Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 8, Issue 1, Jan 2019, Pages 60 - 72
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.499122
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.499122
Copyright © 2019 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Chemical weathering indices applied to soils developed on old lake sediments in a semi-arid region of Turkey

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Tunçay,T., Dengiz,O., Bayramin,I., Kilic,S., Baskan,O., 2019. Chemical weathering indices applied to soils developed on old lake sediments in a semi-arid region of Turkey. Eurasian J Soil Sci 8(1):60 - 72. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.499122
Tunçay,T.Dengiz,O.,Bayramin,I.Kilic,S.,& Baskan,O. Chemical weathering indices applied to soils developed on old lake sediments in a semi-arid region of Turkey Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 8(1):60 - 72. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.499122
Tunçay,T.Dengiz,O.,Bayramin,I.Kilic,S., and ,Baskan,O."Chemical weathering indices applied to soils developed on old lake sediments in a semi-arid region of Turkey" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 8.1 (2019):60 - 72. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.499122
Tunçay,T.Dengiz,O.,Bayramin,I.Kilic,S., and ,Baskan,O. "Chemical weathering indices applied to soils developed on old lake sediments in a semi-arid region of Turkey" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,8(Jan 2019):60 - 72 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.499122
T,Tunçay.O,Dengiz.I,Bayramin.S,Kilic.O,Baskan "Chemical weathering indices applied to soils developed on old lake sediments in a semi-arid region of Turkey" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.8, no.1, pp.60 - 72 (Jan 2019), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.499122
Tunçay,Tülay ;Dengiz,Orhan ;Bayramin,Ilhami ;Kilic,Seref ;Baskan,Oguz Chemical weathering indices applied to soils developed on old lake sediments in a semi-arid region of Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2019),8.1:60 - 72. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.499122

How to cite

Tunçay, T., Dengiz, O., Bayramin, I., Kilic, S., Baskan, O., 2019. Chemical weathering indices applied to soils developed on old lake sediments in a semi-arid region of Turkey. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 8(1): 60 - 72. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.499122

Author information

Tülay Tunçay , Soil Fertilizer and Water Resources Center Research Institute, Yenimahalle, Ankara, Turkey
Orhan Dengiz , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Samsun, Turkey Samsun, Turkey
Ilhami Bayramin , Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Ankara, Turkey
Seref Kilic , Ardahan University, Faculty of Engineerinf, Department of Environmental Engineering, Ardahan, Turkey
Oguz Baskan , Soil Fertilizer and Water Resources Center Research Institute, Yenimahalle, Ankara, Turkey

Publication information

Article first published online : 18 Dec 2018
Manuscript Accepted : 11 Dec 2018
Manuscript Received: 18 Mar 2018
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.499122
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.499122

Abstract

Climate is a major influence on weathering processes affecting soil parent materials. Important contributors to soil formation in arid and semi-arid climatic zones are the diurnal cycles of solar heating and cooling that cause mechanical or physical disintegration of rock or parent materials, and wind-blown sands that score and abrade exposed rock surfaces. By using the Soil Taxonomy classification system, the initial aim of this study was to carry out a pedological evaluation for four soil profiles, classified as Xeric Haplocalcid and Xeric Haplocambid, formed on different parent materials (limestone, marl and old alluvial deposits) under the same conditions, including topography and vegetation, in a semiarid region. The second stage was the exploration of the similarities and differences in the classifications resulting from either the pedogenic processes, or from other factors, by determining the degree of soil weathering using geochemical data. To achieve this, soil samples were collected from the horizons to investigate their mineralogical, geochemical and physiochemical properties. The study also considered other features, such as the pedogenic evolution of soils, through the use of weathering indices, namely the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW), Base/R2O3 Ratio, Weathering Index of Parker (WIP) and Plagioclase Index of Alteration (PIA). The results clearly showed that soil development at the Altınova State Farm at Konya in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey is due to slow pr ogressive weathering. For this case, the main indicators are secondary calcium carbonate illuviation and weak structural development with a weathering ratio of silicon to aluminium greater than two in all profiles.

Keywords

Alteration index, geochemical evolution, soil formation, dry region.

