Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 6, Issue 2, Apr 2017, Pages 144-153
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.286550
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.286550
Copyright © 2017 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Response of fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) to sewage sludge treatment and irrigation intervals in a dryland condition

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Shashoug,M., Abdalla,M., Elhadi,E., Rezig,F., 2017. Response of fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) to sewage sludge treatment and irrigation intervals in a dryland condition. Eurasian J Soil Sci 6(2):144-153. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286550
Shashoug,M.Abdalla,M.,Elhadi,E.,& Rezig,F. Response of fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) to sewage sludge treatment and irrigation intervals in a dryland condition Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6(2):144-153. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286550
Shashoug,M.Abdalla,M.,Elhadi,E., and ,Rezig,F."Response of fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) to sewage sludge treatment and irrigation intervals in a dryland condition" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6.2 (2017):144-153. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286550
Shashoug,M.Abdalla,M.,Elhadi,E., and ,Rezig,F. "Response of fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) to sewage sludge treatment and irrigation intervals in a dryland condition" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,6(Apr 2017):144-153 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286550
MS,Shashoug.MA,Abdalla.EA,Elhadi.FA,Rezig "Response of fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) to sewage sludge treatment and irrigation intervals in a dryland condition" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.6, no.2, pp.144-153 (Apr 2017), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286550
Shashoug,Mamdouh ;Abdalla,Mubarak ;Elhadi,Elsadig ;Rezig,Fatoma Response of fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) to sewage sludge treatment and irrigation intervals in a dryland condition. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2017),6.2:144-153. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286550

How to cite

Shashoug, M., S. Abdalla, M., A. Elhadi, E., A. Rezig, F., A.2017. Response of fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) to sewage sludge treatment and irrigation intervals in a dryland condition. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 6(2): 144-153. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286550

Author information

Mamdouh Shashoug , Department of Arid and Desertified lands, Faculty of Agriculture, Omdurman Islamic University, Sudan
Mubarak Abdalla , Department of Soil and Environment Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan Shambat, Sudan
Elsadig Elhadi , Environment, National Resources and Desertification Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan
Fatoma Rezig , Environment, National Resources and Desertification Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan

Publication information

Article first published online : 10 Nov 2016
Manuscript Accepted : 07 Nov 2016
Manuscript Received: 08 Aug 2016
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.286550
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.286550

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted in the Experimental Research Farm of Omdurman Islamic University, Sudan to determine short-term effect of irrigation intervals (7 and 10 days) and sun-dried or composted sewage sludge, recommended mineral fertilizer on straw dry matter yield (SDMY) and N, P and K content of fodder sorghum and soil properties. In the 7 and 10 days irrigation intervals, composted, sun-dried sludge and mineral fertilizer have significantly increased SDMY over the control by 51, 98, 67 and 78, 19, 33%, respectively. Apparent N use efficiency (ANUE) in composted and sun dried plots irrigated at either 7 or 10 days was 9 - 36 and 16 - 74%, respectively. Reducing the irrigation interval has significantly increased salinity by 13%. Increasing irrigation interval has decreased bulk density by 5%. It could be concluded that, application of composted sludge is a useful practice for improvement of soil properties and consequent yield increase.

Keywords

Compost, cultivation, fresh, soil chemical and physical properties, yield

Corresponding author

References

Abdalla, M.A., 2015. Regional assessment of soil changes in the Near East and North Africa. In: Status of the World’s Soil Resources (SWSR) - Main Report, FAO and ITPS. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils, Rome, Italy. pp. 399-441.

Abiven, S., Menasseri, S., Chenu, C., 2009. The effects of organic inputs over time on soil aggregate stability-a literature analysis. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41(1): 1-12.

Aggelides, S.M., Londra, P.A., 2000. Effects of compost produced from town wastes and sewage sludge on the physical properties of a loamy and a clay soil. Bioresource and Technology 71(3): 253-259.

Alvarenga, P., Mourinha, C., Farto, M., Santos, T., Palma, P., Sengo, J., Morais, M.C., Cunha-Queda, C., 2015. Sewage sludge, compost and other representative organic wastes as agricultural soil amendments: Benefits versus limiting factors. Waste Management 40: 44-52.

