Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 7, Issue 1, Jan 2018, Pages 73 - 86
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.337218
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.337218
Copyright © 2018 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Evaluation of land suitability for main irrigated crops in the North-Western Region of Libya

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Abd El-Aziz,S., 2018. Evaluation of land suitability for main irrigated crops in the North-Western Region of Libya. Eurasian J Soil Sci 7(1):73 - 86. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.337218
,& Abd El-Aziz,S. (2018). Evaluation of land suitability for main irrigated crops in the North-Western Region of Libya Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 7(1):73 - 86. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.337218
, and ,Abd El-Aziz,S. "Evaluation of land suitability for main irrigated crops in the North-Western Region of Libya" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 7.1 (2018):73 - 86. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.337218
, and ,Abd El-Aziz,S. "Evaluation of land suitability for main irrigated crops in the North-Western Region of Libya" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,7(Jan 2018):73 - 86 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.337218
S,Abd El-Aziz "Evaluation of land suitability for main irrigated crops in the North-Western Region of Libya" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.7, no.1, pp.73 - 86 (Jan 2018), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.337218
Abd El-Aziz,Salah Hassanien Evaluation of land suitability for main irrigated crops in the North-Western Region of Libya. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2018),7.1:73 - 86. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.337218

How to cite

Abd El-Aziz, S., 2018. Evaluation of land suitability for main irrigated crops in the North-Western Region of Libya. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 7(1): 73 - 86. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.337218

Author information

Salah Hassanien Abd El-Aziz , Department of Soils & Water, College of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

Publication information

Article first published online : 08 Sep 2017
Manuscript Accepted : 05 Sep 2017
Manuscript Received: 13 Jul 2017
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.337218
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.337218

Abstract

Land suitability analysis can help to achieve sustainable crop production with a proper use of the natural resources. The current study was carried out on the soils of north-western area of Libya to assess their morphological, physical and chemical properties and their suitability for growing irrigated crops. The studied area lies between latitudes 32° 30′ 00.9" and 32° 57′ 34.2'' N and between longitudes 11° 35′ 08.4" and 11° 45′ 09.2" E. Two suitability methods (Sys &Verhey and Storie methods) were used to assess the land suitability of this area. According to Sys and Verhye method, the soils of the studied area varied in the suitability for irrigation between highly suitable (S1) to marginally suitable (S3). However, according to modified Storie index method the soils productivity, ranged from excellent (grade 1) for agriculture to non-agricultural (grade 6). The modified Storie index method was more effective in assessing the land suitability of this area. The drip irrigation system was also more suitable than surface irrigation method for most of the soils of the studied area. The indeces of soil suitability rating and percentage for growing alfalfa, sorghum, barley, maize, millets, wheat and safflower were higher compared to those for growing soybean, sunflower and sesame. Onion and green pepper crops were moderately suitable to be grown in 42% of the soils of the studied area while the other vegetables were not suitable to be grown in most of the soils of the studied area. The evaluated fruit trees could be arranged according to the soil suitability rating and percentage in the order of date palm > olives > guava > citrus > banana. The results also revealed that the studied area has a good potential to produce the selected crops under irrigation provided that the water requirements for these crops are met. The main limiting factors for land suitability for growing crops are soil texture, soil depth, calcium carbonate, alkaline pH and soil salinity.

Keywords

Land evaluation, irrigation methods, suitability for crops

Corresponding author

References

AbdelRahman, M.A.E., Natarajan, A., Hegde, R., 2016.Assessment of land suitability and capability by integrating remote sensing and GIS for agriculture in Chamarajanagar district, Karnataka, India. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science 19(1): 125–141.

Ahmed, M.A.E., 2016. Land evaluation of Gharb El-Mawhob Area, El Dakhla Oasis, New Valley, Egypt. M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Albaji, M., Nasab, S.B., Kashkoli, H.A., Naseri, A., 2009. Comparison of different irrigation methods based on the parametric evaluation approach in the plain West of Shush, Iran. Irrigation and Drainage 59(5): 547-558.