Corresponding author

References

Alumaa, P., Steinnes, E., Kirso, U., Petersell, V., 2001. Heavy metal sorption by different Estonian soil types at low equilibrium solution concentration. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Chemistry 50: 104-115

Ao, H., Deng, C., Dekkers, M.J., Sun, Y., Liu, Q., Zhu, R., 2010. Pleistocene environmental evoluation in the Nihewan Basin and implication for early human colonization of North China. Quaternary International 223-224: 472-478.

Birkeland, P.W., 1999. Soils and Geomorphology, Third edition. New York, Oxford University Press. 430 pp.

Black, C.A., 1965. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part II - Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Agronomy Monograph 9.1, American Society of Agronomy (ASA), Soil Science Society of America (SSSA), Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Boul, S. W., Hole, F.D., McCracken, R.J., 1980.  Soil Genesis Survey and Classification, Second edition. The Iowa University Press, Iowa.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1951. Hydrometer method ımproved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal 54 (5): 419-434.

Buringh, P., 1979. Introduction to the study of soils in tropical and subtropical regions. 3rd edition. Centre for agricultural publishing and documentation: Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Chao, T.T., Sanzolone, R.F., 1992. Decomposition techniques. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 44 (1-3): 65-106.

Da Costa, P.Y.D., Nguetnkam, J.P., Mvoubou, C.M., Togbé, K.A., Ettien, J.B., Kouame, A.Y., 2015. Old landscapes, pre-weathered materials, and pedogenesis in tropical Africa: How can the time factor of soil formation be assessed in these regions?. Quaternary International 376: 47-74.

Darmody, R.G., Thorn, C.E., Allen, C.E., 2005. Chemical weathering and boulder mantles, Kärkevagge, Swedish Lapland. Geomorphology 67(1-2): 159–170.

de Meester, T., 1971. Highly Calcareous Lacustrine Soils in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 169p.

de Ridder, N.A., 1965. Sediments of the Konya Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 1: 225-227, 231-240, 243-254.

Dengiz, O. Sağlam, M., Özaytekin, H.H., Baskan, O., 2013. Weathering rates and some physico-chemical characteristics of soils developed on a calcic toposequences. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences 8(2); 13–24.

Dengiz, O., 2010. Morphology, physico-chemical properties and classification of soils on terraces of the tigris river in the South-East Anatolia Region of Turkey. Journal of Agricultural Sciences 16 (3): 205-212.

Dengiz, O., Göl, C., Karaca, S., Yüksel, M., 2006. Effects of different landsdcape position and parent material on soil variability and land use in both sides of Acicay river-Çankırı. In: Proceedings of the  5th International Soil Meeting (ISM) on Soil Sustaining Life on Earth, Managing Soil and Technology: May 22- 26, Şanlıurfa, Turkey.

Dengiz, O., Usul, M., 2018. Multi-criteria approach with linear combination technique and analytical hierarchy process in land evaluation studies. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 7(1): 20-29.

Dinc, U., Özbek, H., Kapur, A.S., Senol, S., 1987. Toprak Genesisi ve Sınıflandırılması, Cukurova University Press, Adana, Turkey, 379p. [In Turkish].

Driessen, P.M., 1970. Soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 99p.

Driessen, P.M., de Meester, T., 1969. Soils of the Çumra Area, Turkey. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 105p.

Duzgoren-Aydın, N.S., Aydın, A., Malpas, J., 2002. Re-assessment of chemical weathering indices: case study on pyroclastic rocks of Hong Kong.  Engineering Geology 63(1-2): 99-119,

Fedo, C.M., Nesbitt, H.W., Young, G.M., 1995. Unraveling the effects of potassium metasomatism in sedimentary rocks and paleosols with implications for paleoweathering conditions and provenance. Geology 23(10): 921–924.

Gee, G.W., Bauder, J.W., 1986. Particle-size Analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties, A.L. Page, R.H. Miller, D.R. Keeney (Eds.), 2nd Ed. Agronomy Monograph No. 9, ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 383-411.

Hamdan, J., Burnham, C.P., 1996. The contribution of nutrients from parent material in three deeply weathered soils of Peninsular Malaysia. Geoderma 74(3-4): 219–233.