Asagi, N., Ueno, H., 2008. Determination of application effects of sewage sludge on growth, soil properties, and N uptake in Komatsuna by using the indirect 15N isotope method. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 39(13-14): 1928-1942.

Ayoub, A.T., 1999. Land degradation, rainfall variability and food production in the Sahelian zone of the Sudan. Land Degradation and Development 10(5): 489-500.

Blake, G.R., Hartge, K.H., 1986. Bulk density by core method. In: Methods of soil analysis, Part 1. Physical and mineralogical methods, 2nd ed., A. Klue (ed.), American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, pp. 364-367.  

Bremner, J.M., Mulvaney, C.S., 1982. Nitrogen-total. In: Method of soil analysis, Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties, Page, A.L. Miller, R. H., Keeney, D.R. (eds.). American Society of Agronomy. Madison, Wisconsin. pp. 595-663.

Casado-Vela, J., Sellés, S., Navarro, J., Bustamante, M.A., Mataix, J., Guerrero, C., Gómez, I., 2006. Evaluation of composted sewage sludge as nutritional source for horticultural soils. Waste Management 26(9): 946-952.

Celik, I., Ortas, I., Kolics, S., 2004. Effects of compost, mycorrhiza, manureand fertilizer on some physical properties of a chromoxerert soil. Soil Tillage and Research 78(1): 59-67.

Chapman, H.D., Pratt, P.F., 1961. Methods of analysis for soil, plant and water. Riverside University of California. Division of Agricultural Sciences. Berkeley, USA. 309 p

Dawi, B.S.I., 2014. Use of Three Organic Amendments for Cultivation of Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and Soil Quality Changes under Desert Conditions. PhD Thesis. University of Khartoum, Sudan.

Deliback, S., Okur, B., Ongum, A.R., 2009. Effects of treated sewage sludge levels on temporal variations of some soil properties of a Typic Xerfluvent soil in Menemen Plain, Western Anatolia, Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 148(1): 85-95.

Diaz, E., Rodlan, A., Lax, A., Albaladejo, J., 1994. Formation of stable aggregates in degraded soil by amendment with urban refuse and peat. Geoderma 63(3-4): 277-288.

Giannakis, G.V., Kourgialas, N.N., Paranychianakis, N.V., N.P Nikolaidis, N.V., Kalogerakis, N., 2014. Effects of municipal solid waste compost on soil properties and vegetable growth. Compost Science and Utilization 22(3): 116-131.

Ghoniem, A., 2007. Effect of nitrogen supplied from poultry manure and sewage sludge on growth, yield and nitrogen uptake of rice. Bulletin of Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University 29: 11-16.

Glab, T., 2014. Water retention and repellency of a sandy soil amended with municipal compost. Compost Science and Utilization 22(2): 47-56.

Goh, T.B., AanaulL, R.J. St., Mermut, A.R., 1993. Carbonates. In: Soil sampling and Methods of Analysis. M.R. Carter (ed.) Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 177-185.

Goyal, S.K., Dhull, S.K., Kapoo, K.K., 2005. Chemical and biological changes during composting of different organic wastes and aassessment of ccompost mmaturity. Bioresource Technology 96(14): 1584-1591.

Haney, R. L., Jin, V.L., Johnson, M.V.V., White, M.J., Arnold, J.G., 2015. On-site assessment of extractable soil nutrients after long-term biosolids applications to perennial forage. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 46(7): 873-887.

Jin, V.L., Johnson, M.V.V., Haney, R.L., Arnold, J.G., 2011. Potential carbon and nitrogen mineralization in soils from a perennial forage production system amended with class B biosolids. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 141(3-4): 461-465.

Jin, V.L., Potter, K.N., Johnson, M.V., Harmel, R.D., Arnold, J.G., 2015. Surface-applied biosolids enhance soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks but have contrasting effects on soil physical quality. Applied and Environmental Soil Science Volume 2015.

Kabirinejad, S., Hoodaji, M., 2012. The effects of biosolid application on soil chemical properties and Zea mays nutrition. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Wastes in Agriculture 1:4.

