Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 7, Issue 3, Jul 2018, Pages 213 - 223
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.416675
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.416675
Copyright © 2018 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Applications of geographic information systems in studying changes in groundwater quality and soil salinity in Sohag Governorate

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Abd El-Aziz,S., Gameh,M., Ghallab,A., Bakeer,I., 2018. Applications of geographic information systems in studying changes in groundwater quality and soil salinity in Sohag Governorate. Eurasian J Soil Sci 7(3):213 - 223. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.416675
Abd El-Aziz,S.,Gameh,M.Ghallab,A.,& Bakeer,I. Applications of geographic information systems in studying changes in groundwater quality and soil salinity in Sohag Governorate Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 7(3):213 - 223. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.416675
Abd El-Aziz,S.,Gameh,M.Ghallab,A., and ,Bakeer,I."Applications of geographic information systems in studying changes in groundwater quality and soil salinity in Sohag Governorate" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 7.3 (2018):213 - 223. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.416675
Abd El-Aziz,S.,Gameh,M.Ghallab,A., and ,Bakeer,I. "Applications of geographic information systems in studying changes in groundwater quality and soil salinity in Sohag Governorate" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,7(Jul 2018):213 - 223 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.416675
S,Abd El-Aziz.M,Gameh.A,Ghallab.I,Bakeer "Applications of geographic information systems in studying changes in groundwater quality and soil salinity in Sohag Governorate" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.7, no.3, pp.213 - 223 (Jul 2018), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.416675
Abd El-Aziz,Salah Hassanien ;Gameh,Mohsen A. ;Ghallab,Ahmed ;Bakeer,Ibrahim H. Applications of geographic information systems in studying changes in groundwater quality and soil salinity in Sohag Governorate. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2018),7.3:213 - 223. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.416675

How to cite

Abd El-Aziz, S., Gameh, M., Ghallab, A., Bakeer, I., 2018. Applications of geographic information systems in studying changes in groundwater quality and soil salinity in Sohag Governorate. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 7(3): 213 - 223. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.416675

Author information

Salah Hassanien Abd El-Aziz , Department of Soils & Water, College of Agriculture, Assiut University Assiut, Egypt Assiut, Egypt
Mohsen A. Gameh , Department of Soils & Water, College of Agriculture, Assiut University Assiut, Egypt
Ahmed Ghallab , Department of Soils & Water, College of Agriculture, Assiut University Assiut, Egypt
Ibrahim H. Bakeer , Department of Soils & Water, College of Agriculture, Assiut University Assiut, Egypt

Publication information

Article first published online : 18 Apr 2018
Manuscript Accepted : 09 Apr 2018
Manuscript Received: 24 Nov 2017
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.416675
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.416675

Abstract

Sohag governorate is a narrow long strip of a cultivated valley located in upper Egypt. Groundwater and soil samples were collected along the Nile river, starting form the southern border to the northern border of Sohag governorate to assess the groundwater quality and soil salinity between 1991 and 2006. The obtained data reveal that the electrical conductivity of well waters (ECw) was classified to four classes (250-750, 750-2250, 2250-5000 and greater than 5000 μS/cm). The results showed an increase in the groundwater salinity within 15 years, especially in the first class where it increased from 9% in 1991 to 14% in 2006 but it raised from 17% in 1991 to 37% in 2006 for the third class. The surface and subsurface soil layers showed an increase trend in the soil salinity from 1991 to 2006. The soil salinity increased with depth from 1991 to 2006. The groundwater pH values changed due to the changes in their salt content from 1991 to 2006. The pH values of the surface and subsurface soil samples also changed from 1991 to 2006 that may be due to the changes in salt content of well waters. Cations and anions of the groundwater increased from 1991 to 2006. The groundwater SAR decreased for the first class (0-10) from 89 % in 1991 to 83 % in 2006 but increased for the second class (>10) from 11% in 1991 to 17% in 2006. The groundwater RSC for the first and third classes changed from 91 and 3 %, respectively, in 1991 to 83 and 11%, respectively, in 2006. The increase in the high class of RSC may limit the use of these waters in irrigation. Thus, the irrigation with such water might affect the permeability of soil and cause infiltration problems.

Keywords

Groundwater quality, soil salinity, geographic information systems.

Corresponding author

References

Albaji, M., Nasab, B. S., Kashkoli, HA., Naseri. A., 2010. Comparison of different irrigation methods based on the parametric evaluation approach in the plain West of Shush, Iran. Irrigation and Drainage 59(5): 547–558.

