Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 6, Issue 2, Apr 2017, Pages 178-188
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.286636
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.286636
Copyright © 2017 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Distribution, typology and assessment of degraded soils Piedmont Plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan

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Kussainova,M., Pachikin,K., Erokhina,O., 2017. Distribution, typology and assessment of degraded soils Piedmont Plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan. Eurasian J Soil Sci 6(2):178-188. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286636
Kussainova,M.,Pachikin,K.,& Erokhina,O. Distribution, typology and assessment of degraded soils Piedmont Plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6(2):178-188. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286636
Kussainova,M.,Pachikin,K., and ,Erokhina,O."Distribution, typology and assessment of degraded soils Piedmont Plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6.2 (2017):178-188. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286636
Kussainova,M.,Pachikin,K., and ,Erokhina,O. "Distribution, typology and assessment of degraded soils Piedmont Plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,6(Apr 2017):178-188 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286636
M,Kussainova.K,Pachikin.O,Erokhina "Distribution, typology and assessment of degraded soils Piedmont Plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.6, no.2, pp.178-188 (Apr 2017), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286636
Kussainova,Maira ;Pachikin,Konstantin ;Erokhina,Olga Distribution, typology and assessment of degraded soils Piedmont Plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2017),6.2:178-188. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286636

How to cite

Kussainova, M., Pachikin, K., Erokhina, O., 2017. Distribution, typology and assessment of degraded soils Piedmont Plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 6(2): 178-188. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286636

Author information

Maira Kussainova , Kazakh Research Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry named after U.U. Uspanov, 050060 Almaty, Kazakhstan
Konstantin Pachikin , Kazakh Research Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry named after U.U. Uspanov, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Olga Erokhina , Kazakh Research Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry named after U.U. Uspanov, Almaty, Kazakhstan

Publication information

Article first published online : 28 Dec 2016
Manuscript Accepted : 19 Dec 2016
Manuscript Received: 28 Jul 2016
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.286636
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.286636

Abstract

Identification of land degradation is essential to check the problem and to implement the remedial measures needed. The study area falls under parts of foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, that is an arid region in climate. Recent data on the status of study area refer to the 80s of the last century, and the intensive use of them led to a significant anthropogenic transformation. This study was carried out in 2015-2016 as part of a project aimed to study features and causes of land degradation in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan. Under the conditions of rainfed soil degradation manifests itself in the development of erosion processes, agro depletion of soils, reducing the productivity of agriculture. The use of land for irrigation often accompanied by secondary salinization. In this regard, at present there is need to assess current state of the soil, with the identification of changes in their properties as a result of the impact of various anthropogenic factors and creation of new electronic soil maps and applied the powerful capabilities of advanced remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques to identify the geomorphological units and degradation risk assessment. Satellite imagery in addition to the field and laboratory studies to identify salinity-induced soil degradation was adopted in this study. Morphological, chemical and physical characteristics of soils in degraded sites in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, were depicted. The main results of a thorough evaluation of soil degradation in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, are presented. The data revealed that extent of salinity-induced degradation was generally related to some physical properties of soil, uncontrolled livestock grazing and previous soil management practices. These results are useful as the basis for designing soil conservation and restoration programs, as a base line for evaluating the performance of conservation programs and for assessing the impact of other soil-related activities (e.g. agriculture and livestock rising).

Keywords

Soil degradation, Kazakhstan, Zhetysu Ridge, geoinformation technologies, types of degradation

Corresponding author

References

Agency of Land Resources, 2011. Report on state land in Kazakhstan in 2011. Available at [Access date: 28.07.2016]: http://2011-2014.ecodoklad.kz/

Aleksandrova, L.N., Naydenova, O.A., 1986. Laboratorno-prakticheskie zanyatiya po pochvovedeniyu [Laboratory and practical classes of soil science]. – L.: Agropromizdat, – 295 pp. [in Russian]

Arinushkina, E.V., 1962. Rukovodstvo po himicheskomu analizu pochv [Guidelines for Chemical analysis of soil]. – M.: MGU, 491 pp. [in Russian]

Asanbayev, I.K., 1998. Antropogennyye izmeneniya pochv i ikh ekologicheskiye posledstviya [Anthropogenic changes in soils and their environmental consequences]. Almaty: ylym. 180 pp. [in Russian]

De Beurs, K.M., Henebry, G.M. 2004. Land surface phenology, climatic variation, and institutional change: analyzing agricultural land cover change in Kazakhstan. Remote Sensing of Environment 89(4): 497-509.

