Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 6, Issue 4, Sep 2017, Pages 319-326
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.306698
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.306698
Copyright © 2017 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Synergistic use of nitrogen and zinc to bio-fortify zinc in wheat grains

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Akram,M., Depar,N., Memon,M., 2017. Synergistic use of nitrogen and zinc to bio-fortify zinc in wheat grains. Eurasian J Soil Sci 6(4):319-326. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.306698
Akram,M.,Depar,N.,& Memon,M. Synergistic use of nitrogen and zinc to bio-fortify zinc in wheat grains Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6(4):319-326. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.306698
Akram,M.,Depar,N., and ,Memon,M."Synergistic use of nitrogen and zinc to bio-fortify zinc in wheat grains" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6.4 (2017):319-326. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.306698
Akram,M.,Depar,N., and ,Memon,M. "Synergistic use of nitrogen and zinc to bio-fortify zinc in wheat grains" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,6(Sep 2017):319-326 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.306698
MA,Akram.N,Depar.MY,Memon "Synergistic use of nitrogen and zinc to bio-fortify zinc in wheat grains" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.6, no.4, pp.319-326 (Sep 2017), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.306698
Akram,Muhammad ;Depar,Nizamuddin ;Memon,Muhammad Synergistic use of nitrogen and zinc to bio-fortify zinc in wheat grains. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2017),6.4:319-326. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.306698

How to cite

Akram, M., A. Depar, N., A. Memon, M., Y.2017. Synergistic use of nitrogen and zinc to bio-fortify zinc in wheat grains. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 6(4): 319-326. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.306698

Author information

Muhammad Akram , Soil & Environmental Sciences Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA), Tando Jam, 70060, Sindh, Pakistan
Nizamuddin Depar , Soil & Environmental Sciences Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA), Tando Jam, Sindh, Pakistan
Muhammad Memon , Soil & Environmental Sciences Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA), Tando Jam, Sindh, Pakistan

Publication information

Article first published online : 17 Apr 2017
Manuscript Accepted : 07 Apr 2017
Manuscript Received: 24 Jan 2017
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.306698
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.306698

Abstract

Our daily diet is largely contributed by cereals, which have low genetic abilities to amass higher concentrations of micronutrients in their grains. Hence, wide spread deficiencies iron, zinc and other essential nutrients have prevailed. Present study focuses the bio-fortification of Zn in wheat grains, taking advantage of nutrient-nutrient synergy between Zn and N. Three wheat genotypes (NIA-Amber, BWQ-4 and SD-998) were tested in a field experiment following randomized complete block factorial design with three replicates. Urea fertilizer was applied at the rates of 120 (recommended), 150 and 180 kg N ha-1 in combination with three levels of Zn (0, 5 & 10 kg ha-1). Outcomes of the experiment revealed that NIA-Amber had the highest grain yield of 6.03 tons/ha against 150 kg N ha-1 and 10 kg Zn ha-1. Maximum Zn contents of 447.86, 429.56 and 395.56 g ha-1 were observed in BWQ-4, SD-998 and NIA-Amber at 180 kg N ha-1 in combination with 10 kg Zn ha-1. Maximum enhancement in protein contents was observed in BWQ-4 (743 kg ha-1) at 180 kg N ha-1and combined with 5 kg Zn ha-1. For NIA-Amber, 180 kg N ha-1 in combination of 10 kg Zn ha-1 proved the most suitable in terms of Zn concentration and other quality attributes. Nitrogen @ 180 kg N ha-1 with 5 kg Zn ha-1 depicted appreciable zinc and protein contents in grains of BWQ-4 and SD-998.

Keywords

Bio-fortification, human nutrition, nutrient management.

Corresponding author

References

Abedi, T., Alemzadeh, A., Kazemeini, S.A., 2010. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on grain yield and protein banding pattern of wheat. Australian Journal of Crop Sciences 4(6): 384–389.

Abedi, T., Alemzadeh, A., Kazemeini, S.A., 2011. Wheat yield and grain protein response to nitrogen amount and timing. Australian Journal of Crop Sciences 5(3): 330–336.

Allen, L.H., 2000. Ending hidden hunger: the history of micronutrient deficiency control. Background Analysis for the World Bank- UNICEF Nutrition Assessment Project World Bank. Washington DC, USA.

Barunawati, N., Giehl, R.F.H., Bauer B., von Wiren, N., 2013. The influence of inorganic N fertilizer forms on micronutrient retranslocation and accumulation in grains of winter wheat. Frontiers in Plant Science 4 (320): 1 – 11.

Bouis, H.E., Welch, R.M., 2010. Biofortification—A Sustainable agricultural strategy for reducing micronutrient malnutrition in the global south. Crop Science 50(S1): 20-32.

Brown, B., Westcott, M., Christensen, N., Pan, B., Starck, J., 2005. Nitrogen management for hard wheat protein enhancement. A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication, PNW 578.

Cakmak, I., 2010. Biofortification of cereals with zinc and iron through fertilization strategy. 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World, 1-6 August 2010, Brisbane, Australia. p.4-6.

Cakmak, I., Pfeiffer, W.H., McClafferty, B., 2010a. Biofortification of Durum wheat with Zn and iron. Cereal Chemistry 87 (1): 10-20.

Cakmak, I., Kalayci, M., Kaya, Y., Torun, A. A., Aydin, N., Wang, Y., Arisoy, Z.,  Erdem, H., Gokmen, O., Ozturk, L., Horst, W.J., 2010b. Biofortification and localization of Zn in wheat grain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58(16): 9092–9102.

Chapman, H.D., Pratt, P.F., 1961. Methods of analysis for soils, plants and water. University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Chaudhary, N.R., Vyas, A. K., Singh, A. K., 1997. Growth and nutrient uptake in wheat as influenced by nitrogen, phosphorus and Zn application. Annals of Agricultural Research 18: 365-366.

Chauhan, T.M., Ali, J., Singh, S.P., Singh, S.B., 2014.  Effect of nitrogen and zinc nutrition on yield, quality and uptake of nutrients by wheat . Annals of Plant and Soil Research 16(2): 98-101

FAO, 2013. Crop prospects and food situation. Global Information and Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture (GIEWS), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Italy, Rome. Available at [Accessed date:  24.01.2017]: http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/aq114e/aq114e.pdf

FAO, 2003. Food energy - methods of analysis and conversion factors.  FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 77. Rome, Italy. Available at [Accessed date:  24.01.2017]:http://www.fao.org/uploads/media/FAO_2003_Food_Energy_02.pdf

Goswami, V.K., 2007. Response of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to nitrogen and zinc application. Annals of Agricultural Research New Series 28(1): 90-91.

Imran, M., Kanwal, S.,  Hussain, S.,  Aziz, T., Maqsood, M.A., 2015. Efficacy of zinc application methods for concentration and estimated bioavailability of zn in grains of rice grown on a calcareous soil. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 52(1): 169-175

Jiang, L., Zhang, D., Song, F., Zhang, X., Shao, Y., Li, C., 2013. Effects of zinc on growth and physiological characters of flag leaf and grains of winter wheat after anthesis. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology 5(5): 571-577.

Jones, Jr., J.B., 1991. Kjeldahl method for nitrogen determination. Micro-Macro Publishing Inc., Athens, GA, USA.

Khare, D., Dixit, H.C., 2011. Effect of potassium and zinc on yield, quality and uptake of nutrients in wheat . Annals of Plant and Soil Research 13(2): 158-160.

Kutman, U.B., Yildiz, B., Cakmak, I., 2011. Improved nitrogen status enhances zinc and iron concentrations both in the whole grain and the endosperm fraction of wheat. Journal of Cereal Science 53(1): 118-125.

Kutman, U.B., Yildiz, B., Ozturk, L., Cakmak, I., 2010. Biofortification of durum wheat with zinc through soil and foliar applications of nitrogen. Cereal Chemistry 87(1): 1–9.

Kutman. U.B., Yildiz, B.K., Ceylan, Y., Ova, E.A., Cakmak, I., 2012. Contributions of root uptake and remobilization to grain zinc accumulation in wheat depending on post-anthesis zinc availability and nitrogen nutrition. Plant and Soil 361(1): 177–187.

Marino, S., Tognetti, R., Alvino, A., 2011. Effects of varying nitrogen fertilization on crop yield and grain quality of emmer grown in a typical Mediterranean environment in central Italy. European Journal of Agronomy 34(3): 172-180.

Mayer, J.E., Pfeiffer, W.H., Beyer, P., 2008. Biofortified crops to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 11(2): 166-170.

Nadim, M.A., Awan, I.U., Baloch, M.S., Khan, E.A., Naveed, K., Khan, M.A., 2012. Response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to different micronutrients and their application methods. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 22(1): 113–119.

NAMC, 2016. Climate maps. National Metrological Centre-Pakistan Metrological Department. Available at [Accessed date:  24.01.2017]: http://namc.pmd.gov.pk/climate-maps.php

Oscarson, P., 2000. The strategy of the wheat plant in acclimating growth and grain production to nitrogen availability. Journal of Experimental Botany 51 (352): 1921 –1929.

Protic, R., Jovin, R., Protic, N., Jankovic, S., Jovanovic, Z., 2007. Mass of 1,000 grains in several winter wheat genotypes, at different dates of sowing and rates of Nitrogen fertilizer. Romanian Agricultural Research 24: 39–42.

Rashid, A., 1986. Mapping zinc fertility of soils using indicator plants and soils analyses. PhD Dissertation, University of Hawaii, HI, USA.

Riezzo, G., Chiloiro, M., Russo, F., 2005. Functional foods: salient features and clinical applications. Current Drug Targets-Immune, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorder 5(3): 331-337.

Rodrigues, O., Dinonet, D.A., Gonveia, J.A., De Cássia Soares, R.,  2000. Nitrogen translocation in wheat inoculated with Azospirium. Pesquisa agropecuária Brasileria. 35(7): 1473-1481.

Ryan, J., 2000. Soil and plant analysis in the Mediterranean region: Limitations and potential. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis  31(11 – 14): 2147 – 2154.

Sahay, N., Kumar, A., Verma, D., 2009. Effect of nitrogen and zinc on herbage yield, nutrient uptake and quality of fodder oat. Annals of Plant and Soil Research 11(2): 162-163.

Salvagiotti, F., Miralles, D.J., 2007. Wheat development as affected by nitrogen and sulfur nutrition. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 58(1): 39–45.

Shi, R., Zhang, Y., Chen, X., Sun, Q., Zhang, F., Römheld, V.,  Zou, C., 2010. Influence of long-term nitrogen fertilization on micronutrient density in grain of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  Journal of Cereal Science 51(1): 165 – 170.

Singh, M.V., Kumar, N., Singh, R.K., Mishra, B.N.,  2010. Effect of phosphorus, sulphur and zinc on growth, yield and uptake of nutrients in late sown wheat in eastern Uttar Pradesh. Annals of Plant and Soil Research 12(2): 119-121.

Singh, R.K., Singh, S.K., Singh, L.B., 2007. Integrated nitrogen management in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Indian Journal of Agronomy 52(2): 124-126

Singh, V., Singh, S.P., Singh, S., Shivay, Y.S., 2013. Growth, yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum) as affected by biofertilizers, FYM and nitrogen. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 83(3): 331-334.

Sperotto, R.A., Ricachenevsky, F.K.,  Waldow, V., de A., Müller, A.L.H., Dressler, V.L., Fett, J.P., 2013. Rice grain Fe, Mn and Zn accumulation: How important are flag leaves and seed number? Plant Soil and Environment 59(6): 262–266.

Stein, A.J., 2006. Micronutrient malnutrition and the impact of modern plant breeding on public health in India: How Cost-effective is Biofortification? Cuvillier Verlag, Göttingen, Germany. 162p.

Stein, A.J., Nestel, P., Meenakshi, J.V., Qaim, M., Sachdev H.P., Bhutta, Z.A., 2007. Plant breeding to control zinc deficiency in India: how cost-effective is biofortification? Public Health and Nutrition 10(5): 492-501.

Takahashi, M., Terada, Y., Nakai, I., Nakanishi, H., Yoshimura, E., Mori, S., Nishizawa, N.K., 2003. Role of nicotianamine in the intracellular delivery of metals and plant reproductive development. The Plant Cell 15(6): 1263–1280.

UNO, 2004. United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition: Fifth Report on the World Nutrition Situation – Nutrition for Improved Development Outcomes.

Vijayaraghavan, K., 2002. Control of micronutrient deficiencies in India: obstacles and strategies. Nutrition Reviews 60(S5): 73-76.

Vincent, J.E., Menefee, A.M., 2007. Vitamin A supplementation including older children: A refugee population on the Thailand–Burma border. Sight and Life Magazine 2/2007: 16-19.

Wang, Y. X., Specht, A., Horst, W.J., 2011. Stable isotope labelling and zinc distribution in grains studied by laser ablation ICP-MS in an ear culture system reveals zinc transport barriers during grain filling in wheat. New Phytologist 189(2): 428–437.

Warraich, E.A., Ahmed, N., Basra, S.M.A., Afzal, I., 2002. Effect of nitrogen on source-sink relationship in wheat. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 4(2): 300–302.

Welch, R.M., Graham, R.D., 2004. Breeding for micronutrients in staple food crops from a human nutrition perspective. Journal of Experimental Botany  55(96): 353-364.

Yadav, A.K., Chauhan, S.K., Shroti, S.K., 2012. Effect of sowing dates and nitrogen levels on yield and economics of vegetable pea-wheat-maize cropping system in central part of Uttar Pradesh. Annals of Plant and Soil Research 14(2): 159-162.

Abstract

Our daily diet is largely contributed by cereals, which have low genetic abilities to amass higher concentrations of micronutrients in their grains. Hence, wide spread deficiencies iron, zinc and other essential nutrients have prevailed. Present study focuses the bio-fortification of Zn in wheat grains, taking advantage of nutrient-nutrient synergy between Zn and N. Three wheat genotypes (NIA-Amber, BWQ-4 and SD-998) were tested in a field experiment following randomized complete block factorial design with three replicates. Urea fertilizer was applied at the rates of 120 (recommended), 150 and 180 kg N ha-1 in combination with three levels of Zn (0, 5 & 10 kg ha-1). Outcomes of the experiment revealed that NIA-Amber had the highest grain yield of 6.03 tons/ha against 150 kg N ha-1 and 10 kg Zn ha-1. Maximum Zn contents of 447.86, 429.56 and 395.56 g ha-1 were observed in BWQ-4, SD-998 and NIA-Amber at 180 kg N ha-1 in combination with 10 kg Zn ha-1. Maximum enhancement in protein contents was observed in BWQ-4 (743 kg ha-1) at 180 kg N ha-1and combined with 5 kg Zn ha-1.  For NIA-Amber, 180 kg N ha-1 in combination of 10 kg Zn ha-1 proved the most suitable in terms of Zn concentration and other quality attributes. Nitrogen @ 180 kg N ha-1 with 5 kg Zn ha-1 depicted appreciable zinc and protein contents in grains of BWQ-4 and SD-998.

Keywords: Bio-fortification, human nutrition, nutrient management.

References

Abedi, T., Alemzadeh, A., Kazemeini, S.A., 2010. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on grain yield and protein banding pattern of wheat. Australian Journal of Crop Sciences 4(6): 384–389.

Abedi, T., Alemzadeh, A., Kazemeini, S.A., 2011. Wheat yield and grain protein response to nitrogen amount and timing. Australian Journal of Crop Sciences 5(3): 330–336.

Allen, L.H., 2000. Ending hidden hunger: the history of micronutrient deficiency control. Background Analysis for the World Bank- UNICEF Nutrition Assessment Project World Bank. Washington DC, USA.

Barunawati, N., Giehl, R.F.H., Bauer B., von Wiren, N., 2013. The influence of inorganic N fertilizer forms on micronutrient retranslocation and accumulation in grains of winter wheat. Frontiers in Plant Science 4 (320): 1 – 11.

Bouis, H.E., Welch, R.M., 2010. Biofortification—A Sustainable agricultural strategy for reducing micronutrient malnutrition in the global south. Crop Science 50(S1): 20-32.

Brown, B., Westcott, M., Christensen, N., Pan, B., Starck, J., 2005. Nitrogen management for hard wheat protein enhancement. A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication, PNW 578.

Cakmak, I., 2010. Biofortification of cereals with zinc and iron through fertilization strategy. 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World, 1-6 August 2010, Brisbane, Australia. p.4-6.

Cakmak, I., Pfeiffer, W.H., McClafferty, B., 2010a. Biofortification of Durum wheat with Zn and iron. Cereal Chemistry 87 (1): 10-20.

Cakmak, I., Kalayci, M., Kaya, Y., Torun, A. A., Aydin, N., Wang, Y., Arisoy, Z.,  Erdem, H., Gokmen, O., Ozturk, L., Horst, W.J., 2010b. Biofortification and localization of Zn in wheat grain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58(16): 9092–9102.

Chapman, H.D., Pratt, P.F., 1961. Methods of analysis for soils, plants and water. University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Chaudhary, N.R., Vyas, A. K., Singh, A. K., 1997. Growth and nutrient uptake in wheat as influenced by nitrogen, phosphorus and Zn application. Annals of Agricultural Research 18: 365-366.

Chauhan, T.M., Ali, J., Singh, S.P., Singh, S.B., 2014.  Effect of nitrogen and zinc nutrition on yield, quality and uptake of nutrients by wheat . Annals of Plant and Soil Research 16(2): 98-101

FAO, 2013. Crop prospects and food situation. Global Information and Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture (GIEWS), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Italy, Rome. Available at [Accessed date:  24.01.2017]: http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/aq114e/aq114e.pdf

FAO, 2003. Food energy - methods of analysis and conversion factors.  FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 77. Rome, Italy. Available at [Accessed date:  24.01.2017]:http://www.fao.org/uploads/media/FAO_2003_Food_Energy_02.pdf

Goswami, V.K., 2007. Response of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to nitrogen and zinc application. Annals of Agricultural Research New Series 28(1): 90-91.

Imran, M., Kanwal, S.,  Hussain, S.,  Aziz, T., Maqsood, M.A., 2015. Efficacy of zinc application methods for concentration and estimated bioavailability of zn in grains of rice grown on a calcareous soil. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 52(1): 169-175

Jiang, L., Zhang, D., Song, F., Zhang, X., Shao, Y., Li, C., 2013. Effects of zinc on growth and physiological characters of flag leaf and grains of winter wheat after anthesis. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology 5(5): 571-577.

Jones, Jr., J.B., 1991. Kjeldahl method for nitrogen determination. Micro-Macro Publishing Inc., Athens, GA, USA.

Khare, D., Dixit, H.C., 2011. Effect of potassium and zinc on yield, quality and uptake of nutrients in wheat . Annals of Plant and Soil Research 13(2): 158-160.

Kutman, U.B., Yildiz, B., Cakmak, I., 2011. Improved nitrogen status enhances zinc and iron concentrations both in the whole grain and the endosperm fraction of wheat. Journal of Cereal Science 53(1): 118-125.

Kutman, U.B., Yildiz, B., Ozturk, L., Cakmak, I., 2010. Biofortification of durum wheat with zinc through soil and foliar applications of nitrogen. Cereal Chemistry 87(1): 1–9.

Kutman. U.B., Yildiz, B.K., Ceylan, Y., Ova, E.A., Cakmak, I., 2012. Contributions of root uptake and remobilization to grain zinc accumulation in wheat depending on post-anthesis zinc availability and nitrogen nutrition. Plant and Soil 361(1): 177–187.

Marino, S., Tognetti, R., Alvino, A., 2011. Effects of varying nitrogen fertilization on crop yield and grain quality of emmer grown in a typical Mediterranean environment in central Italy. European Journal of Agronomy 34(3): 172-180.

Mayer, J.E., Pfeiffer, W.H., Beyer, P., 2008. Biofortified crops to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 11(2): 166-170.

Nadim, M.A., Awan, I.U., Baloch, M.S., Khan, E.A., Naveed, K., Khan, M.A., 2012. Response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to different micronutrients and their application methods. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 22(1): 113–119.

NAMC, 2016. Climate maps. National Metrological Centre-Pakistan Metrological Department. Available at [Accessed date:  24.01.2017]: http://namc.pmd.gov.pk/climate-maps.php

Oscarson, P., 2000. The strategy of the wheat plant in acclimating growth and grain production to nitrogen availability. Journal of Experimental Botany 51 (352): 1921 –1929.

Protic, R., Jovin, R., Protic, N., Jankovic, S., Jovanovic, Z., 2007. Mass of 1,000 grains in several winter wheat genotypes, at different dates of sowing and rates of Nitrogen fertilizer. Romanian Agricultural Research 24: 39–42.

Rashid, A., 1986. Mapping zinc fertility of soils using indicator plants and soils analyses. PhD Dissertation, University of Hawaii, HI, USA.

Riezzo, G., Chiloiro, M., Russo, F., 2005. Functional foods: salient features and clinical applications. Current Drug Targets-Immune, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorder 5(3): 331-337.

Rodrigues, O., Dinonet, D.A., Gonveia, J.A., De Cássia Soares, R.,  2000. Nitrogen translocation in wheat inoculated with Azospirium. Pesquisa agropecuária Brasileria. 35(7): 1473-1481.

Ryan, J., 2000. Soil and plant analysis in the Mediterranean region: Limitations and potential. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis  31(11 – 14): 2147 – 2154.

Sahay, N., Kumar, A., Verma, D., 2009. Effect of nitrogen and zinc on herbage yield, nutrient uptake and quality of fodder oat. Annals of Plant and Soil Research 11(2): 162-163.

Salvagiotti, F., Miralles, D.J., 2007. Wheat development as affected by nitrogen and sulfur nutrition. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 58(1): 39–45.

Shi, R., Zhang, Y., Chen, X., Sun, Q., Zhang, F., Römheld, V.,  Zou, C., 2010. Influence of long-term nitrogen fertilization on micronutrient density in grain of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  Journal of Cereal Science 51(1): 165 – 170.

Singh, M.V., Kumar, N., Singh, R.K., Mishra, B.N.,  2010. Effect of phosphorus, sulphur and zinc on growth, yield and uptake of nutrients in late sown wheat in eastern Uttar Pradesh. Annals of Plant and Soil Research 12(2): 119-121.

Singh, R.K., Singh, S.K., Singh, L.B., 2007. Integrated nitrogen management in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Indian Journal of Agronomy 52(2): 124-126

Singh, V., Singh, S.P., Singh, S., Shivay, Y.S., 2013. Growth, yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum) as affected by biofertilizers, FYM and nitrogen. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 83(3): 331-334.

Sperotto, R.A., Ricachenevsky, F.K.,  Waldow, V., de A., Müller, A.L.H., Dressler, V.L., Fett, J.P., 2013. Rice grain Fe, Mn and Zn accumulation: How important are flag leaves and seed number? Plant Soil and Environment 59(6): 262–266.

Stein, A.J., 2006. Micronutrient malnutrition and the impact of modern plant breeding on public health in India: How Cost-effective is Biofortification? Cuvillier Verlag, Göttingen, Germany. 162p.

Stein, A.J., Nestel, P., Meenakshi, J.V., Qaim, M., Sachdev H.P., Bhutta, Z.A., 2007. Plant breeding to control zinc deficiency in India: how cost-effective is biofortification? Public Health and Nutrition 10(5): 492-501.

Takahashi, M., Terada, Y., Nakai, I., Nakanishi, H., Yoshimura, E., Mori, S., Nishizawa, N.K., 2003. Role of nicotianamine in the intracellular delivery of metals and plant reproductive development. The Plant Cell 15(6): 1263–1280.

UNO, 2004. United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition: Fifth Report on the World Nutrition Situation – Nutrition for Improved Development Outcomes.

Vijayaraghavan, K., 2002. Control of micronutrient deficiencies in India: obstacles and strategies. Nutrition Reviews 60(S5): 73-76.

Vincent, J.E., Menefee, A.M., 2007. Vitamin A supplementation including older children: A refugee population on the Thailand–Burma border. Sight and Life Magazine 2/2007: 16-19.

Wang, Y. X., Specht, A., Horst, W.J., 2011. Stable isotope labelling and zinc distribution in grains studied by laser ablation ICP-MS in an ear culture system reveals zinc transport barriers during grain filling in wheat. New Phytologist 189(2): 428–437.

Warraich, E.A., Ahmed, N., Basra, S.M.A., Afzal, I., 2002. Effect of nitrogen on source-sink relationship in wheat. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 4(2): 300–302.

Welch, R.M., Graham, R.D., 2004. Breeding for micronutrients in staple food crops from a human nutrition perspective. Journal of Experimental Botany  55(96): 353-364.

Yadav, A.K., Chauhan, S.K., Shroti, S.K., 2012. Effect of sowing dates and nitrogen levels on yield and economics of vegetable pea-wheat-maize cropping system in central part of Uttar Pradesh. Annals of Plant and Soil Research 14(2): 159-162.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science