article first published online : 30 Jan 2015
Manuscript Accepted : 22 Jan 2015
Manuscript Received: 15 Jul 2014
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.70419
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.70419

Abstract

The present study aims to compare mineralogical composition of red soils, formed on marbles in South Bulgaria. We used mineralogical analysis of heavy and light mineral fraction in immersion under polarizing microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis of bulk sample and clay fraction. Three test polygons, located in South Bulgaria were examined: Petrovo, Nova Lovcha and Dobrostan, which are characterized with different latitude, altitude, and exposition. Three or more sites from each polygon were sampled and analyzed. The red soils are formed on white and gray calcite and calcite-dolomite marbles, impure silicate-rich marbles and only in one site – on marble breccias. We determined the following mineral phases in red soils: calcite, dolomite, quarts, and feldspars, mica, illite-type mica, illite, smectite, vermiculite-smectite, and kaolinite. Heavy minerals are represented by amphibole, titanite and epidote, and minor amounts of zircon, garnet, tourmaline, rutile, pyroxene, andalusite, kyanite, sillimanite and apatite. Opaque minerals are predominantly goethite and hematite. Plant tissue is abundant in light fraction from the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils formed on plain. The mineralogical composition of clays in different polygons depends on geomorphic position (altitude, slope or plain), and less on climate type. The weathering processes in the highest polygon Dobrostan (more than 1200 m) are in early stage (illite, vermiculite-smectite, and smectite), whereas in Nova Lovcha (above 700-900 m) and Petrovo (1000 m) the domination of kaolinite suggests an advanced weathering processes.

Keywords

Red soils, mineralogy, clay, X-ray diffraction

Corresponding author

References

Achkov, N., 1976. Soil characteristics of cooperative Koprivlen-Blagoevgrad District. Institute of Soil and programming yields “N. Pushkarov”, Sofia. 47 p. (in Bulgarian).

Iliev, I., 1977. Soil characteristics of the land of DGS Dobrostan-Plovdiv district. 1977. Institute of Soil and programming yields “N. Pushkarov”, Sofia. 42 p. (in Bulgarian).

Kjuchukova, M., 1979. Climatic reference book of Bulgaria. Vol. 2, NIMH-BAS, 811 p. (in Bulgarian).

Kjuchukova, M., 1983. Climatic reference book of Bulgaria. Vol. 3, NIMH-BAS, 440 p. (in Bulgarian).

Koleva, E., Peneva, R., 1990. Climatic reference book. Rainfalls in Bulgaria. NIMH-BAS, 169 p. (in Bulgarian).

Kozhouharov, D., 1984. Lithostratigrapy of Precambrian metamorphic rocks of Rhodope Supergroup in the Central Rhodope Mountain. Geol. Balc. 14(1): 43-88. (in Russian).

Kozhouharov, D., Kozhouharova, E., Marinova, R., Katskov, N., Yanev. Y., 1991. Geological Map of Bulgaria 1:100 000, Folio Chepelare. Geological Committee, Sofia.

Kozhouharov, D., Marinova, R., 1991.Geological Map Of Bulgaria 1:100 000, Folio Gotse Delchev. Geological Committee, Sofia.

Ninov, N., 2002. Soil. In: Geography Of Bulgaria (ed. I. Kopralev), Sofia, Publ. House “For Com”, pp. 277-305.

Zagorchev, I., 1995. Paril Formation (Palaeogene) in South Pirin and Slavyanka Mts. Rev. Bulg. Geol. Soc., 56(1): 31-36 (in Bulgarian).

Abstract
The present study aims to compare mineralogical composition of red soils, formed on marbles in South Bulgaria. We used mineralogical analysis of heavy and light mineral fraction in immersion under polarizing microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis of bulk sample and clay fraction. Three test polygons, located in South Bulgaria were examined: Petrovo, Nova Lovcha and Dobrostan, which are characterized with different latitude, altitude, and exposition. Three or more sites from each polygon were sampled and analyzed. The red soils are formed on white and gray calcite and calcite-dolomite marbles, impure silicate-rich marbles and only in one site – on marble breccias. We determined the following mineral phases in red soils: calcite, dolomite, quarts, and feldspars, mica, illite-type mica, illite, smectite, vermiculite-smectite, and kaolinite. Heavy minerals are represented by amphibole, titanite and epidote, and minor amounts of zircon, garnet, tourmaline, rutile, pyroxene, andalusite, kyanite, sillimanite and apatite. Opaque minerals are predominantly goethite and hematite. Plant tissue is abundant in light fraction from the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils formed on plain. The mineralogical composition of clays in different polygons depends on geomorphic position (altitude, slope or plain), and less on climate type. The weathering processes in the highest polygon Dobrostan (more than 1200 m) are in early stage (illite, vermiculite-smectite, and smectite), whereas in Nova Lovcha (above 700-900 m) and Petrovo (1000 m) the domination of kaolinite suggests an advanced weathering processes.

Keywords: Red soils, mineralogy, clay, X-ray diffraction

References

Achkov, N., 1976. Soil characteristics of cooperative Koprivlen-Blagoevgrad District. Institute of Soil and programming yields “N. Pushkarov”, Sofia. 47 p. (in Bulgarian).

Iliev, I., 1977. Soil characteristics of the land of DGS Dobrostan-Plovdiv district. 1977. Institute of Soil and programming yields “N. Pushkarov”, Sofia. 42 p. (in Bulgarian).

Kjuchukova, M., 1979. Climatic reference book of Bulgaria. Vol. 2, NIMH-BAS, 811 p. (in Bulgarian).

Kjuchukova, M., 1983. Climatic reference book of Bulgaria. Vol. 3, NIMH-BAS, 440 p. (in Bulgarian).

Koleva, E., Peneva, R., 1990. Climatic reference book. Rainfalls in Bulgaria. NIMH-BAS, 169 p. (in Bulgarian).

Kozhouharov, D., 1984. Lithostratigrapy of Precambrian metamorphic rocks of Rhodope Supergroup in the Central Rhodope Mountain. Geol. Balc. 14(1): 43-88. (in Russian).

Kozhouharov, D., Kozhouharova, E., Marinova, R., Katskov, N., Yanev. Y., 1991. Geological Map of Bulgaria 1:100 000, Folio Chepelare. Geological Committee, Sofia.

Kozhouharov, D., Marinova, R., 1991.Geological Map Of Bulgaria 1:100 000, Folio Gotse Delchev. Geological Committee, Sofia.

Ninov, N., 2002. Soil. In: Geography Of Bulgaria (ed. I. Kopralev), Sofia, Publ. House “For Com”, pp. 277-305.

Zagorchev, I., 1995. Paril Formation (Palaeogene) in South Pirin and Slavyanka Mts. Rev. Bulg. Geol. Soc., 56(1): 31-36 (in Bulgarian).



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science