Dyusenbekov, Z., 1997. Problemyi zemelnyih otnosheniy i mehanizmyi perehoda k platnomu zemlepolzovaniyu [Issues of land relations and mechanisms of transition to the paid land use]. Mezhdunarodnyiy selskohozyaystvennyiy zhurnal [International Journal of Agriculture] (Vol. 6. pp. 11-14). Moscow. [in Russian]

Environmental requirements, 2005. Ekologicheskiye trebovaniya v oblasti okhrany i ispolzovaniya zemelnykh resursov (v tom chisle zemel selskokhozyaystvennogo naznacheniya) [Environmental requirements in the field of land protection and use (including agricultural land)]. RND Okhrana zemelnykh resursov. MKh RK. Astana. 2005. [in Russian]

Erokhina, O.G., Nasyirov, R.M., Pachikin, K.M., Yakunin, G.N., 2004. Transformatsiya pochv podgornyih ravnin Zailiyskogo Alatau v rezultate orosheniya [Transformation of Soil piedmont plains Trans-Ili Alatau as a result of irrigation]. Aktualnyie problemyi pochvovedeniya [Actual Problems of Soil Science] (k 50-letiyu osvoeniya tselinnyih i zalezhnyih zemel). Almaty: Tetis, pp. 78-92. [in Russian]

Fedorin, Yu.V., 1977. Zemelnyie resursyi predgornyih ravnin Kazahstana [Land foothill plains of Kazakhstan]. – Alma-Ata: Kaynar, 187 p. [in Russian]

Gabbasova, I.M., Habirov, I.K., 2010. Rasprostranenie, tipologiya i otsenka sostoyaniya degradirovannyih pochv respubliki Bashkortostan [The spread, typology and assessment of degraded soils of Bashkortostan] Vestnik BGAU/Vestnik BSAU, 22, 5-13. [in Russian]

Isachenko, A.G., 1980. Metodyi prikladnyih landshaftnyih issledovaniy [Methods Applied Landscape Research]. L.: Nauka, 222 p. [in Russian]

Ivanov, B.N., 1989. Vliyanie hodovoy sistemyi avtomobilya na fizicheskie svoystva pochv pod lesom [Effect of suspension system of the car on the physical properties of soils under forest]. Pochvovedenie [Soil science]. 7, 47-54. [in Russian]

Karmanov, I.I., Bulgakov, D.S., 1998. Degradatsiya pochv: predlozheniya po sovershenstvovaniyu terminov i opredeleniy [Soil degradation: proposals on improvement of terms and definitions]. Kn.: Antropogennaya degradatsiya pochvennogo pokrova i meryi ee preduprezhdeniya [Anthropogenic degradation of the soil and its prevention measures]. (Vol. 1, pp. 5-7). Rosselhozakademiya, DOP pri RAN, Soil science institute after named V.V.Dokuchaev. M. [in Russian]

Klein, I., Gessner, U., Kuenzer, C., 2012. Regional land cover mapping and change detection in Central Asia using MODIS time-series. Applied Geography 35(1-2): 219–234.

Korsunov, V.M., Kraseha, E.N., Raldin, B.B., 2002. Metodologiya pochvennyih ekologo-geograficheskih issledovaniy i kartografii pochv [Methodology of soil ecological and geographical studies and soil mapping]. – Ulan-Ude: BNTs SO RAN, 2002. 232 p. [in Russian]

Kozyibaeva, F.E., 2014. Pochvyi Kazahstana. Problemyi i puti ih resheniya [Soils of Kazakhstan. Problems and solutions]. Delovoy Kazahstan [Business Kazakhstan], 25(422). p. 5. [in Russian]

Kravtsova, V.I., 2005. Kosmicheskie metodyi issledovaniya pochv [Space methods of soil research]. M.: Aspekt-Press, 180 p. [in Russian]

Le, Q. B., Nkonya, E., Mirzabaev, A., 2014. Biomass Productivity-Based Mapping of Global Land Degradation Hotspots. ZEF-Discussion Papers on Development Policy No. 193. University of Bonn.