Bashour, I.I., Sayegh, A.H., 2007. Methods of analysis for soils of arid and semi-arid region, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 119p. Available at [access date : 13.07.2017]: https://msibsri4313.files.wordpress.com/2013/11/methods-of-soil-analysis-for-arid-semiarid-regions.pdf

Ben-Mahmoud, R., Mansur, S., Al-Gomati, A., 2000. Land degradation and desertification in Libya Tripoli. In: Desertification in the Third Millennium. Alsharhan, A.S., Wood, W.W., Goudie, A.S., Fowler, A., Abdellatif, E.M. (Eds.). Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers, Lisse, The Netherlands. pp.339-350.

Briza, Y., Delionardo, F., Spisni, A., 2001, Land evaluation in the province of Ben Sliman, Morocco. 21st Course Professional Master. Remote Sensing and Natural Resources Evaluation. 10 November 2000 – 22 June 2001, IAO Florence, Italy. 21: 62-78.

Darwish, K.M.,  Kawy, W.A.A., 2014. Land suitability decision support for assessing land use changes in areas west of Nile Delta, Egypt. Arabian  Journal of  Geosciences 7(3): 865–875.

Dengiz, O., 2006. Comparison of different irrigation methods based on the parametric evaluation approach. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 30(1): 21-29.

Diallo, M.D., Wood, S.A., Diallo , A., Mahatma-Saleh, M., Ndiaye , O., Tine, A.K., Ngamb, T., Guisse, M., Seck, S., Diop, A., Guisse, A., 2016. Soil suitability for the production of rice, groundnut, and cassava in the peri-urban Niayes zone, Senegal. Soil and Tillage Research 155: 412–420.

Elaalem, M., 2010.  The application of land evaluation techniques in Jeffara Plain in Libya using Fuzzy Methods. Ph.D thesis, Department of Geography, University of Leicester. Leicester, UK.

Fanning, D.S., Fanning, M.C.B., 1989. Soil morphology, genesis and classification. John Wiley & Sons.Inc., New York, USA. 395p.

FAO. 1988. Salt-Affected Soils and Their Management. Soils Bulletin No. 39. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 131p. Available at [access date : 13.07.2017]: http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5871e/x5871e00.htm

FAO. 2006. Guideline for soil description, fourth edition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 97p. Available at [access date : 13.07.2017]:  http://www.fao.org/docrep/019/a0541e/a0541e.pdf

Gavlak, R., Horneck, D., Miller, R.O., 2005. Soil, plant and water reference methods for the western region. 3rd Edition. WREP 125. Oregon, USA.  Available at [access date : 13.07.2017]: http://www.naptprogram.org/files/napt/western-states-method-manual-2005.pdf

He, Y., Yao, Y., Chen, Y., Ongaro, L., 2011.Regional Land Suitability Assessment for Tree Crops Using Remote Sensing and GIS. International Conference on Computer Distributed Control and Intelligent Environmental Monitoring, 19-20 February 2011, Changsha, China. pp. 354–363.

Kamali, A,, Sarmadian, F., Mahmoodi, S., 2012. Land suitability modeling for sustainable agriculture using MicroLEIS DSS and remote sensing in an arid region of Iran. Elixir Agriculture 42: 6516-6519.

Mbodj, C., Mahjoub, I., Sghaiev, N., 2004. Land evaluation in the oudrmel catchment, Tunisia. 24th Course Professional Master. Geometric and Natural Resources Evaluation, 10 November 2003 - 23 June 2004, IAO Florence, Italy. 21: 41-72.

Mehdi, J., Mohammad, A., Gharibzadeh, A., 2012. Investigating the Suitability of Lands for Surface and Under-Pressure (Drip and Sprinkler) Irrigation in Miheh Plain. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences 6(2): 51-61.

Mu, Y., 2006. Developing a suitability index for residential land use: A case study in Dianchi drainage area. MSc Thesis. University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Available at [access date : 13.07.2017]: http://hdl.handle.net/10012/2912

Nasab, S.B., Albaji, M., Naseri, A., 2010. Investigation of different irrigation systems based on the parametric evaluation approach in Boneh Basht plain, Iran. African Journal of Agricultural Research 5(5): 372-379.

Nelson, R.E., 1982. Carbonates and gypsum. In: Methods of Soil Analysis Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Page, A.L. et al. (Eds). American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 181–198.

Nwer, B.A. B., 2005. The application of land evaluation technique in the north-east of Libya. Ph.D Thesis, Faculty of Environment, Cranfield University, UK. Available at [access date : 13.07.2017]: http://dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk/handle/1826/1125

O’Geen, A.T., Southard, S.B., Southard, R.J., 2008. A revised Storie Index for use with digital soils information. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, ANR Publication 8335, USA. Available at [access date: 13.07.2017]: http://anrcatalog.ucanr.edu/pdf/8335.pdf

Pan, G., Pan, J., 2012. Research in crop land suitability analysis based on GIS. In: Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture. Li, D., Chen, Y., (Eds.). IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol 369. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 314–325.

Prakash, T.N., 2003. Land suitability analysis for agricultural crops: A fuzzy multicriteria decision making approach, science in geoinformatics. ITC, Enschede, The Netherlands. pp. 6–13.

Rhoades, J.D., 1982. Soluble salts. In: Methods of Soil Analysis Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Page, A.L. et al. (Eds). American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.167-180.

Sayed, A.S.A., 2013. Evaluation of the land resources for agricultural development - case study: El-Hammam canal and its extension, NW Coast of Egypt. Ph.D Thesis, Department Geowissenschaften, Universität Hamburg, Germany. Available at [access date: 13.07.2017]: http://ediss.sub.uni-hamburg.de/volltexte/2013/6071/pdf/Dissertation.pdf

Shahbazzi, F., Jafarzadeh, A.A., Sarmadian, F., Neyshaboury, M.R., Oustan, S., Anaya- Ramero, M., De La Rossa, D., 2009. Suitability of wheat, maize, sugar beet and potato using MicroLEIS DSS software in Ahar area, Northwest of Iran. American- Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science 5(1): 45-52.

Soil Survey Staff, 1975. Soil Munsell Color Charts, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), USA.

Soil Survey Staff, 2014. Keys to Soil Taxonomy. 12rd Edition. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service. USA. Available at [access date: 13.07.2017]: https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/PA_NRCSConsumption/download?cid=stelprdb1252094&ext=pdf

Storie, R.E., 1978. Storie index soil rating (revised). Special Publication 3203. Division of Agricultural Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Sys, C.E., Van Ranst, E., Debaveye, J., Beernaert, F., 1993. Land evaluation. Part III: Crop requirements. Agricultural Publications No.7, G.A.D.C., Brussels, Belgium, 191p. Available at [access date: 13.07.2017]: http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-233235

Sys, C., Van Ranst, E., Debaveye, J., 1991. Land evaluation. Part 1: Principles in land evaluation and crop production calculations. General Administration for Development Cooperation (GADC), Agricultural Publications No 7. Brussels, Belgium. 274p.

Sys, C., Verheye, W., 1978. An Attempt to the evaluation of physical land characteristics for irrigation according to the FAO framework for land evaluation. State University of Ghent, International Training Centre for Post-Graduate Soil Scientists, Ghent, Belgium. pp. 66-78.

Abstract

Land suitability analysis can help to achieve sustainable crop production with a proper use of the natural resources. The current study was carried out on the soils of north-western area of Libya to assess their morphological, physical and chemical properties and their suitability for growing irrigated crops. The studied area lies between latitudes 32° 30′ 00.9" and 32° 57′ 34.2'' N and between longitudes 11° 35′ 08.4" and 11° 45′ 09.2" E. Two suitability methods (Sys &Verhey and Storie methods) were used to assess the land suitability of this area. According to Sys and Verhye method, the soils of the studied area varied in the suitability for irrigation between highly suitable (S1) to marginally suitable (S3). However, according to modified Storie index method the soils productivity, ranged from excellent (grade 1) for agriculture to non-agricultural (grade 6). The modified Storie index method was more effective in assessing the land suitability of this area. The drip irrigation system was also more suitable than surface irrigation method for most of the soils of the studied area. The indeces of soil suitability rating and percentage for growing alfalfa, sorghum, barley, maize, millets, wheat and safflower were higher compared to those for growing soybean, sunflower and sesame. Onion and green pepper crops were moderately suitable to be grown in 42% of the soils of the studied area while the other vegetables were not suitable to be grown in most of the soils of the studied area. The evaluated fruit trees could be arranged according to the soil suitability rating and percentage in the order of date palm > olives > guava > citrus > banana. The results also revealed that the studied area has a good potential to produce the selected crops under irrigation provided that the water requirements for these crops are met. The main limiting factors for land suitability for growing crops are soil texture, soil depth, calcium carbonate, alkaline pH and soil salinity.

Keywords: Land evaluation, irrigation methods, suitability for crops.

References

AbdelRahman, M.A.E., Natarajan, A., Hegde, R., 2016.Assessment of land suitability and capability by integrating remote sensing and GIS for agriculture in Chamarajanagar district, Karnataka, India. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science 19(1): 125–141.

Ahmed, M.A.E., 2016. Land evaluation of Gharb El-Mawhob Area, El Dakhla Oasis, New Valley, Egypt. M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Albaji, M., Nasab, S.B., Kashkoli, H.A., Naseri, A., 2009. Comparison of different irrigation methods based on the parametric evaluation approach in the plain West of Shush, Iran. Irrigation and Drainage 59(5): 547-558.

Bashour, I.I., Sayegh, A.H., 2007. Methods of analysis for soils of arid and semi-arid region, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 119p. Available at [access date : 13.07.2017]: https://msibsri4313.files.wordpress.com/2013/11/methods-of-soil-analysis-for-arid-semiarid-regions.pdf

Ben-Mahmoud, R., Mansur, S., Al-Gomati, A., 2000. Land degradation and desertification in Libya Tripoli. In: Desertification in the Third Millennium. Alsharhan, A.S., Wood, W.W., Goudie, A.S., Fowler, A., Abdellatif, E.M. (Eds.). Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers, Lisse, The Netherlands. pp.339-350.

Briza, Y., Delionardo, F., Spisni, A., 2001, Land evaluation in the province of Ben Sliman, Morocco. 21st Course Professional Master. Remote Sensing and Natural Resources Evaluation. 10 November 2000 – 22 June 2001, IAO Florence, Italy. 21: 62-78.

Darwish, K.M.,  Kawy, W.A.A., 2014. Land suitability decision support for assessing land use changes in areas west of Nile Delta, Egypt. Arabian  Journal of  Geosciences 7(3): 865–875.

Dengiz, O., 2006. Comparison of different irrigation methods based on the parametric evaluation approach. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 30(1): 21-29.

Diallo, M.D., Wood, S.A., Diallo , A., Mahatma-Saleh, M., Ndiaye , O., Tine, A.K., Ngamb, T., Guisse, M., Seck, S., Diop, A., Guisse, A., 2016. Soil suitability for the production of rice, groundnut, and cassava in the peri-urban Niayes zone, Senegal. Soil and Tillage Research 155: 412–420.

Elaalem, M., 2010.  The application of land evaluation techniques in Jeffara Plain in Libya using Fuzzy Methods. Ph.D thesis, Department of Geography, University of Leicester. Leicester, UK.

Fanning, D.S., Fanning, M.C.B., 1989. Soil morphology, genesis and classification. John Wiley & Sons.Inc., New York, USA. 395p.

FAO. 1988. Salt-Affected Soils and Their Management. Soils Bulletin No. 39. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 131p. Available at [access date : 13.07.2017]: http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5871e/x5871e00.htm

FAO. 2006. Guideline for soil description, fourth edition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 97p. Available at [access date : 13.07.2017]:  http://www.fao.org/docrep/019/a0541e/a0541e.pdf

Gavlak, R., Horneck, D., Miller, R.O., 2005. Soil, plant and water reference methods for the western region. 3rd Edition. WREP 125. Oregon, USA.  Available at [access date : 13.07.2017]: http://www.naptprogram.org/files/napt/western-states-method-manual-2005.pdf

He, Y., Yao, Y., Chen, Y., Ongaro, L., 2011.Regional Land Suitability Assessment for Tree Crops Using Remote Sensing and GIS. International Conference on Computer Distributed Control and Intelligent Environmental Monitoring, 19-20 February 2011, Changsha, China. pp. 354–363.

Kamali, A,, Sarmadian, F., Mahmoodi, S., 2012. Land suitability modeling for sustainable agriculture using MicroLEIS DSS and remote sensing in an arid region of Iran. Elixir Agriculture 42: 6516-6519.

Mbodj, C., Mahjoub, I., Sghaiev, N., 2004. Land evaluation in the oudrmel catchment, Tunisia. 24th Course Professional Master. Geometric and Natural Resources Evaluation, 10 November 2003 - 23 June 2004, IAO Florence, Italy. 21: 41-72.

Mehdi, J., Mohammad, A., Gharibzadeh, A., 2012. Investigating the Suitability of Lands for Surface and Under-Pressure (Drip and Sprinkler) Irrigation in Miheh Plain. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences 6(2): 51-61.

Mu, Y., 2006. Developing a suitability index for residential land use: A case study in Dianchi drainage area. MSc Thesis. University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Available at [access date : 13.07.2017]: http://hdl.handle.net/10012/2912

Nasab, S.B., Albaji, M., Naseri, A., 2010. Investigation of different irrigation systems based on the parametric evaluation approach in Boneh Basht plain, Iran. African Journal of Agricultural Research 5(5): 372-379.

Nelson, R.E., 1982. Carbonates and gypsum. In: Methods of Soil Analysis Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Page, A.L. et al. (Eds). American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 181–198.

Nwer, B.A. B., 2005. The application of land evaluation technique in the north-east of Libya. Ph.D Thesis, Faculty of Environment, Cranfield University, UK. Available at [access date : 13.07.2017]: http://dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk/handle/1826/1125

O’Geen, A.T., Southard, S.B., Southard, R.J., 2008. A revised Storie Index for use with digital soils information. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, ANR Publication 8335, USA. Available at [access date: 13.07.2017]: http://anrcatalog.ucanr.edu/pdf/8335.pdf

Pan, G., Pan, J., 2012. Research in crop land suitability analysis based on GIS. In: Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture. Li, D., Chen, Y., (Eds.). IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol 369. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 314–325.

Prakash, T.N., 2003. Land suitability analysis for agricultural crops: A fuzzy multicriteria decision making approach, science in geoinformatics. ITC, Enschede, The Netherlands. pp. 6–13.

Rhoades, J.D., 1982. Soluble salts. In: Methods of Soil Analysis Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Page, A.L. et al. (Eds). American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.167-180.

Sayed, A.S.A., 2013. Evaluation of the land resources for agricultural development - case study: El-Hammam canal and its extension, NW Coast of Egypt. Ph.D Thesis, Department Geowissenschaften, Universität Hamburg, Germany. Available at [access date: 13.07.2017]: http://ediss.sub.uni-hamburg.de/volltexte/2013/6071/pdf/Dissertation.pdf

Shahbazzi, F., Jafarzadeh, A.A., Sarmadian, F., Neyshaboury, M.R., Oustan, S., Anaya- Ramero, M., De La Rossa, D., 2009. Suitability of wheat, maize, sugar beet and potato using MicroLEIS DSS software in Ahar area, Northwest of Iran. American- Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science 5(1): 45-52.

Soil Survey Staff, 1975. Soil Munsell Color Charts, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), USA.

Soil Survey Staff, 2014. Keys to Soil Taxonomy. 12rd Edition. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service. USA. Available at [access date: 13.07.2017]: https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/PA_NRCSConsumption/download?cid=stelprdb1252094&ext=pdf

Storie, R.E., 1978. Storie index soil rating (revised). Special Publication 3203. Division of Agricultural Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Sys, C.E., Van Ranst, E., Debaveye, J., Beernaert, F., 1993. Land evaluation. Part III: Crop requirements. Agricultural Publications No.7, G.A.D.C., Brussels, Belgium, 191p. Available at [access date: 13.07.2017]: http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-233235

Sys, C., Van Ranst, E., Debaveye, J., 1991. Land evaluation. Part 1: Principles in land evaluation and crop production calculations. General Administration for Development Cooperation (GADC), Agricultural Publications No 7. Brussels, Belgium. 274p.

Sys, C., Verheye, W., 1978. An Attempt to the evaluation of physical land characteristics for irrigation according to the FAO framework for land evaluation. State University of Ghent, International Training Centre for Post-Graduate Soil Scientists, Ghent, Belgium. pp. 66-78.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science