Lag-Brotons, A., Gómez, I., Navarro-Pedreno, J., Mayoral, A.M., Curt, M.D., 2014. Sewage sludge compost use in bioenergy production - a case study on the effects on Cynara cardunculus L energy crop. Journal of Cleaner Production 79: 32-40.

Lampkin, N., 1990. Organic Farming. Farming Press Books, Ipswich, UK. 701 p.

Latare, A.M., Kumar, O., Singh, S.K., Gupta, A., 2014. Direct and residual effect of sewage sludge on yield, heavy metals content and soil fertility under rice-wheat system. Ecological Engineering 69: 17-24.

Manas, P., Castro, E., Heras, J.D.L., 2014. Application of treated wastewater and digested sewage sludge to obtain biomass from Cynara cardunculus L. Journal of Cleaner Production 67: 72-78.

Mclean, E.O., 1982. Soil pH and lime requirement. In: Methods of soil analysis: Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Page, A. L. Miller, R. H., Keeney, D.R. (eds.). 2nd ed. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. pp. 199-223.

Mingorance, M.D., Rosini Oliva, S., Valdés, B., Pina Gata, F.J., Leidi, E.O., Guzmá, I., Peña, A., 2014. Stabilized municipal sewage sludge addition to improve properties of an acid mine soil for plant growth. Journal of Soils and Sediments 14(4): 703-712.

Mondal, S., Singh, R.D., Patra, A.K., Dwivedi. B.S., 2015. Changes in soil quality in response to short-term application of municipal sewage sludge in a typic haplustept under cowpea-wheat cropping system. Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring and Management 4: 37-41.

National Center for Research. 1994. Environmental and Natural Resources Research Institute, Annual Scientific Report.

Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E. 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2: Chemical and microbiological properties. Page, A.L. Miller, R. H., Keeney, D.R. (eds.). American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 539-577.

Olsen, S.R., Sommers, LE., 1982. Phosphorous. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Page, A.L. Miller, R. H., Keeney, D.R. (eds.). American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, pp 403-430.

Ors, S., Sahin, U., Khadar, R., 2015. Reclamation of saline-sodic soils with the use of mixed flyash and sewage sludge. Arid Land Research and Management 29(1): 41-54.

Peña, A., Mingorance, M.D., Oliva, S.R., 2015. Soil quality improvement by the establishment of a vegetative cover in a mine soil added with composted municipal sewage sludge. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 157: 178-183.

Rezig, F. A.M., Mubarak, A.R., Elhadi, E.A., 2013. Impact of organic wastes and mineral fertilizer application on soil-crop system II:  Soil attributes. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 59(9): 1245-1261.

Richard, L.A., 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. Agriculture Handbook Vol. 60. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, USA. 160 p.

Rigby, H., Clarke, B.O., Pritchard, D.L., Meehan, B., Beshah, F., Smith, S.R., Porter, N.A., 2016. A critical review of nitrogen mineralization in biosolids-amended soil, the associated fertilizer value for crop production and potential for emissions to the environment. Science of the Total Environment 541: 1310-1338.

Roig, N., Sierra, J., Marti, E., Schumacher, M., Dommingo, J.L., 2012. Long-term amendment of Spanish soils with sewage sludge: Effects on soil functioning. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 158: 41-48.

Roldán, A., Albadalejo, J., Thomes, J.B., 1996. Aggregate stability changes in a semiarid soil after treatment with different organic amendment. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 10(2): 139-148.

Rynk, R. 1992. On-farm composting handbook. Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service, Cornell University,  Ithaca, New York, USA. 186 p.

Said-Pullicino, D., Kaiser, K., Guggenberger, G., Gigliotti, G., 2007. Changes in the chemical composition of water-extractable organic during composting: distribution between stable and labile organic matter pools. Chemosphere 66(11): 2166-2176.

Salazar, I., Millar, D., Lara, V., Muñez, M., Parada, M., Alvear, M., Baraona, J., 2012. Effects of the physical application of biosolids on some chemical, biological and physical properties in an Andisol from southern Chile. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 12(3): 441-450.

SAS Institute Inc. 1999. SAS/STAT User’s Guide, Version 8, Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.