Marynich, O.V., 1999. Transformatsiya stepnoy rastitelnosti pri dorozhnoy digressii [The transformation of steppe vegetation at the road digression]. Transformatsiya prirodnykh ekosistem i ikh komponentov pri opustynivanii [The transformation of natural ecosystems and their components with desertification]. Almaty: Naurzum. pp. 55-61. [in Russian]

Medeu, A., Akiyanova, F., 2011. LADA Regional Training for Asian Countries 10-18th April 2011 in Beijing institute of geography land degradation status and desertification assessment in Kazakhstan Almaty, 2011 [in Russian]

Muhametkarimov, K.M., Smailov, K.Sh., 2001. Izmenenie fiziko-himicheskih svoystv pochvyi pri razlichnyih rezhimah vyipasa na estestvennom pastbische [Changing the physical and chemical properties of the soil at various modes of grazing on natural pasture]. Nauchnyie osnovyi vosproizvodstva plodorodiya, ohranyi i ratsionalnogo ispolzovaniya pochv Kazahstana [Scientific bases of reproduction of fertility, protection and rational use of soil in Kazakhstan]. Almaty: Tetis, pp. 228-231. [in Russian]

Nikolayeva, V., 1969. Pochvy Sarkandskogo raiona Taldy-Kurganskoi oblasti i ikh agroproizvodstvennaya gruppirovka: otchet o NIR (zaklyuchitelnyy) [Soils Sarkand area Taldykorgan area and agricultural industrial grouping: research report (final)]. «Institut pochvovedeniya»: ruk. Nikolayeva V. (Vol. 44, pp. 250). Alma-Ata. [in Russian]

Pachikin, K.M., Erokhina, O.G., Altynbekova, N.A., Omirzakova, A.N., Kusainova, M.D., Nasyrov, R.M.,Adamin, G.K., Lukbanova, R.S., 2016. Interim statement of the Programme 212: "Evaluation of the current state of agricultural land in South-East Kazakhstan (for example, foothills the plains ridge Zhetysu) Registration number: 0115 RK02030, Inventory number: 0215RK02371. 66 p. [in Russian]

Pachikin, K.M., 1991. Pochvy i pochvennyi pokrov Severnogo Sklona Dzhungarskogo Alatau [Soils and soil cover of the North Slope of Jungar Alatau]: dis. kan. bio. nauk: 03.00.27/ Institut pochvovedeniya. – Alma-Ata. 264 p. [in Russian]

Rozanov, B.G., 2004. Morfologiya pochv [Soil Morphology]. – M.: Akademicheskiy proekt, 432 p. [in Russian]

Rubinshteyn, M.I., 1988. Bogarnyie pochvyi predgornyih ravnin Tyan-Shanya [Rainfed soil foothill plains of Tien Shan]. Alma-Ata: Nauka, 136 p. [in Russian]

Rubinshteyn, M.I., Tazabekov, T.T., 1985. Antropogennyie izmeneniya gumusa v pahotnyih pochvah Kazahstana [Anthropogenic changes of humus in arable soils of Kazakhstan]. Dostizheniya Dokuchaevskogo pochvovedeniya v Kazahstane [Achievements of the Dokuchaev Soil Science in Kazakhstan]. Alma-Ata: Nauka, pp. 33-43. [in Russian]

Schierhorn, F., Müller, D., Beringer, T., Prishchepov, A. V., Kuemmerle, T., Balmann, A., 2013. Post-Soviet cropland abandonment and carbon sequestration in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 27(4): 1175–1185.