Harnois, L., 1988. The CIW index: A new chemical index of weathering.  Sedimentary Geology 55(3-4): 319-322.

Hill, I.G., Worden, R.H., Meighan, I.G., 2000. Yttrium: the immobility- mobility transition during basaltic weathering. Geology 28(10): 923-926.

Jenny, H., 1946. Arrangement of soil series and types according to functions of soil-forming factors. Soil Science 61(5): 375-391.

Johnson, D.L., Hole, F.D., 1994. soil formation theory: a summary of its principal impacts on geography, geomorphology, soil-geomorphology, quaternary geology and paleopedology, SSSA Special Publication 33. Factors of Soil Formation: A Fiftieth Anniversary Retrospective. pp,111-126.

Kabata-Pendias, A., Pendias, H., 1992. Trace elements in soil and plants. 2nd Edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 365p.

Kibar, M., Deniz, K., Sarıoğlu, F., 2012. The morphology, mineralogy, geochemistry and physical implications of foid bearing syenite and syenite-carbonate rocks contact zone soils: Kırşehir-Akpınar-Buzlukdağ, Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 1(2); 69 – 74.

Lark, R.M., 1999. Soil-landform relationships at within-field scales: an investigation using continuous classification. Geoderma 92(3-4): 141-165.

McLennan, S.M., 1993. Weathering and global denudation. Journal of Geology 101(2): 295– 303.

Moore, C.L., 1998. Evaluation of regolith development and element mobility during weathering using isocon technique. Geological Society of Australia Special Publication 20: 141-147.

Nesbitt, H.W., 1979. Mobility and fractionation of rare earth elements during weathering of a granodiorite. Nature 279: 206-210.

Nesbitt, Y.W., Young, G. M., 1982. Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. Nature 299: 715-717.

Özaytekin, H.H., Karakaplan, S.M., 2012a. Soil formation on the Karadağ volcano at a semi arid environment from the Central Anatolia. African Journal of Agricultural Research 7(15): 2283-2296.

Özaytekin, H.H., Mutlu, H.H., Dedeoglu, M., 2012b. Soil formation on a calcic chronosequence of ancient Lake Konya in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Journal of African Earth Science 76: 66-74.

Parker, A., 1970. An index of weathering for silicate rocks. Geological Magazine 107(6): 501-504.

Pope, G.A., Meierding, T.C., Paradise, T.R., 2002. Geomorphology's role in the study of weathering of cultural stone. Geomorphology 47(2-4): 211-225.

Price, J.R., Velbel, M.A., 2003. Chemical weathering indices applied to weathering profiles developed on heterogeneous felsic metamorphic parent rocks. Chemical Geology 202(3-4): 397-416,

Reiche, P., 1950. A survey of weathering processes and products, University of New Mexico Publications in Geology, 3, University of New Mexico Press. Albuquerque, 95p.

Roberts, N., Erol, O., de Meester, T., Uerpmann, H.P., 1979. Radiocarbon chronology of late Pleistocene Konya Lake, Turkey. Nature 281: 662-664.

Ruxton, B.P., 1968. Measures of the degree of chemical weathering of rocks. Journal of Geology 76(5): 518–527.

Schaetzl, R.J., Anderson, S., 2005. Soil Genesis and Geomorphology, Cambridge University Press, UK. 656p.

Shan, H.M., Liang, H.C., Peng, S.X., Longe, A.A., Zhou, A.G., 2010.  Effects of water-saturation and water-loss processes on composition and structure variations of landslide, Three Gorges reservoir, China. In: Water- Rock Interaction. Birkle, P., Torres- Alvarado, I. S. (Eds.). CRC Press, New York, USA. pp. 921-924,

Soil Survey Laboratory, 2004. Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Soil Survey Investigations Report No 42. Washington D.C., USA.

Soil Survey Manual, 1993. Soil Survey Manual. USDA Agriculture Handbook No 18. Washington D.C., USA.

Soil Survey Staff., 1999. Soil taxonomy. A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil survey. USDA Agriculture Handbook No 436. Washington D.C., USA.

Taylor, S.R., McLennan, S.M., 1985. The Continental Crust: its Composition and Evolution. Blackwell, Oxford, UK. 312p.