Schnitzer, M., Kahn, M., 1987. Humic Substances in the Environment. Marcel-Dekker, New York, USA.

Seleiman, M.F., Santanen, A., Jaakkola, S., Ekholm, P., Hartikainen, H., Stoddard, F.L., Mäkelä, P.S.A., 2013. Biomass yield and quality of bioenergy crops grown with synthetic and organic fertilizers. Biomass and Bioenergy 59: 477-485.

Sidhu, J.P.S., Toze, A.G., 2009. Human pathogens and their indicators in biosolids: a literature review. Environment International 3(1)5: 187-201.

Smith, S.R., 2009. A critical review of the bioavailability and impacts of heavy metals in municipal solid waste compost compared to sewage sludge. Environment International 35(1): 142-156.

Spaccini, R., Piccolo, A., Conte, P., Haberhauer, G., Gerzabek, M.H., 2002. Increased soil organic carbon sequestration through hydrophobic protection by humic substances. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34(12): 1839-1851.

Sort, X., Alcañiz, J.M., 1999. Effects of sewage sludge amendment on soil aggregation. Land Degradation and Development 10(1): 3-12.

Veeresh, H., Tripathy, S., Chaudhuri, D., Ghosh, B., Hart, B., Powell, M., 2009. Changes in physical and chemical properties of three soil types in India as a result of amendment with fly ash and sewage sludge. Environmental Geology 43(5): 513-520.

Wen, G., Bates, T.E., Voroney, R.P., Winter, J.P, Schellenberg, M.P., 1999. Influence of application of sewage sludges, and sludge and manure composts on plant Ca and Mg concentrations and soil extractability in field experiments. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 55(1): 51-61.

Zheliazkov, V.D., Warman, P.R., 2002. Comparison of three digestion methods for the recovery of 17 plant essential nutrients and trace elements from six composts. Compost Science and Utilization 10(3): 197-203.

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted in the Experimental Research Farm of Omdurman Islamic University, Sudan to determine short-term effect of irrigation intervals (7 and 10 days) and sun-dried or composted sewage sludge, recommended mineral fertilizer on straw dry matter yield (SDMY) and N, P and K content of fodder sorghum and soil properties. In the 7 and 10 days irrigation intervals, composted, sun-dried sludge and mineral fertilizer have significantly increased SDMY over the control by 51, 98, 67 and 78, 19, 33%, respectively. Apparent N use efficiency (ANUE) in composted and sun dried plots irrigated at either 7 or 10 days was 9 - 36 and 16 - 74%, respectively. Reducing the irrigation interval has significantly increased salinity by 13%. Increasing irrigation interval has decreased bulk density by 5%. It could be concluded that, application of composted sludge is a useful practice for improvement of soil properties and consequent yield increase.

Keywords: Compost, cultivation, fresh, soil chemical and physical properties, yield

References

Abdalla, M.A., 2015. Regional assessment of soil changes in the Near East and North Africa. In: Status of the World’s Soil Resources (SWSR) - Main Report, FAO and ITPS. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils, Rome, Italy. pp. 399-441.

Abiven, S., Menasseri, S., Chenu, C., 2009. The effects of organic inputs over time on soil aggregate stability-a literature analysis. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41(1): 1-12.

Aggelides, S.M., Londra, P.A., 2000. Effects of compost produced from town wastes and sewage sludge on the physical properties of a loamy and a clay soil. Bioresource and Technology 71(3): 253-259.

Alvarenga, P., Mourinha, C., Farto, M., Santos, T., Palma, P., Sengo, J., Morais, M.C., Cunha-Queda, C., 2015. Sewage sludge, compost and other representative organic wastes as agricultural soil amendments: Benefits versus limiting factors. Waste Management 40: 44-52.

Asagi, N., Ueno, H., 2008. Determination of application effects of sewage sludge on growth, soil properties, and N uptake in Komatsuna by using the indirect 15N isotope method. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 39(13-14): 1928-1942.

Ayoub, A.T., 1999. Land degradation, rainfall variability and food production in the Sahelian zone of the Sudan. Land Degradation and Development 10(5): 489-500.