Smirnov, L.E., 2005. Aerokosmicheskie metodyi geograficheskih issledovaniy [Aerospace methods of geographical research]. – SPb.: Sankt-Peterburgskiy Universitet, 348 p. [in Russian]

Soil Survey, 1959. Pochvennaya s'emka [Soil survey]. M.: Izd-vo AN SSSR.  346 p. [in Russian]

Sokolov, I.A., 2004. Teoreticheskie problemyi geneticheskogo pochvovedeniya [Theoretical problems of genetic soil science]. - Novosibirsk: Gumanitarnyie tehnologii, 288 p. [in Russian]

Suleymenov, B.U., 2000. Povyishenie plodorodiya oroshaemyih serozemov Yuzhnogo Kazahstana [Increased fertility of irrigated sierozems South Kazakhstan]. Almaty: Sanat, 194 p. [in Russian]

Yashin, I.M., Shishov, L.L., Raskatov, V.A., 2000. Pochvenno-ekologicheskie issledovaniya v landshaftah [Soil and environmental studies in landscapes]. – M.: MSHA, 558 p. [in Russian]

Zaydelman, F.R., 1992. Estestvennoe i antropogennoe pereuvlazhnenie pochv [Natural and anthropogenic wetland soils]. SPb.: Gidrometizdat, 288 p. [in Russian]

Abstract

Identification of land degradation is essential to check the problem and to implement the remedial measures needed. The study area falls under parts of foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, that is an arid region in climate. Recent data on the status of study area refer to the 80s of the last century, and the intensive use of them led to a significant anthropogenic transformation. This study was carried out in 2015-2016 as part of a project aimed to study features and causes of land degradation in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan. Under the conditions of rainfed soil degradation manifests itself in the development of erosion processes, agro depletion of soils, reducing the productivity of agriculture. The use of land for irrigation often accompanied by secondary salinization. In this regard, at present there is need to assess current state of the soil, with the identification of changes in their properties as a result of the impact of various anthropogenic factors and creation of new electronic soil maps and applied the powerful capabilities of advanced remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques to identify the geomorphological units and degradation risk assessment. Satellite imagery in addition to the field and laboratory studies to identify salinity-induced soil degradation was adopted in this study. Morphological, chemical and physical characteristics of soils in degraded sites in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, were depicted. The main results of a thorough evaluation of soil degradation in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, are presented. The data revealed that extent of salinity-induced degradation was generally related to some physical properties of soil, uncontrolled livestock grazing and previous soil management practices. These results are useful as the basis for designing soil conservation and restoration programs, as a base line for evaluating the performance of conservation programs and for assessing the impact of other soil-related activities (e.g. agriculture and livestock rising).

Keywords: Soil degradation, Kazakhstan, Zhetysu Ridge, geoinformation technologies, types of degradation

References

Agency of Land Resources, 2011. Report on state land in Kazakhstan in 2011. Available at [Access date: 28.07.2016]: http://2011-2014.ecodoklad.kz/

Aleksandrova, L.N., Naydenova, O.A., 1986. Laboratorno-prakticheskie zanyatiya po pochvovedeniyu [Laboratory and practical classes of soil science]. – L.: Agropromizdat, – 295 pp. [in Russian]

Arinushkina, E.V., 1962. Rukovodstvo po himicheskomu analizu pochv [Guidelines for Chemical analysis of soil]. – M.: MGU, 491 pp. [in Russian]

Asanbayev, I.K., 1998. Antropogennyye izmeneniya pochv i ikh ekologicheskiye posledstviya [Anthropogenic changes in soils and their environmental consequences]. Almaty: ylym. 180 pp. [in Russian]

De Beurs, K.M., Henebry, G.M. 2004. Land surface phenology, climatic variation, and institutional change: analyzing agricultural land cover change in Kazakhstan. Remote Sensing of Environment 89(4): 497-509.

Dyusenbekov, Z., 1997. Problemyi zemelnyih otnosheniy i mehanizmyi perehoda k platnomu zemlepolzovaniyu [Issues of land relations and mechanisms of transition to the paid land use]. Mezhdunarodnyiy selskohozyaystvennyiy zhurnal [International Journal of Agriculture] (Vol. 6. pp. 11-14). Moscow. [in Russian]

Environmental requirements, 2005. Ekologicheskiye trebovaniya v oblasti okhrany i ispolzovaniya zemelnykh resursov (v tom chisle zemel selskokhozyaystvennogo naznacheniya) [Environmental requirements in the field of land protection and use (including agricultural land)]. RND Okhrana zemelnykh resursov. MKh RK. Astana. 2005. [in Russian]

Erokhina, O.G., Nasyirov, R.M., Pachikin, K.M., Yakunin, G.N., 2004. Transformatsiya pochv podgornyih ravnin Zailiyskogo Alatau v rezultate orosheniya [Transformation of Soil piedmont plains Trans-Ili Alatau as a result of irrigation]. Aktualnyie problemyi pochvovedeniya [Actual Problems of Soil Science] (k 50-letiyu osvoeniya tselinnyih i zalezhnyih zemel). Almaty: Tetis, pp. 78-92. [in Russian]

Fedorin, Yu.V., 1977. Zemelnyie resursyi predgornyih ravnin Kazahstana [Land foothill plains of Kazakhstan]. – Alma-Ata: Kaynar, 187 p. [in Russian]

Gabbasova, I.M., Habirov, I.K., 2010. Rasprostranenie, tipologiya i otsenka sostoyaniya degradirovannyih pochv respubliki Bashkortostan [The spread, typology and assessment of degraded soils of Bashkortostan] Vestnik BGAU/Vestnik BSAU, 22, 5-13. [in Russian]

Isachenko, A.G., 1980. Metodyi prikladnyih landshaftnyih issledovaniy [Methods Applied Landscape Research]. L.: Nauka, 222 p. [in Russian]

Ivanov, B.N., 1989. Vliyanie hodovoy sistemyi avtomobilya na fizicheskie svoystva pochv pod lesom [Effect of suspension system of the car on the physical properties of soils under forest]. Pochvovedenie [Soil science]. 7, 47-54. [in Russian]

Karmanov, I.I., Bulgakov, D.S., 1998. Degradatsiya pochv: predlozheniya po sovershenstvovaniyu terminov i opredeleniy [Soil degradation: proposals on improvement of terms and definitions]. Kn.: Antropogennaya degradatsiya pochvennogo pokrova i meryi ee preduprezhdeniya [Anthropogenic degradation of the soil and its prevention measures]. (Vol. 1, pp. 5-7). Rosselhozakademiya, DOP pri RAN, Soil science institute after named V.V.Dokuchaev. M. [in Russian]

Klein, I., Gessner, U., Kuenzer, C., 2012. Regional land cover mapping and change detection in Central Asia using MODIS time-series. Applied Geography 35(1-2): 219–234.

Korsunov, V.M., Kraseha, E.N., Raldin, B.B., 2002. Metodologiya pochvennyih ekologo-geograficheskih issledovaniy i kartografii pochv [Methodology of soil ecological and geographical studies and soil mapping]. – Ulan-Ude: BNTs SO RAN, 2002. 232 p. [in Russian]

Kozyibaeva, F.E., 2014. Pochvyi Kazahstana. Problemyi i puti ih resheniya [Soils of Kazakhstan. Problems and solutions]. Delovoy Kazahstan [Business Kazakhstan], 25(422). p. 5. [in Russian]

Kravtsova, V.I., 2005. Kosmicheskie metodyi issledovaniya pochv [Space methods of soil research]. M.: Aspekt-Press, 180 p. [in Russian]

Le, Q. B., Nkonya, E., Mirzabaev, A., 2014. Biomass Productivity-Based Mapping of Global Land Degradation Hotspots. ZEF-Discussion Papers on Development Policy No. 193. University of Bonn.

Marynich, O.V., 1999. Transformatsiya stepnoy rastitelnosti pri dorozhnoy digressii [The transformation of steppe vegetation at the road digression]. Transformatsiya prirodnykh ekosistem i ikh komponentov pri opustynivanii [The transformation of natural ecosystems and their components with desertification]. Almaty: Naurzum. pp. 55-61. [in Russian]

Medeu, A., Akiyanova, F., 2011. LADA Regional Training for Asian Countries 10-18th April 2011 in Beijing institute of geography land degradation status and desertification assessment in Kazakhstan Almaty, 2011 [in Russian]

Muhametkarimov, K.M., Smailov, K.Sh., 2001. Izmenenie fiziko-himicheskih svoystv pochvyi pri razlichnyih rezhimah vyipasa na estestvennom pastbische [Changing the physical and chemical properties of the soil at various modes of grazing on natural pasture]. Nauchnyie osnovyi vosproizvodstva plodorodiya, ohranyi i ratsionalnogo ispolzovaniya pochv Kazahstana [Scientific bases of reproduction of fertility, protection and rational use of soil in Kazakhstan]. Almaty: Tetis, pp. 228-231. [in Russian]

Nikolayeva, V., 1969. Pochvy Sarkandskogo raiona Taldy-Kurganskoi oblasti i ikh agroproizvodstvennaya gruppirovka: otchet o NIR (zaklyuchitelnyy) [Soils Sarkand area Taldykorgan area and agricultural industrial grouping: research report (final)]. «Institut pochvovedeniya»: ruk. Nikolayeva V. (Vol. 44, pp. 250). Alma-Ata. [in Russian]

Pachikin, K.M., Erokhina, O.G., Altynbekova, N.A., Omirzakova, A.N., Kusainova, M.D., Nasyrov, R.M.,Adamin, G.K., Lukbanova, R.S., 2016. Interim statement of the Programme 212: "Evaluation of the current state of agricultural land in South-East Kazakhstan (for example, foothills the plains ridge Zhetysu) Registration number: 0115 RK02030, Inventory number: 0215RK02371. 66 p. [in Russian]

Pachikin, K.M., 1991. Pochvy i pochvennyi pokrov Severnogo Sklona Dzhungarskogo Alatau [Soils and soil cover of the North Slope of Jungar Alatau]: dis. kan. bio. nauk: 03.00.27/ Institut pochvovedeniya. – Alma-Ata. 264 p. [in Russian]

Rozanov, B.G., 2004. Morfologiya pochv [Soil Morphology]. – M.: Akademicheskiy proekt, 432 p. [in Russian]

Rubinshteyn, M.I., 1988. Bogarnyie pochvyi predgornyih ravnin Tyan-Shanya [Rainfed soil foothill plains of Tien Shan]. Alma-Ata: Nauka, 136 p. [in Russian]

Rubinshteyn, M.I., Tazabekov, T.T., 1985. Antropogennyie izmeneniya gumusa v pahotnyih pochvah Kazahstana [Anthropogenic changes of humus in arable soils of Kazakhstan]. Dostizheniya Dokuchaevskogo pochvovedeniya v Kazahstane [Achievements of the Dokuchaev Soil Science in Kazakhstan]. Alma-Ata: Nauka, pp. 33-43. [in Russian]

Schierhorn, F., Müller, D., Beringer, T., Prishchepov, A. V., Kuemmerle, T., Balmann, A., 2013. Post-Soviet cropland abandonment and carbon sequestration in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 27(4): 1175–1185.

Smirnov, L.E., 2005. Aerokosmicheskie metodyi geograficheskih issledovaniy [Aerospace methods of geographical research]. – SPb.: Sankt-Peterburgskiy Universitet, 348 p. [in Russian]

Soil Survey, 1959. Pochvennaya s'emka [Soil survey]. M.: Izd-vo AN SSSR.  346 p. [in Russian]

Sokolov, I.A., 2004. Teoreticheskie problemyi geneticheskogo pochvovedeniya [Theoretical problems of genetic soil science]. - Novosibirsk: Gumanitarnyie tehnologii, 288 p. [in Russian]

Suleymenov, B.U., 2000. Povyishenie plodorodiya oroshaemyih serozemov Yuzhnogo Kazahstana [Increased fertility of irrigated sierozems South Kazakhstan]. Almaty: Sanat, 194 p. [in Russian]

Yashin, I.M., Shishov, L.L., Raskatov, V.A., 2000. Pochvenno-ekologicheskie issledovaniya v landshaftah [Soil and environmental studies in landscapes]. – M.: MSHA, 558 p. [in Russian]

Zaydelman, F.R., 1992. Estestvennoe i antropogennoe pereuvlazhnenie pochv [Natural and anthropogenic wetland soils]. SPb.: Gidrometizdat, 288 p. [in Russian]



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science