Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 7, Issue 2, Apr 2018, Pages 167 - 180
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.376284
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.376284
Copyright © 2018 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Soil-landscape relationship as indicated by pedogenesis data on selected soils from Southwestern, Iran

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Owliaie,H., Ghiri,M., Shakeri,S., 2018. Soil-landscape relationship as indicated by pedogenesis data on selected soils from Southwestern, Iran. Eurasian J Soil Sci 7(2):167 - 180. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.376284
Owliaie,H.,Ghiri,M.,& Shakeri,S. Soil-landscape relationship as indicated by pedogenesis data on selected soils from Southwestern, Iran Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 7(2):167 - 180. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.376284
Owliaie,H.,Ghiri,M., and ,Shakeri,S."Soil-landscape relationship as indicated by pedogenesis data on selected soils from Southwestern, Iran" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 7.2 (2018):167 - 180. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.376284
Owliaie,H.,Ghiri,M., and ,Shakeri,S. "Soil-landscape relationship as indicated by pedogenesis data on selected soils from Southwestern, Iran" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,7(Apr 2018):167 - 180 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.376284
H,Owliaie.M,Ghiri.S,Shakeri "Soil-landscape relationship as indicated by pedogenesis data on selected soils from Southwestern, Iran" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.7, no.2, pp.167 - 180 (Apr 2018), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.376284
Owliaie,Hamidreza ;Ghiri,Mahdi Najafi ;Shakeri,Sirous Soil-landscape relationship as indicated by pedogenesis data on selected soils from Southwestern, Iran. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2018),7.2:167 - 180. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.376284

How to cite

Owliaie, H., Ghiri, M., Shakeri, S., 2018. Soil-landscape relationship as indicated by pedogenesis data on selected soils from Southwestern, Iran. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 7(2): 167 - 180. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.376284

Author information

Hamidreza Owliaie , Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran Yasouj, Iran
Mahdi Najafi Ghiri , College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Darab University, Darab, Iran
Sirous Shakeri , Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

Publication information

Article first published online : 08 Jan 2018
Manuscript Accepted : 02 Jan 2018
Manuscript Received: 02 Oct 2017
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.376284
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.376284

Abstract

Soils of semiarid regions of Dehdasht and Choram in Southwestern Iran have formed on alluvium derived from mixed calcareous-gypsiferous materials from Lower Miocene to Upper Pliocene. In order to characterize and classify the soils and to determine the soil-landscape relationship in the area, nine pedons located on different physiographic positions including plateau, river alluvial plain, piedmont plain, alluvial plain and alluvial fan have been described, sampled and analyzed. Physicochemical analyses, clay mineralogy and micromorphological studies were performed. The results showed that topography and parent material were two important soil forming factors affecting soil formation in the area. The soils were dominated by carbonate, gypsum, and clay illuviation and accumulation. More developed soils were found on the stable plateau and piedmont plain. Clay illuviation and argillic horizon development in soils of the more stable alluvial plain were assumed to be relict features from presumably more humid climates. Palygorskite, illite, chlorite, smectite, kaolinite, and quartz clay minerals were identified in almost all physiographic surfaces, but more palygorskite and less smectite were found in the soils with gypsiferous parent materials. Observations by SEM revealed the occurrence of neoformed palygorskite as thread-like faces and coating of gypsum crystals and marly matrix. Coating and infilling of gypsum and calcite crystals in voids and channels were common pedofeatures observed in the soils studied. Two different distribution patterns of Fe-Mn oxides were identified in aquic and non-aquic soils.

Keywords

Clay mineralogy, gypsum, soil landscape, soil micromorphology.

Corresponding author

References

Abbaslou, H., Abtahi, A., Martin Peinado, F.J., Owliaie, H.  Khormali, F., 2013.  Mineralogy and characteristics of soils developed on Persian Gulf and Oman sea basin, southern Iran: implications for soil evolution in relation to sedimentary parent material. Soil Science 178 (10): 568-584.

Abtahi, A., 1980. Soil genesis as affected by topography and time in calcareous parent materials. Soil Science Society of America Journal 44(2): 329-336.

Abtahi, A., Khormali, F., 2001. Genesis and morphological characteristics of Mollisols formed in a catena under water table influence in southern Iran. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 32(9-10): 1643-1658.

Amit, R., Yaalon, A.D., 1996. The micromorphology of gypsum and halite in Reg soils: the Negev desert, Israel. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 21(12): 1127-1143.

Aoudjit, M., Robert, M., Elsass, F., Curmi, P., 1995. Detailed study of smectite genesis in granitic saprolites by analytical electron microscopy. Clay Minerals 30(2): 135 -147.