Blake, G.R., Hartge, K.H., 1986. Bulk density by core method. In: Methods of soil analysis, Part 1. Physical and mineralogical methods, 2nd ed., A. Klue (ed.), American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, pp. 364-367.  

Bremner, J.M., Mulvaney, C.S., 1982. Nitrogen-total. In: Method of soil analysis, Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties, Page, A.L. Miller, R. H., Keeney, D.R. (eds.). American Society of Agronomy. Madison, Wisconsin. pp. 595-663.

Casado-Vela, J., Sellés, S., Navarro, J., Bustamante, M.A., Mataix, J., Guerrero, C., Gómez, I., 2006. Evaluation of composted sewage sludge as nutritional source for horticultural soils. Waste Management 26(9): 946-952.

Celik, I., Ortas, I., Kolics, S., 2004. Effects of compost, mycorrhiza, manureand fertilizer on some physical properties of a chromoxerert soil. Soil Tillage and Research 78(1): 59-67.

Chapman, H.D., Pratt, P.F., 1961. Methods of analysis for soil, plant and water. Riverside University of California. Division of Agricultural Sciences. Berkeley, USA. 309 p

Dawi, B.S.I., 2014. Use of Three Organic Amendments for Cultivation of Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and Soil Quality Changes under Desert Conditions. PhD Thesis. University of Khartoum, Sudan.

Deliback, S., Okur, B., Ongum, A.R., 2009. Effects of treated sewage sludge levels on temporal variations of some soil properties of a Typic Xerfluvent soil in Menemen Plain, Western Anatolia, Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 148(1): 85-95.

Diaz, E., Rodlan, A., Lax, A., Albaladejo, J., 1994. Formation of stable aggregates in degraded soil by amendment with urban refuse and peat. Geoderma 63(3-4): 277-288.

Giannakis, G.V., Kourgialas, N.N., Paranychianakis, N.V., N.P Nikolaidis, N.V., Kalogerakis, N., 2014. Effects of municipal solid waste compost on soil properties and vegetable growth. Compost Science and Utilization 22(3): 116-131.

Ghoniem, A., 2007. Effect of nitrogen supplied from poultry manure and sewage sludge on growth, yield and nitrogen uptake of rice. Bulletin of Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University 29: 11-16.

Glab, T., 2014. Water retention and repellency of a sandy soil amended with municipal compost. Compost Science and Utilization 22(2): 47-56.

Goh, T.B., AanaulL, R.J. St., Mermut, A.R., 1993. Carbonates. In: Soil sampling and Methods of Analysis. M.R. Carter (ed.) Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 177-185.

Goyal, S.K., Dhull, S.K., Kapoo, K.K., 2005. Chemical and biological changes during composting of different organic wastes and aassessment of ccompost mmaturity. Bioresource Technology 96(14): 1584-1591.

Haney, R. L., Jin, V.L., Johnson, M.V.V., White, M.J., Arnold, J.G., 2015. On-site assessment of extractable soil nutrients after long-term biosolids applications to perennial forage. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 46(7): 873-887.

Jin, V.L., Johnson, M.V.V., Haney, R.L., Arnold, J.G., 2011. Potential carbon and nitrogen mineralization in soils from a perennial forage production system amended with class B biosolids. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 141(3-4): 461-465.

Jin, V.L., Potter, K.N., Johnson, M.V., Harmel, R.D., Arnold, J.G., 2015. Surface-applied biosolids enhance soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks but have contrasting effects on soil physical quality. Applied and Environmental Soil Science Volume 2015.

Kabirinejad, S., Hoodaji, M., 2012. The effects of biosolid application on soil chemical properties and Zea mays nutrition. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Wastes in Agriculture 1:4.

Lag-Brotons, A., Gómez, I., Navarro-Pedreno, J., Mayoral, A.M., Curt, M.D., 2014. Sewage sludge compost use in bioenergy production - a case study on the effects on Cynara cardunculus L energy crop. Journal of Cleaner Production 79: 32-40.

Lampkin, N., 1990. Organic Farming. Farming Press Books, Ipswich, UK. 701 p.