Al-Khaier, F., 2003. Soil salinity detection using satellite remote sensing. Ms.C.Thesis. International Institute For Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation,  Enschede, The Netherlands. Available at [access date: 11.12.2017]: http://www.itc.eu/library/Papers_2003/msc/wrem/khaier.pdf

Bakeer, I.H.I., 2008. Using Geographic Information System (GIS) in reassessment of soil and groundwater salinity of Sohag Soils. Ms.C.Thesis. Assiut University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil and Water, Assiut, Egypt. [in Arabic]. Available at [access date: 11.12.2017]: http://www.alwelaie.com/website/universitytheses_details_print.php?theses_id=2295

El-Dardiry, E.I., 2007. Soil available water as affected by some soil physico-chemical properties in salt affected soils. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 1(3): 220-225

Ghabour, Th.K., Daels, L., 1993. Mapping and monitoring of soil salinity of El- Fayoum depression by the aid of land sat imagery. Egypian Journal of Soil Science 33(4): 355-370.

Ghallab, A., Ali, A. M., 2000. Remote sensing and GIS approach for environmental changes monitoring and evaluation: A case study of Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences 31(2): 1-13.

Ghallab, A., 1995. Management of saline underground water for irrigation in upper Egypt. Ph.D. Thesis. Assiut University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil and Water, Assiut, Egypt. [in Arabic]. Available at [access date: 11.12.2017]: http://www.aun.edu.eg/thesis_files/5018.pdf

Hillel, D., 2000. Salinity management for sustainable agriculture: Integrating science, environment, and economics. World Bank Publications. Washington DC, USA. 98p.

Ismail, M., Yacoub R. K., 2012. Digital soil map using the capability of new technology in Sugar Beet area, Nubariya, Egypt. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences 15(2): 113–124.

Jackson, M.L. 1967. Soil chemical analysis. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India. 498p.

Jackson, M.L. 1969. Soil chemical analysis: Advanced course. A manual of methods useful for instruction and research in soil chemistry, physical chemistry of soils, soil fertility, and soil genesis. Cornell University, USA. 895p.

Labeeb, G., 2002. Effect of irrigation water having different EC and SAR values on onion productivity under sandy soil conditions. Journal of Agricultural Science-Mansoura University 27(9): 6505-6522.

McLean, E.O., 1982. Soil pH and lime requirement. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties, Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.199-224.

Nelson, R.E., 1982. Carbonate and gypsum. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties, Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 181-198.

Page, A. L., Miller R. H., Keeney D. R., 1986. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Physical and Mineralogical properties. 2nd edition. Soil Science Society of America Journal, Madison, Wisconsin,   USA.

Qadir, M., Ghafoor, A., Murtaza, G., 2001. Use of saline–sodic waters through phytoremediation of calcareous saline–sodic soils. Agricultural Water Management  50(3): 197- 210.

Rhoades, J.D., 1982. Soluble salts. In: Methods of Soil Analysis Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.167-180.

Richards, L.A., 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soil. U.S. Salinity Lab. Staff, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, HandBook 60. Washington D.C. USA. 160p.

Sayed, A.S.A. 2013. Evaluation of the Land Resources for Agricultural Development - case study: El-Hammam Canal and its Extension, NW Coast of Egypt. Ph.D. Thesis, Department Geowissenschaften, Universität Hamburg. Germany. Available at [access date: 11.12.2017]: http://www.secheresse.info/spip.php?article26227

Yunus, M.A.J., Nakagoshi, N., Ibrahim, A., 2003. Application of GIS and remote sensing for measuring and evaluating land-use change and its impact on water quality in the Pinang River watershed. Ecology and Civil Engineering 6 (1): 97-110.

Abstract

Sohag governorate is a narrow long strip of a cultivated valley located in upper Egypt. Groundwater and soil samples were collected along the Nile river, starting form the southern border to the northern border of Sohag governorate to assess the groundwater quality and soil salinity between 1991 and 2006. The obtained data reveal that the electrical conductivity of well waters (ECw) was classified to four classes (250-750, 750-2250, 2250-5000 and greater than 5000 μS/cm). The results showed an increase in the groundwater salinity within 15 years, especially in the first class where it increased from 9% in 1991 to 14% in 2006 but it raised from 17% in 1991 to 37% in 2006 for the third class. The surface and subsurface soil layers showed an increase trend in the soil salinity from 1991 to 2006. The soil salinity increased with depth from 1991 to 2006. The groundwater pH values changed due to the changes in their salt content from 1991 to 2006. The pH values of the surface and subsurface soil samples also changed from 1991 to 2006 that may be due to the changes in salt content of well waters. Cations and anions of the groundwater increased from 1991 to 2006. The groundwater SAR decreased for the first class (0-10) from 89 % in 1991 to 83 % in 2006 but increased for the second class (>10) from 11% in 1991 to 17% in 2006. The groundwater RSC for the first and third classes changed from 91 and 3 %, respectively, in 1991 to 83 and 11%, respectively, in 2006. The increase in the high class of RSC may limit the use of these waters in irrigation. Thus, the irrigation with such water might affect the permeability of soil and cause infiltration problems.