Badraoui, M., Bloom, P.L., Bouabid, R., 1992. Palygorskite-Smectite association in a xerochrept of the high Chaouia Region of Morocco. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56(5): 1640-1646.

Banaei, M.H., 1998. Soil moisture and temperature regime map of Iran. Soil and Water Research Institute. Ministry of Agriculture, Tehran, Iran.

Birkeland, P.W., 1999. Soils and Geomorphology. 3rd Edition. Oxford University Press, New York, USA. 430p.

Boettinger, J.L., Southard, R. J., 1995. Phyllosilicate distribution and origin in aridisols on a granitic pediment, Western Mojave desert. Soil Science Society of America Journal 59(4): 1189-1198.

Branhisel, R.L., Berstesch, P.M., 1992. Cholorites and hydroxy interlayer vermiculite and smectite. In: Minerals in soil environments. Dixon, J.B., Weeds, S.B. (Eds.). Soil Science Society of America, Book Series No. 1, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, USA. pp. 729-788.

Buck, B.J., Van Hoesen, J.G., 2002. Snowball morphology and SEM analysis of pedogenic gypsum, southern New Mexico, U.S.A. Journal of Arid Environments 51(4): 469-487.

Carter, B.J., Inskeep, W.P., 1988. Accumulation of pedogenic gypsum in western Oklahoma soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 52(4): 1107–1113.

Chapman, H.D., 1965. Cation exchange capacity. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part II, Black, C.A. (Ed.). Agronomy No. 9. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 891-901.

Churchman, G.J., Lowe, D.J., 2012. Alteration, formation, and occurrence of minerals in soils. In: Handbook of Soil Sciences: Properties and Processes. Huang, P.M., Li, Y., Sumner, M.E., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA. pp. 1–72.

Dahlgren, R.H., Boettinger, J.L., Huntington, G.L., Amundson, R.G., 1997. Soil development along an elevational transect in the western Sierra Nevada, California. Geoderma 78(3-4): 207-236.

Day, P.R., 1965. Particle fractionation and particle-size analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part I, Black, C.A. (Ed.). Agronomy No. 9. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. p. 545 566.

Dixon, J.B., Skinner, H.C.W., 1992. Manganese minerals in surface environments. In: Biomineralization processes of iron and manganese: modern and ancient environments. Skinner, H.C.W., Fitzpatrick, R.W., (Eds.), Cremlingen-Destedt: Catena Verlag. pp. 31–50.

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Gillot, F., Righi, D., Elsass, F., 2000. Pedogenic smectites in podzols from central Finland: an analytical electron microscopy study. Clays and Clay Minererals 48(6): 665-664.

Griffin, R.W., Buol, S.W., 1988. Soil and saprolite characteristics of vertic and aquic Hapludults derived from Triassic Basin sandstones. Soil Science Society of America Journal 52(4): 1094–1099.  

Hashemi, S.S., Baghernejad, M., Khademi, H., 2011. Micromorphology of gypsum crystals in southern Iranian soils under different moisture regimes. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 13(2): 273-288.

Jackson, M.L., 1975. Soil Chemical Analysis. Advanced Course Univ. of Wisconsin, College of Agric., Dept. of Soils, Madison, WI. 894 pp.

Jafarzadeh, A.A., Burnham, C.P., 1992. Gypsum crystals in soils. European Journal of Soil Science 43(3): 409-420.

Jaillard, B., Guyon, A., Maurin, A.F., 1991. Structure and composition of calcified roots, and their identification in calcareous soils. Geoderma 50(3): 197–210.

Johns, W.D., Grim, R.E., Bradley, F., 1954. Quantitative estimation of clay minerals by diffraction methods. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 24(4): 242-251.

Khademi, H., Mermut, A.R., 2003. Micromorphology and classification of Argids and associated gypsiferous Aridisols from central Iran. Catena 54(3): 439–455.

Khormali, F., Abtahi, A., 2003. Origin and distribution of clay minerals in calcareous arid and semi-arid soils of Fars Province. Clay Minerals 38(4): 511-527.

Khormeli, F., Abtahi, A., Stoops, G., 2006. Micromorphology of calcitic features in highly calcareous soils of Fars Province, Southern Iran. Catena 132(1-2): 31-46.

Khresat, S.A., Qudah, E.A., 2006. Formation and properties of aridic soils of Azraq Basin in northeastern Jordan. Journal of Arid Environments 64(1): 116-136.

Kittrick, J.A., Hope, E.W., 1963. A procedure for the particle size separation of soils for X-ray diffraction analysis. Soil Science 96(5): 319–325.

Lark, R.M., 1999. Soil–landform relationships at within-field scales: an investigation using continuous classification. Geoderma 92(3-4): 141-165.

Liu, F., Colombo, C., Adamo, P., He, J.Z., Violante, A., 2002. Trace elements in manganese–iron nodules from a Chinese Alfisol. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66(2): 661–670.

Mahjoory, R.A., 1975. Clay mineralogy, physical and chemical properties of some soils in arid regions of Iran. Soil Science Society of America Journal 39(6): 1157-1164.

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Abstract

Soils of semiarid regions of Dehdasht and Choram in Southwestern Iran have formed on alluvium derived from mixed calcareous-gypsiferous materials from Lower Miocene to Upper Pliocene. In order to characterize and classify the soils and to determine the soil-landscape relationship in the area, nine pedons located on different physiographic positions including plateau, river alluvial plain, piedmont plain, alluvial plain and alluvial fan have been described, sampled and analyzed. Physicochemical analyses, clay mineralogy and micromorphological studies were performed. The results showed that topography and parent material were two important soil forming factors affecting soil formation in the area. The soils were dominated by carbonate, gypsum, and clay illuviation and accumulation. More developed soils were found on the stable plateau and piedmont plain. Clay illuviation and argillic horizon development in soils of the more stable alluvial plain were assumed to be relict features from presumably more humid climates. Palygorskite, illite, chlorite, smectite, kaolinite, and quartz clay minerals were identified in almost all physiographic surfaces, but more palygorskite and less smectite were found in the soils with gypsiferous parent materials. Observations by SEM revealed the occurrence of neoformed palygorskite as thread-like faces and coating of gypsum crystals and marly matrix. Coating and infilling of gypsum and calcite crystals in voids and channels were common pedofeatures observed in the soils studied. Two different distribution patterns of Fe-Mn oxides were identified in aquic and non-aquic soils.

Keywords: Clay mineralogy, gypsum, soil landscape, soil micromorphology.

References

Abbaslou, H., Abtahi, A., Martin Peinado, F.J., Owliaie, H.  Khormali, F., 2013.  Mineralogy and characteristics of soils developed on Persian Gulf and Oman sea basin, southern Iran: implications for soil evolution in relation to sedimentary parent material. Soil Science 178 (10): 568-584.

Abtahi, A., 1980. Soil genesis as affected by topography and time in calcareous parent materials. Soil Science Society of America Journal 44(2): 329-336.

Abtahi, A., Khormali, F., 2001. Genesis and morphological characteristics of Mollisols formed in a catena under water table influence in southern Iran. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 32(9-10): 1643-1658.

Amit, R., Yaalon, A.D., 1996. The micromorphology of gypsum and halite in Reg soils: the Negev desert, Israel. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 21(12): 1127-1143.

Aoudjit, M., Robert, M., Elsass, F., Curmi, P., 1995. Detailed study of smectite genesis in granitic saprolites by analytical electron microscopy. Clay Minerals 30(2): 135 -147.

Badraoui, M., Bloom, P.L., Bouabid, R., 1992. Palygorskite-Smectite association in a xerochrept of the high Chaouia Region of Morocco. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56(5): 1640-1646.

Banaei, M.H., 1998. Soil moisture and temperature regime map of Iran. Soil and Water Research Institute. Ministry of Agriculture, Tehran, Iran.

Birkeland, P.W., 1999. Soils and Geomorphology. 3rd Edition. Oxford University Press, New York, USA. 430p.

Boettinger, J.L., Southard, R. J., 1995. Phyllosilicate distribution and origin in aridisols on a granitic pediment, Western Mojave desert. Soil Science Society of America Journal 59(4): 1189-1198.

Branhisel, R.L., Berstesch, P.M., 1992. Cholorites and hydroxy interlayer vermiculite and smectite. In: Minerals in soil environments. Dixon, J.B., Weeds, S.B. (Eds.). Soil Science Society of America, Book Series No. 1, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, USA. pp. 729-788.

Buck, B.J., Van Hoesen, J.G., 2002. Snowball morphology and SEM analysis of pedogenic gypsum, southern New Mexico, U.S.A. Journal of Arid Environments 51(4): 469-487.

Carter, B.J., Inskeep, W.P., 1988. Accumulation of pedogenic gypsum in western Oklahoma soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 52(4): 1107–1113.

Chapman, H.D., 1965. Cation exchange capacity. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part II, Black, C.A. (Ed.). Agronomy No. 9. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 891-901.

Churchman, G.J., Lowe, D.J., 2012. Alteration, formation, and occurrence of minerals in soils. In: Handbook of Soil Sciences: Properties and Processes. Huang, P.M., Li, Y., Sumner, M.E., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA. pp. 1–72.

Dahlgren, R.H., Boettinger, J.L., Huntington, G.L., Amundson, R.G., 1997. Soil development along an elevational transect in the western Sierra Nevada, California. Geoderma 78(3-4): 207-236.

Day, P.R., 1965. Particle fractionation and particle-size analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part I, Black, C.A. (Ed.). Agronomy No. 9. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. p. 545 566.

Dixon, J.B., Skinner, H.C.W., 1992. Manganese minerals in surface environments. In: Biomineralization processes of iron and manganese: modern and ancient environments. Skinner, H.C.W., Fitzpatrick, R.W., (Eds.), Cremlingen-Destedt: Catena Verlag. pp. 31–50.

Dixon, J.B., Weed, S.B., 1989. Minerals in soil environments. 2nd ed. Soil Science Society of America, Book Series No. 1, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, USA. 1244 p.

FAO, 2015. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy. Available at: [access date: 02.10.2017]: http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3794e.pdf

Farpoor, M.H., Khademi, H., Eghbal, M.K. 2002. Genesis and distribution of palygorskite and associated clay minerals in Rafsanjan soils on different geomorphic surfaces. Iran Agricultural Research 21(1): 39-60.

Geological Survey of Iran, 1995. Geological Quadrangle Map. No. 111, Geology Organization of Iran.

Gerrard, J., 1992. Soil Geomorphology. Chapman and Hall Pub. Company, London. 269 p.

Gharaee, H.A., Mahjoory, R.A., 1984. Characteristics and geomorphic relationships of some representative Aridisols in southern Iran. Soil Science Society of America Journal 48(5): 1115– 1119.

Gillot, F., Righi, D., Elsass, F., 2000. Pedogenic smectites in podzols from central Finland: an analytical electron microscopy study. Clays and Clay Minererals 48(6): 665-664.

Griffin, R.W., Buol, S.W., 1988. Soil and saprolite characteristics of vertic and aquic Hapludults derived from Triassic Basin sandstones. Soil Science Society of America Journal 52(4): 1094–1099.  

Hashemi, S.S., Baghernejad, M., Khademi, H., 2011. Micromorphology of gypsum crystals in southern Iranian soils under different moisture regimes. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 13(2): 273-288.

Jackson, M.L., 1975. Soil Chemical Analysis. Advanced Course Univ. of Wisconsin, College of Agric., Dept. of Soils, Madison, WI. 894 pp.

Jafarzadeh, A.A., Burnham, C.P., 1992. Gypsum crystals in soils. European Journal of Soil Science 43(3): 409-420.

Jaillard, B., Guyon, A., Maurin, A.F., 1991. Structure and composition of calcified roots, and their identification in calcareous soils. Geoderma 50(3): 197–210.

Johns, W.D., Grim, R.E., Bradley, F., 1954. Quantitative estimation of clay minerals by diffraction methods. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 24(4): 242-251.

Khademi, H., Mermut, A.R., 2003. Micromorphology and classification of Argids and associated gypsiferous Aridisols from central Iran. Catena 54(3): 439–455.

Khormali, F., Abtahi, A., 2003. Origin and distribution of clay minerals in calcareous arid and semi-arid soils of Fars Province. Clay Minerals 38(4): 511-527.

Khormeli, F., Abtahi, A., Stoops, G., 2006. Micromorphology of calcitic features in highly calcareous soils of Fars Province, Southern Iran. Catena 132(1-2): 31-46.

Khresat, S.A., Qudah, E.A., 2006. Formation and properties of aridic soils of Azraq Basin in northeastern Jordan. Journal of Arid Environments 64(1): 116-136.

Kittrick, J.A., Hope, E.W., 1963. A procedure for the particle size separation of soils for X-ray diffraction analysis. Soil Science 96(5): 319–325.

Lark, R.M., 1999. Soil–landform relationships at within-field scales: an investigation using continuous classification. Geoderma 92(3-4): 141-165.

Liu, F., Colombo, C., Adamo, P., He, J.Z., Violante, A., 2002. Trace elements in manganese–iron nodules from a Chinese Alfisol. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66(2): 661–670.

Mahjoory, R.A., 1975. Clay mineralogy, physical and chemical properties of some soils in arid regions of Iran. Soil Science Society of America Journal 39(6): 1157-1164.

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