Vergouwen, L., 1981. Salt minerals and waters from soils in Konya and Kenya. PhD Thesis. Wageningen, The Netherland. 140p.

Vogt, T., 1927. Sulitjelmafeltets geologiog petrografi. Norges Geologiske Undersokelse 121: 1-560 [in Norwegian]. 

Walkley, A., Black, I.A., 1934. An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1):29-37.

White, A.F., 1995. Chemical weathering rates of silicate minerals in soils. In: Chemical weathering rates of silicate minerals, White, A.F., Brantley, S.L., (Eds.). Mineralogical Society of America Special Publication, 31, Mineralogical Society of America, Washington D.C.,USA. pp. 407–461.

Whittig, L.D., Allardice, W.R., 1986. X-ray diffraction techniques. In: Methods of Soil Analysis Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Methods. 2nd Edition, Klute, A., (Ed). American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 55-86.

Wood, D.A., Joron, J.L., Treuil, M., 1979. A re-appraisal of the use of trace elements to classify and discriminate between magma series erupted in different tectonic settings. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 45(2): 326-336.

Yang, S.Y., Jung, H.S., Li, C.X., 2004. Two unique weathering regimes in the Changjiang and Huanghe drainage basins: geochemical evidence from river sediments. Sedimentary Geology 164(1-2): 19-34.

Abstract

Climate is a major influence on weathering processes affecting soil parent materials. Important contributors to soil formation in arid and semi-arid climatic zones are the diurnal cycles of solar heating and cooling that cause mechanical or physical disintegration of rock or parent materials, and wind-blown sands that score and abrade exposed rock surfaces. By using the Soil Taxonomy classification system, the initial aim of this study was to carry out a pedological evaluation for four soil profiles, classified as Xeric Haplocalcid and Xeric Haplocambid, formed on different parent materials (limestone, marl and old alluvial deposits) under the same conditions, including topography and vegetation, in a semiarid region. The second stage was the exploration of the similarities and differences in the classifications resulting from either the pedogenic processes, or from other factors, by determining the degree of soil weathering using geochemical data. To achieve this, soil samples were collected from the horizons to investigate their mineralogical, geochemical and physiochemical properties. The study also considered other features, such as the pedogenic evolution of soils, through the use of weathering indices, namely the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW), Base/R2O3 Ratio, Weathering Index of Parker (WIP) and Plagioclase Index of Alteration (PIA). The results clearly showed that soil development at the Altınova State Farm at Konya in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey is due to slow pr ogressive weathering. For this case, the main indicators are secondary calcium carbonate illuviation and weak structural development with a weathering ratio of silicon to aluminium greater than two in all profiles.

Keywords: Alteration index, geochemical evolution, soil formation, dry region.

References

Alumaa, P., Steinnes, E., Kirso, U., Petersell, V., 2001. Heavy metal sorption by different Estonian soil types at low equilibrium solution concentration. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Chemistry 50: 104-115

Ao, H., Deng, C., Dekkers, M.J., Sun, Y., Liu, Q., Zhu, R., 2010. Pleistocene environmental evoluation in the Nihewan Basin and implication for early human colonization of North China. Quaternary International 223-224: 472-478.

Birkeland, P.W., 1999. Soils and Geomorphology, Third edition. New York, Oxford University Press. 430 pp.

Black, C.A., 1965. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part II - Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Agronomy Monograph 9.1, American Society of Agronomy (ASA), Soil Science Society of America (SSSA), Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Boul, S. W., Hole, F.D., McCracken, R.J., 1980.  Soil Genesis Survey and Classification, Second edition. The Iowa University Press, Iowa.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1951. Hydrometer method ımproved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal 54 (5): 419-434.

Buringh, P., 1979. Introduction to the study of soils in tropical and subtropical regions. 3rd edition. Centre for agricultural publishing and documentation: Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Chao, T.T., Sanzolone, R.F., 1992. Decomposition techniques. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 44 (1-3): 65-106.