Latare, A.M., Kumar, O., Singh, S.K., Gupta, A., 2014. Direct and residual effect of sewage sludge on yield, heavy metals content and soil fertility under rice-wheat system. Ecological Engineering 69: 17-24.

Manas, P., Castro, E., Heras, J.D.L., 2014. Application of treated wastewater and digested sewage sludge to obtain biomass from Cynara cardunculus L. Journal of Cleaner Production 67: 72-78.

Mclean, E.O., 1982. Soil pH and lime requirement. In: Methods of soil analysis: Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Page, A.L. Miller, R. H., Keeney, D.R. (eds.). 2nd ed. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. pp. 199-223.

Mingorance, M.D., Rosini Oliva, S., Valdés, B., Pina Gata, F.J., Leidi, E.O., Guzmá, I., Peña, A., 2014. Stabilized municipal sewage sludge addition to improve properties of an acid mine soil for plant growth. Journal of Soils and Sediments 14(4): 703-712.

Mondal, S., Singh, R.D., Patra, A.K., Dwivedi. B.S., 2015. Changes in soil quality in response to short-term application of municipal sewage sludge in a typic haplustept under cowpea-wheat cropping system. Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring and Management 4: 37-41.

National Center for Research. 1994. Environmental and Natural Resources Research Institute, Annual Scientific Report.

Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E. 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2: Chemical and microbiological properties. Page, A.L. Miller, R. H., Keeney, D.R. (eds.). American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 539-577.

Olsen, S.R., Sommers, LE., 1982. Phosphorous. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties Page, A.L. Miller, R. H., Keeney, D.R. (eds.). American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, pp 403-430.

Ors, S., Sahin, U., Khadar, R., 2015. Reclamation of saline-sodic soils with the use of mixed flyash and sewage sludge. Arid Land Research and Management 29(1): 41-54.

Peña, A., Mingorance, M.D., Oliva, S.R., 2015. Soil quality improvement by the establishment of a vegetative cover in a mine soil added with composted municipal sewage sludge. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 157: 178-183.

Rezig, F. A.M., Mubarak, A.R., Elhadi, E.A., 2013. Impact of organic wastes and mineral fertilizer application on soil-crop system II:  Soil attributes. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 59(9): 1245-1261.

Richard, L.A., 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. Agriculture Handbook Vol. 60. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, USA. 160 p.

Rigby, H., Clarke, B.O., Pritchard, D.L., Meehan, B., Beshah, F., Smith, S.R., Porter, N.A., 2016. A critical review of nitrogen mineralization in biosolids-amended soil, the associated fertilizer value for crop production and potential for emissions to the environment. Science of the Total Environment 541: 1310-1338.

Roig, N., Sierra, J., Marti, E., Schumacher, M., Dommingo, J.L., 2012. Long-term amendment of Spanish soils with sewage sludge: Effects on soil functioning. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 158: 41-48.

Roldán, A., Albadalejo, J., Thomes, J.B., 1996. Aggregate stability changes in a semiarid soil after treatment with different organic amendment. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 10(2): 139-148.

Rynk, R. 1992. On-farm composting handbook. Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service, Cornell University,  Ithaca, New York, USA. 186 p.

Said-Pullicino, D., Kaiser, K., Guggenberger, G., Gigliotti, G., 2007. Changes in the chemical composition of water-extractable organic during composting: distribution between stable and labile organic matter pools. Chemosphere 66(11): 2166-2176.

Salazar, I., Millar, D., Lara, V., Muñez, M., Parada, M., Alvear, M., Baraona, J., 2012. Effects of the physical application of biosolids on some chemical, biological and physical properties in an Andisol from southern Chile. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 12(3): 441-450.

SAS Institute Inc. 1999. SAS/STAT User’s Guide, Version 8, Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.

Schnitzer, M., Kahn, M., 1987. Humic Substances in the Environment. Marcel-Dekker, New York, USA.

Seleiman, M.F., Santanen, A., Jaakkola, S., Ekholm, P., Hartikainen, H., Stoddard, F.L., Mäkelä, P.S.A., 2013. Biomass yield and quality of bioenergy crops grown with synthetic and organic fertilizers. Biomass and Bioenergy 59: 477-485.

Sidhu, J.P.S., