Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 7, Issue 2, Apr 2018, Pages 151 - 166
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.376267
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.376267
Copyright © 2018 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Characterization and classification of soils of Yikalo Subwatershed in Lay Gayint District, Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia

X

Article first published online: 08 Jan 2018 | How to cite | Additional Information (Show All)

Author information | Publication information | Export Citiation (Plain Text | BibTeX | EndNote | RefMan)

CLASSICAL | APA | MLA | TURABIAN | IEEE | ISO 690

Abstract | References | Article (XML) | Article (HTML) | PDF | 99 | 412

Fekadu,E., Kibret,K., Bedadi,B., Melese,A., 2018. Characterization and classification of soils of Yikalo Subwatershed in Lay Gayint District, Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia. Eurasian J Soil Sci 7(2):151 - 166. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.376267
Fekadu,E.,Kibret,K.Bedadi,B.,& Melese,A. Characterization and classification of soils of Yikalo Subwatershed in Lay Gayint District, Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 7(2):151 - 166. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.376267
Fekadu,E.,Kibret,K.Bedadi,B., and ,Melese,A."Characterization and classification of soils of Yikalo Subwatershed in Lay Gayint District, Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 7.2 (2018):151 - 166. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.376267
Fekadu,E.,Kibret,K.Bedadi,B., and ,Melese,A. "Characterization and classification of soils of Yikalo Subwatershed in Lay Gayint District, Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,7(Apr 2018):151 - 166 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.376267
E,Fekadu.K,Kibret.B,Bedadi.A,Melese "Characterization and classification of soils of Yikalo Subwatershed in Lay Gayint District, Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.7, no.2, pp.151 - 166 (Apr 2018), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.376267
Fekadu,Endalkachew ;Kibret,Kibebew ;Bedadi,Bobe ;Melese,Asmare Characterization and classification of soils of Yikalo Subwatershed in Lay Gayint District, Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2018),7.2:151 - 166. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.376267

How to cite

Fekadu, E., Kibret, K., Bedadi, B., Melese, A., 2018. Characterization and classification of soils of Yikalo Subwatershed in Lay Gayint District, Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 7(2): 151 - 166. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.376267

Author information

Endalkachew Fekadu , School of Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
Kibebew Kibret , School of Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
Bobe Bedadi , School of Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
Asmare Melese , Department of Plant Science, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia

Publication information

Article first published online : 08 Jan 2018
Manuscript Accepted : 25 Dec 2017
Manuscript Received: 08 Aug 2017
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.376267
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.376267

Abstract

Soil resource information is vital for sound land use planning and sustainable fertility management. This study was carried out with the objective of characterizing and classifying soils of Yikalo Subwatershed at Lay Gayint district, Northwestern Ethiopia. Representative soil pedons were opened along topographic positions and described on genetic horizon basis in the field for their morphological characteristics and analyzed in the laboratory for selected physical and chemical soil properties. The soils were classified following the FAO (2014). The results revealed the presence of variations in the selected morphological properties within a pedon and along the topographic positions. Soils differed in reaction from 4.57 to 6.42. On the surface horizons of the soil pedons, available P content varied from 0.21 to 3.25 mg kg-1, while exchangeable acidity ranged from 0.17 to 3.65 cmolc kg-1 soil. There was no consistent trend for cation exchange capacity (CEC) and PBS (percent base saturation) with soil depth and topographic positions. The soils in Yikalo Subwatershed were classified as Hyperdystric Cambisols (Humic), Haplic Alisols (Humic), Cambic Umbrisols (Colluvic), Haplic Luvisols (Epidystric), and Pellic Vertisols (Mesotrophic). Optimum rates of organic and inorganic amendments should be applied to reduce the level of soil acidity, and improve the fertility level of the soils for better crop production and productivity.

Keywords

slope positions, soil classification, pedon.

Corresponding author

References

Abay, A., Sheleme, B., 2012. Characterization of soils at Angacha district in southern Ethiopia. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare 2(1): 6-16.

Abay, A., Sheleme, B., Fran, W., 2015. Characterization and classification of soils of selected areas in Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Environment and Earth Science 5(11): 116-137.

Abayneh, E., Zauyah, S., Hanafi, M.M., Rosenani, A.B., 2006. Genesis and classification of sesquioxidic soils from volcanic rocks in sub-humid tropical highlands of Ethiopia. Geoderma 136(3-4): 682-695.

Abreha, K., Heluf, G., Tekalign, M., Kindie, T., 2013. Wheat crop response to liming materials and N and P fertilizers in acidic soils of Tsegede highlands, northern Ethiopia. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 2(3): 126-135.

Addisu, B., Menberu, T., 2015. Crop Sensitivity to inter-annual climate variability in Lay Gayint woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. Ethiopian Renaissance Journal of Social Sciences and the Humanities 2: 27-42.

Adise, M., 2006. Geology and geochemistry of guna volcanic massif northwestern Ethiopian plateau. MSc Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Alem, H., Kibebew, K., Heluf, G., 2015. Characterization and classification of soils of Kabe Subwatershed in South Wollo Zone, Northeastern Ethiopia. African Journal of Soil Science 3(7): 134-146.

Ande, O.T., 2010. Morphogenetic characterization of soils formed from basement complex rock in the humid tropical rainforest of Nigeria. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management 1(6): 122-126.

Ashenafi, A., Abayneh, E., Sheleme, B., 2010. Characterizing soils of Delbo Wegene watershed, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia for planning appropriate land management. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management 1: 184-199.

Assen, Y., Yilma, S., 2010. Characteristics and classification of the soils of gonde micro-catchment, Arsi highlands, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Science 33(2): 101-116.

Baquy, M.A., Li, J.Y., Xu, C.Y., Mehmood, K., Xu, R.K., 2017. Determination of critical pH and Al concentration of acid Ultisols for wheat and canola crops. Solid Earth 8: 149-159.

Baruah, T.C., Barthakur, H.P., 1997. A textbook of soil analyses. Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India. 346p.

Brady, N.C, Weil, R.R., 2008. The Nature and Properties of Soils. 14th Edition.  Pearson Education International, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. 975p.

Buol, S.W., Southard, R.J., Graham, R.C., McDaniel, P.A., 2011. Soil Genesis and Classification, 6th ed. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, UK. 543p.

Chapman, H.D., 1965. Cation exchange capacity by ammonium saturation. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part II, Black, C.A. (Ed.). Agronomy No. 9. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.891-901.

Chaudhari, P.R., Ahire, D.V., Ahire, V.D., Chkravarty, M., Maity, S.,2013. Soil bulk density as related to soil texture, organic matter content and available total nutrients of Coimbatore soil. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 3(2): 1-8.

Chopra, S.H., Kanwar, J.S., 1976. Analytical Agricultural Chemistry. Kalyani Publisher Ludhiana, New Delhi, India. 489p.

Chukwu, G.O., 2013. Soil survey and classification of Ikwuano Abia state Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Science and Water Resources 2(5): 150-156.

Daniel, A., Tefera, T., 2016. Characterization and classification of soils of Aba-Midan Sub Watershed in Bambasi Wereda, West Ethiopia. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 6(6): 390-399.

Day, P.R., 1965. Particle Fractionation and Particle-Size Analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part I, Black, C.A. (Ed.). Agronomy No. 9. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.545-567

Dent, D., Young, A., 1981. Soil survey and land evaluation. Allen and Unwin Ltd. London.

Easton, Z.M., Bock, E., 2016. Soil and Soil Water Relationships. Virginia Cooperative Extension. Virginia State University, Petersburg.  Publication BSE-194P.  Available at: [access date: 08.08.2017]: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/content/dam/pubs_ext_vt_edu/BSE/BSE-194/BSE-194-PDF.pdf

ENMSA, 2017. Lay Gayint Weather Station Rain Fall and Temperature Data. Ethiopian National Meteorological Service Agency (ENMSA), Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Esu, I.E., Akpan-Idiok, A.U., Eyong, M.O., 2008. Characterization and classification of soils along a typical hill slope in Afikpo area of Ebonyi state, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Soil and Environment 8: 1-6.

FAO, 1981. Soils map of the world 1:5,000,000. FAO/UNESCO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.

FAO, 2003. Optimizing soil moisture for plant production: The significance of soil porosity. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), FAO Soils Bulletin 79, Rome, Italy. Available at: [access date: 08.08.2017]: http://www.fao.org/tempref/docrep/fao/006/y4690E/y4690E00.pdf

FAO, 2006. Guidelines for soil description. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy. Available at: [access date: 08.08.2017]: http://www.fao.org/docrep/019/a0541e/a0541e.pdf

FAO, 2014. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy. Available at: [access date: 08.08.2017]: http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3794e.pdf

Ge, S., Haigang, X., Mengmeng, J., Yuanmao, J., 2013. Characteristics of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and C/N ratio in chinese apple orchards. Open Journal of Soil Science 3(5): 213-217. 

Gill, R.S., Kanthaliya, P.C., Giri, J.D., 2012. Characterization and classification of soils of Phalasia block of Udaipur district, Rajasthan. Agropedology 22(1): 61-65.

Hartemink, A.E., Lowery, B., Wacker, C., 2012. Soil maps of Wisconsin. Geoderma 189-190: 451-461.

Hazelton, P., Murphy, B., 2007. Interpreting Soil Test Results. 2nd ed. CSIRO Publisher, Australia. 152p.

Jackson, M.L., 1967. Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 498p.

Jones, J.B., 2003. Agronomic handbook: Management of crops, soils, and their fertility. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL, USA. 450p.

Kebede, M., Shimbir, T., Kasa, G., Abera, D., Girma, T., 2017. Description, characterization and classification of the major soils in Jinka Agricultural Research Center, South Western Ethiopia. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management 8(3): 61-69.

Landon, J.R., 1991. Booker tropical soil manual. A handbook for soil survey and agricultural land evaluation in the tropics and subtropics. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA. 475p.

Lawal, B.A, Ojanuga, A.G. Tsado, P.A., Mohammed, A., 2013. Characterization, classification and agricultural potentials of soils on a toposequence in southern guinea savanna of Nigeria. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering 7(5): 330-334.

Meena, R.S., Natarajan, A., Thayalan, S., Hegde, R., Niranjana, K.V., Naidu, L.G.K., Sarkar, D., 2014. Characterization and classification of lowland soils of Chikkarsinkere Hobli, Maddur taluk, Mandya district of Karnataka. Agropedology 24(1): 95-101.

Mekonnen, G., 2015. Characterization of agricultural soils in cascape intervention woredas of Amhara region.  BDU-CASCAPE Working Paper 12.

Melese, A.., GEbrekidan, H., Yli-Halla, M., Yitaferu, B., 2015. Phosphorus status, inorganic phosphorus forms, and other physicochemical properties of acid soils of Farta district, Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia. Applied and Environmental Soil Science Article ID 748390.

Meysner, T., Szajdak, L., Kus, J., 2006. Impact of the farming systems on the content of biologically active substances and the forms of nitrogen in the soils. Agronomy Research 4: 531-542.

Mulugeta, D., Sheleme, B., 2010. Characterization and classification of soils along the toposequence of Kindo Koye Watershed in Southern Ethiopia. East African Journal of Sciences 4(2): 65-77.

Munsell Soil Colour Chart, 1994. Revised edition Macbeth Division of Kollmorgen Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland. Munsell Soil Colour Company Inc. Baltimore 18, Maryland, USA.

Nagaraju, M.S.S., Gajbhiye, K.S., 2014. Characterization and evaluation of soils of Kukadi Command (Minor-25) in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra for land resource management. Agropedology 24(2): 157-165.

Nahusenay, A., Kibebew, K., Heluf, G., Abayneh, E., 2014. Characterization and classification of soils along the toposequence at the Wadla Delanta Massif, north central highlands of Ethiopia. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment 6(9): 304-320.

Negassa, W., Gebrekidan, H., 2003. Influence of land management on morphological, physical and chemical properties of some soils of Bako, western Ethiopia. Agropedology 13(2): 1-9.

Olsen, S.R., Watenabe, V.C., Dean, L.A., 1954. Estimate of available phosphorous in soil by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USDA Circular. No. 939. USA.

Pulakeshi, H.B., Patil, P.L., Dasog, G.S., 2014. Characterization and classification of soil resources derived from chlorite schist in northern transition zone of Karnataka. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Science 27(1): 14-21.

Richards, L.A., 1965. Physical condition of water in soil. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part I, Black, C.A. (Ed.). Agronomy No. 9. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.128-151.

Rowell, D.L., 1994. Soil Science: Method and Applications. Addison Wesley Longman Limited, England.

Sahlemedhin, S., Taye B., 2000. Procedures for soil and plant analysis. National Soil Research Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Schoonover, J.E., Crim, J.F., 2015. An introduction to soil concepts and the role of soils in watershed management. Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education 154(1): 21-47.

Sekhar, C.C., Balaguravaiah, D., Naidu, M.V.S., 2014.  Studies on genesis, characterization and classification of soils in central and Eastern parts of Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh. Agropedology 24: 125-137.

Sheleme, B., 2011. Characterization of soils along a toposequence in gununo area, Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Science and Development 1(1): 31-41.

Shimelis, D., Mohamed, A., Abayneh, E., 2007. Characteristics and classification of the soils of Tenocha-Wenchacher micro-catchment, South-West Shewa, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Natural Resources 9(1): 37-62.

Tekalign, T., 1991. Soil, plant, water, fertilizer, animal manure and compost analysis. Working Document NO 13. International Livestock Research Center for Africa (ILCA), Addis Ababa.

Tena, W., Beyene, S.., 2008. Identification of growth limiting nutrient(s) in Alfisols: soil physic-chemical properties, nutrient concentrations and biomass yield of maize. American Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization Technology 1(1): 23-35.

Ukut, A.N., Akpan, U.S., Udoh, B.T., 2014. Characterization and classification of soils in steep sided hills and sharp-crested ridges of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Net Journal of Agricultural Science 2(2): 50-57.

USDA, 2010. From the surface down--An introduction to soil surveys for agronomic use. 2nd edition. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), USA.   Available at: [access date: 08.08.2017]: https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/nrcs142p2_052899.pdf

Walkley, A., Black, C.A., 1934. An examination of Digestion method for determining soil organic matter and proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29-38.

Wild, A., 2003. Soil, Land and Food: Managing the Land during 21st Century. Cambridge University Press, UK. 246p.

Yerima, B.P.k., 1993. Manuals for good laboratory practice. Improvement of Soil Service for Agricultural Development (Eth87010). Field Document no. 52. Land Use Planning and Regulatory Department, Ministry of Natural Resources Development and Environmental Protection FAO, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Yitbarek, T., Beyene, S., Kibret, K., 2016. Characterization and classification of soils of Abobo Area, Western Ethiopia. Applied and Environmental Soil Science Article ID 4708235.

Abstract

Soil resource information is vital for sound land use planning and sustainable fertility management. This study was carried out with the objective of characterizing and classifying soils of Yikalo Subwatershed at Lay Gayint district, Northwestern Ethiopia. Representative soil pedons were opened along topographic positions and described on genetic horizon basis in the field for their morphological characteristics and analyzed in the laboratory for selected physical and chemical soil properties. The soils were classified following the FAO (2014). The results revealed the presence of variations in the selected morphological properties within a pedon and along the topographic positions. Soils differed in reaction from 4.57 to 6.42. On the surface horizons of the soil pedons, available P content varied from 0.21 to 3.25 mg kg-1, while exchangeable acidity ranged from 0.17 to 3.65 cmolc kg-1 soil. There was no consistent trend for cation exchange capacity (CEC) and PBS (percent base saturation) with soil depth and topographic positions. The soils in Yikalo Subwatershed were classified as Hyperdystric Cambisols (Humic), Haplic Alisols (Humic), Cambic Umbrisols (Colluvic), Haplic Luvisols (Epidystric), and Pellic Vertisols (Mesotrophic). Optimum rates of organic and inorganic amendments should be applied to reduce the level of soil acidity, and improve the fertility level of the soils for better crop production and productivity.

Keywords: slope positions, soil classification, pedon.

References

Abay, A., Sheleme, B., 2012. Characterization of soils at Angacha district in southern Ethiopia. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare 2(1): 6-16.

Abay, A., Sheleme, B., Fran, W., 2015. Characterization and classification of soils of selected areas in Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Environment and Earth Science 5(11): 116-137.

Abayneh, E., Zauyah, S., Hanafi, M.M., Rosenani, A.B., 2006. Genesis and classification of sesquioxidic soils from volcanic rocks in sub-humid tropical highlands of Ethiopia. Geoderma 136(3-4): 682-695.

Abreha, K., Heluf, G., Tekalign, M., Kindie, T., 2013. Wheat crop response to liming materials and N and P fertilizers in acidic soils of Tsegede highlands, northern Ethiopia. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 2(3): 126-135.

Addisu, B., Menberu, T., 2015. Crop Sensitivity to inter-annual climate variability in Lay Gayint woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. Ethiopian Renaissance Journal of Social Sciences and the Humanities 2: 27-42.

Adise, M., 2006. Geology and geochemistry of guna volcanic massif northwestern Ethiopian plateau. MSc Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Alem, H., Kibebew, K., Heluf, G., 2015. Characterization and classification of soils of Kabe Subwatershed in South Wollo Zone, Northeastern Ethiopia. African Journal of Soil Science 3(7): 134-146.

Ande, O.T., 2010. Morphogenetic characterization of soils formed from basement complex rock in the humid tropical rainforest of Nigeria. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management 1(6): 122-126.

Ashenafi, A., Abayneh, E., Sheleme, B., 2010. Characterizing soils of Delbo Wegene watershed, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia for planning appropriate land management. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management 1: 184-199.

Assen, Y., Yilma, S., 2010. Characteristics and classification of the soils of gonde micro-catchment, Arsi highlands, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Science 33(2): 101-116.

Baquy, M.A., Li, J.Y., Xu, C.Y., Mehmood, K., Xu, R.K., 2017. Determination of critical pH and Al concentration of acid Ultisols for wheat and canola crops. Solid Earth 8: 149-159.

Baruah, T.C., Barthakur, H.P., 1997. A textbook of soil analyses. Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India. 346p.

Brady, N.C, Weil, R.R., 2008. The Nature and Properties of Soils. 14th Edition.  Pearson Education International, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. 975p.

Buol, S.W., Southard, R.J., Graham, R.C., McDaniel, P.A., 2011. Soil Genesis and Classification, 6th ed. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, UK. 543p.

Chapman, H.D., 1965. Cation exchange capacity by ammonium saturation. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part II, Black, C.A. (Ed.). Agronomy No. 9. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.891-901.

Chaudhari, P.R., Ahire, D.V., Ahire, V.D., Chkravarty, M., Maity, S.,2013. Soil bulk density as related to soil texture, organic matter content and available total nutrients of Coimbatore soil. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 3(2): 1-8.

Chopra, S.H., Kanwar, J.S., 1976. Analytical Agricultural Chemistry. Kalyani Publisher Ludhiana, New Delhi, India. 489p.

Chukwu, G.O., 2013. Soil survey and classification of Ikwuano Abia state Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Science and Water Resources 2(5): 150-156.

Daniel, A., Tefera, T., 2016. Characterization and classification of soils of Aba-Midan Sub Watershed in Bambasi Wereda, West Ethiopia. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 6(6): 390-399.

Day, P.R., 1965. Particle Fractionation and Particle-Size Analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part I, Black, C.A. (Ed.). Agronomy No. 9. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.545-567

Dent, D., Young, A., 1981. Soil survey and land evaluation. Allen and Unwin Ltd. London.

Easton, Z.M., Bock, E., 2016. Soil and Soil Water Relationships. Virginia Cooperative Extension. Virginia State University, Petersburg.  Publication BSE-194P.  Available at: [access date: 08.08.2017]: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/content/dam/pubs_ext_vt_edu/BSE/BSE-194/BSE-194-PDF.pdf

ENMSA, 2017. Lay Gayint Weather Station Rain Fall and Temperature Data. Ethiopian National Meteorological Service Agency (ENMSA), Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Esu, I.E., Akpan-Idiok, A.U., Eyong, M.O., 2008. Characterization and classification of soils along a typical hill slope in Afikpo area of Ebonyi state, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Soil and Environment 8: 1-6.

FAO, 1981. Soils map of the world 1:5,000,000. FAO/UNESCO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.

FAO, 2003. Optimizing soil moisture for plant production: The significance of soil porosity. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), FAO Soils Bulletin 79, Rome, Italy. Available at: [access date: 08.08.2017]: http://www.fao.org/tempref/docrep/fao/006/y4690E/y4690E00.pdf

FAO, 2006. Guidelines for soil description. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy. Available at: [access date: 08.08.2017]: http://www.fao.org/docrep/019/a0541e/a0541e.pdf

FAO, 2014. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy. Available at: [access date: 08.08.2017]: http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3794e.pdf

Ge, S., Haigang, X., Mengmeng, J., Yuanmao, J., 2013. Characteristics of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and C/N ratio in chinese apple orchards. Open Journal of Soil Science 3(5): 213-217. 

Gill, R.S., Kanthaliya, P.C., Giri, J.D., 2012. Characterization and classification of soils of Phalasia block of Udaipur district, Rajasthan. Agropedology 22(1): 61-65.

Hartemink, A.E., Lowery, B., Wacker, C., 2012. Soil maps of Wisconsin. Geoderma 189-190: 451-461.

Hazelton, P., Murphy, B., 2007. Interpreting Soil Test Results. 2nd ed. CSIRO Publisher, Australia. 152p.

Jackson, M.L., 1967. Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 498p.

Jones, J.B., 2003. Agronomic handbook: Management of crops, soils, and their fertility. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL, USA. 450p.

Kebede, M., Shimbir, T., Kasa, G., Abera, D., Girma, T., 2017. Description, characterization and classification of the major soils in Jinka Agricultural Research Center, South Western Ethiopia. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management 8(3): 61-69.

Landon, J.R., 1991. Booker tropical soil manual. A handbook for soil survey and agricultural land evaluation in the tropics and subtropics. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA. 475p.

Lawal, B.A, Ojanuga, A.G. Tsado, P.A., Mohammed, A., 2013. Characterization, classification and agricultural potentials of soils on a toposequence in southern guinea savanna of Nigeria. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering 7(5): 330-334.

Meena, R.S., Natarajan, A., Thayalan, S., Hegde, R., Niranjana, K.V., Naidu, L.G.K., Sarkar, D., 2014. Characterization and classification of lowland soils of Chikkarsinkere Hobli, Maddur taluk, Mandya district of Karnataka. Agropedology 24(1): 95-101.

Mekonnen, G., 2015. Characterization of agricultural soils in cascape intervention woredas of Amhara region.  BDU-CASCAPE Working Paper 12.

Melese, A.., GEbrekidan, H., Yli-Halla, M., Yitaferu, B., 2015. Phosphorus status, inorganic phosphorus forms, and other physicochemical properties of acid soils of Farta district, Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia. Applied and Environmental Soil Science Article ID 748390.

Meysner, T., Szajdak, L., Kus, J., 2006. Impact of the farming systems on the content of biologically active substances and the forms of nitrogen in the soils. Agronomy Research 4: 531-542.

Mulugeta, D., Sheleme, B., 2010. Characterization and classification of soils along the toposequence of Kindo Koye Watershed in Southern Ethiopia. East African Journal of Sciences 4(2): 65-77.

Munsell Soil Colour Chart, 1994. Revised edition Macbeth Division of Kollmorgen Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland. Munsell Soil Colour Company Inc. Baltimore 18, Maryland, USA.

Nagaraju, M.S.S., Gajbhiye, K.S., 2014. Characterization and evaluation of soils of Kukadi Command (Minor-25) in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra for land resource management. Agropedology 24(2): 157-165.

Nahusenay, A., Kibebew, K., Heluf, G., Abayneh, E., 2014. Characterization and classification of soils along the toposequence at the Wadla Delanta Massif, north central highlands of Ethiopia. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment 6(9): 304-320.

Negassa, W., Gebrekidan, H., 2003. Influence of land management on morphological, physical and chemical properties of some soils of Bako, western Ethiopia. Agropedology 13(2): 1-9.

Olsen, S.R., Watenabe, V.C., Dean, L.A., 1954. Estimate of available phosphorous in soil by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USDA Circular. No. 939. USA.

Pulakeshi, H.B., Patil, P.L., Dasog, G.S., 2014. Characterization and classification of soil resources derived from chlorite schist in northern transition zone of Karnataka. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Science 27(1): 14-21.

Richards, L.A., 1965. Physical condition of water in soil. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part I, Black, C.A. (Ed.). Agronomy No. 9. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.128-151.

Rowell, D.L., 1994. Soil Science: Method and Applications. Addison Wesley Longman Limited, England.

Sahlemedhin, S., Taye B., 2000. Procedures for soil and plant analysis. National Soil Research Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Schoonover, J.E., Crim, J.F., 2015. An introduction to soil concepts and the role of soils in watershed management. Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education 154(1): 21-47.

Sekhar, C.C., Balaguravaiah, D., Naidu, M.V.S., 2014.  Studies on genesis, characterization and classification of soils in central and Eastern parts of Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh. Agropedology 24: 125-137.

Sheleme, B., 2011. Characterization of soils along a toposequence in gununo area, Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Science and Development 1(1): 31-41.

Shimelis, D., Mohamed, A., Abayneh, E., 2007. Characteristics and classification of the soils of Tenocha-Wenchacher micro-catchment, South-West Shewa, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Natural Resources 9(1): 37-62.

Tekalign, T., 1991. Soil, plant, water, fertilizer, animal manure and compost analysis. Working Document NO 13. International Livestock Research Center for Africa (ILCA), Addis Ababa.

Tena, W., Beyene, S.., 2008. Identification of growth limiting nutrient(s) in Alfisols: soil physic-chemical properties, nutrient concentrations and biomass yield of maize. American Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization Technology 1(1): 23-35.

Ukut, A.N., Akpan, U.S., Udoh, B.T., 2014. Characterization and classification of soils in steep sided hills and sharp-crested ridges of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Net Journal of Agricultural Science 2(2): 50-57.

USDA, 2010. From the surface down--An introduction to soil surveys for agronomic use. 2nd edition. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), USA.   Available at: [access date: 08.08.2017]: https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/nrcs142p2_052899.pdf

Walkley, A., Black, C.A., 1934. An examination of Digestion method for determining soil organic matter and proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29-38.

Wild, A., 2003. Soil, Land and Food: Managing the Land during 21st Century. Cambridge University Press, UK. 246p.

Yerima, B.P.k., 1993. Manuals for good laboratory practice. Improvement of Soil Service for Agricultural Development (Eth87010). Field Document no. 52. Land Use Planning and Regulatory Department, Ministry of Natural Resources Development and Environmental Protection FAO, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Yitbarek, T., Beyene, S., Kibret, K., 2016. Characterization and classification of soils of Abobo Area, Western Ethiopia. Applied and Environmental Soil Science Article ID 4708235.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science