Da Costa, P.Y.D., Nguetnkam, J.P., Mvoubou, C.M., Togbé, K.A., Ettien, J.B., Kouame, A.Y., 2015. Old landscapes, pre-weathered materials, and pedogenesis in tropical Africa: How can the time factor of soil formation be assessed in these regions?. Quaternary International 376: 47-74.

Darmody, R.G., Thorn, C.E., Allen, C.E., 2005. Chemical weathering and boulder mantles, Kärkevagge, Swedish Lapland. Geomorphology 67(1-2): 159–170.

de Meester, T., 1971. Highly Calcareous Lacustrine Soils in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 169p.

de Ridder, N.A., 1965. Sediments of the Konya Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 1: 225-227, 231-240, 243-254.

Dengiz, O. Sağlam, M., Özaytekin, H.H., Baskan, O., 2013. Weathering rates and some physico-chemical characteristics of soils developed on a calcic toposequences. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences 8(2); 13–24.

Dengiz, O., 2010. Morphology, physico-chemical properties and classification of soils on terraces of the tigris river in the South-East Anatolia Region of Turkey. Journal of Agricultural Sciences 16 (3): 205-212.

Dengiz, O., Göl, C., Karaca, S., Yüksel, M., 2006. Effects of different landsdcape position and parent material on soil variability and land use in both sides of Acicay river-Çankırı. In: Proceedings of the  5th International Soil Meeting (ISM) on Soil Sustaining Life on Earth, Managing Soil and Technology: May 22- 26, Şanlıurfa, Turkey.

Dengiz, O., Usul, M., 2018. Multi-criteria approach with linear combination technique and analytical hierarchy process in land evaluation studies. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 7(1): 20-29.

Dinc, U., Özbek, H., Kapur, A.S., Senol, S., 1987. Toprak Genesisi ve Sınıflandırılması, Cukurova University Press, Adana, Turkey, 379p. [In Turkish].

Driessen, P.M., 1970. Soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 99p.

Driessen, P.M., de Meester, T., 1969. Soils of the Çumra Area, Turkey. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 105p.

Duzgoren-Aydın, N.S., Aydın, A., Malpas, J., 2002. Re-assessment of chemical weathering indices: case study on pyroclastic rocks of Hong Kong.  Engineering Geology 63(1-2): 99-119,

Fedo, C.M., Nesbitt, H.W., Young, G.M., 1995. Unraveling the effects of potassium metasomatism in sedimentary rocks and paleosols with implications for paleoweathering conditions and provenance. Geology 23(10): 921–924.

Gee, G.W., Bauder, J.W., 1986. Particle-size Analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties, A.L. Page, R.H. Miller, D.R. Keeney (Eds.), 2nd Ed. Agronomy Monograph No. 9, ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 383-411.

Hamdan, J., Burnham, C.P., 1996. The contribution of nutrients from parent material in three deeply weathered soils of Peninsular Malaysia. Geoderma 74(3-4): 219–233.

Harnois, L., 1988. The CIW index: A new chemical index of weathering.  Sedimentary Geology 55(3-4): 319-322.

Hill, I.G., Worden, R.H., Meighan, I.G., 2000. Yttrium: the immobility- mobility transition during basaltic weathering. Geology 28(10): 923-926.

Jenny, H., 1946. Arrangement of soil series and types according to functions of soil-forming factors. Soil Science 61(5): 375-391.

Johnson, D.L., Hole, F.D., 1994. soil formation theory: a summary of its principal impacts on geography, geomorphology, soil-geomorphology, quaternary geology and paleopedology, SSSA Special Publication 33. Factors of Soil Formation: A Fiftieth Anniversary Retrospective. pp,111-126.

Kabata-Pendias, A., Pendias, H., 1992. Trace elements in soil and plants. 2nd Edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 365p.

Kibar, M., Deniz, K., Sarıoğlu, F., 2012. The morphology, mineralogy, geochemistry and physical implications of foid bearing syenite and syenite-carbonate rocks contact zone soils: Kırşehir-Akpınar-Buzlukdağ, Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 1(2); 69 – 74.

Lark, R.M., 1999. Soil-landform relationships at within-field scales: an investigation using continuous classification. Geoderma 92(3-4): 141-165.

McLennan, S.M., 1993. Weathering and global denudation. Journal of Geology 101(2): 295– 303.

Moore, C.L., 1998. Evaluation of regolith development and element mobility during weathering using isocon technique. Geological Society of Australia Special Publication 20: 141-147.

Nesbitt, H.W., 1979. Mobility and fractionation of rare earth elements during weathering of a granodiorite. Nature 279: 206-210.

Nesbitt, Y.W., Young, G. M., 1982. Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. Nature 299: 715-717.

Özaytekin, H.H., Karakaplan, S.M., 2012a. Soil formation on the Karadağ volcano at a semi arid environment from the Central Anatolia. African Journal of Agricultural Research 7(15): 2283-2296.

Özaytekin, H.H., Mutlu, H.H., Dedeoglu, M., 2012b. Soil formation on a calcic chronosequence of ancient Lake Konya in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Journal of African Earth Science 76: 66-74.

Parker, A., 1970. An index of weathering for silicate rocks. Geological Magazine 107(6): 501-504.

Pope, G.A., Meierding, T.C., Paradise, T.R., 2002. Geomorphology's role in the study of weathering of cultural stone. Geomorphology 47(2-4): 211-225.

Price, J.R., Velbel, M.A., 2003. Chemical weathering indices applied to weathering profiles developed on heterogeneous felsic metamorphic parent rocks. Chemical Geology 202(3-4): 397-416,

Reiche, P., 1950. A survey of weathering processes and products, University of New Mexico Publications in Geology, 3, University of New Mexico Press. Albuquerque, 95p.

Roberts, N., Erol, O., de Meester, T., Uerpmann, H.P., 1979. Radiocarbon chronology of late Pleistocene Konya Lake, Turkey. Nature 281: 662-664.

Ruxton, B.P., 1968. Measures of the degree of chemical weathering of rocks. Journal of Geology 76(5): 518–527.

Schaetzl, R.J., Anderson, S., 2005. Soil Genesis and Geomorphology, Cambridge University Press, UK. 656p.

Shan, H.M., Liang, H.C., Peng, S.X., Longe, A.A., Zhou, A.G., 2010.  Effects of water-saturation and water-loss processes on composition and structure variations of landslide, Three Gorges reservoir, China. In: Water- Rock Interaction. Birkle, P., Torres- Alvarado, I. S. (Eds.). CRC Press, New York, USA. pp. 921-924,

Soil Survey Laboratory, 2004. Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Soil Survey Investigations Report No 42. Washington D.C., USA.

Soil Survey Manual, 1993. Soil Survey Manual. USDA Agriculture Handbook No 18. Washington D.C., USA.

Soil Survey Staff., 1999. Soil taxonomy. A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil survey. USDA Agriculture Handbook No 436. Washington D.C., USA.

Taylor, S.R., McLennan, S.M., 1985. The Continental Crust: its Composition and Evolution. Blackwell, Oxford, UK. 312p.

Vergouwen, L., 1981. Salt minerals and waters from soils in Konya and Kenya. PhD Thesis. Wageningen, The Netherland. 140p.

Vogt, T., 1927. Sulitjelmafeltets geologiog petrografi. Norges Geologiske Undersokelse 121: 1-560 [in Norwegian]. 

Walkley, A., Black, I.A., 1934. An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1):29-37.

White, A.F., 1995. Chemical weathering rates of silicate minerals in soils. In: Chemical weathering rates of silicate minerals, White, A.F., Brantley, S.L., (Eds.). Mineralogical Society of America Special Publication, 31, Mineralogical Society of America, Washington D.C.,USA. pp. 407–461.

Whittig, L.D., Allardice, W.R., 1986. X-ray diffraction techniques. In: Methods of Soil Analysis Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Methods. 2nd Edition, Klute, A., (Ed). American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 55-86.

Wood, D.A., Joron, J.L., Treuil, M., 1979. A re-appraisal of the use of trace elements to classify and discriminate between magma series erupted in different tectonic settings. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 45(2): 326-336.

Yang, S.Y., Jung, H.S., Li, C.X., 2004. Two unique weathering regimes in the Changjiang and Huanghe drainage basins: geochemical evidence from river sediments. Sedimentary Geology 164(1-2): 19-34.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science