Keywords: Groundwater quality, soil salinity, geographic information systems.

References

Albaji, M., Nasab, B. S., Kashkoli, HA., Naseri. A., 2010. Comparison of different irrigation methods based on the parametric evaluation approach in the plain West of Shush, Iran. Irrigation and Drainage 59(5): 547–558.

Al-Khaier, F., 2003. Soil salinity detection using satellite remote sensing. Ms.C.Thesis. International Institute For Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation,  Enschede, The Netherlands. Available at [access date: 11.12.2017]: http://www.itc.eu/library/Papers_2003/msc/wrem/khaier.pdf

Bakeer, I.H.I., 2008. Using Geographic Information System (GIS) in reassessment of soil and groundwater salinity of Sohag Soils. Ms.C.Thesis. Assiut University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil and Water, Assiut, Egypt. [in Arabic]. Available at [access date: 11.12.2017]: http://www.alwelaie.com/website/universitytheses_details_print.php?theses_id=2295

El-Dardiry, E.I., 2007. Soil available water as affected by some soil physico-chemical properties in salt affected soils. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 1(3): 220-225

Ghabour, Th.K., Daels, L., 1993. Mapping and monitoring of soil salinity of El- Fayoum depression by the aid of land sat imagery. Egypian Journal of Soil Science 33(4): 355-370.

Ghallab, A., Ali, A. M., 2000. Remote sensing and GIS approach for environmental changes monitoring and evaluation: A case study of Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences 31(2): 1-13.

Ghallab, A., 1995. Management of saline underground water for irrigation in upper Egypt. Ph.D. Thesis. Assiut University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil and Water, Assiut, Egypt. [in Arabic]. Available at [access date: 11.12.2017]: http://www.aun.edu.eg/thesis_files/5018.pdf

Hillel, D., 2000. Salinity management for sustainable agriculture: Integrating science, environment, and economics. World Bank Publications. Washington DC, USA. 98p.

Ismail, M., Yacoub R. K., 2012. Digital soil map using the capability of new technology in Sugar Beet area, Nubariya, Egypt. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences 15(2): 113–124.

Jackson, M.L. 1967. Soil chemical analysis. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India. 498p.

Jackson, M.L. 1969. Soil chemical analysis: Advanced course. A manual of methods useful for instruction and research in soil chemistry, physical chemistry of soils, soil fertility, and soil genesis. Cornell University, USA. 895p.

Labeeb, G., 2002. Effect of irrigation water having different EC and SAR values on onion productivity under sandy soil conditions. Journal of Agricultural Science-Mansoura University 27(9): 6505-6522.

McLean, E.O., 1982. Soil pH and lime requirement. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties, Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.199-224.

Nelson, R.E., 1982. Carbonate and gypsum. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties, Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 181-198.

Page, A. L., Miller R. H., Keeney D. R., 1986. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Physical and Mineralogical properties. 2nd edition. Soil Science Society of America Journal, Madison, Wisconsin,   USA.

Qadir, M., Ghafoor, A., Murtaza, G., 2001. Use of saline–sodic waters through phytoremediation of calcareous saline–sodic soils. Agricultural Water Management  50(3): 197- 210.

Rhoades, J.D., 1982. Soluble salts. In: Methods of Soil Analysis Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.167-180.

Richards, L.A., 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soil. U.S. Salinity Lab. Staff, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, HandBook 60. Washington D.C. USA. 160p.

Sayed, A.S.A. 2013. Evaluation of the Land Resources for Agricultural Development - case study: El-Hammam Canal and its Extension, NW Coast of Egypt. Ph.D. Thesis, Department Geowissenschaften, Universität Hamburg. Germany. Available at [access date: 11.12.2017]: http://www.secheresse.info/spip.php?article26227

Yunus, M.A.J., Nakagoshi, N., Ibrahim, A., 2003. Application of GIS and remote sensing for measuring and evaluating land-use change and its impact on water quality in the Pinang River watershed. Ecology and Civil Engineering 6 (1): 97-110.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science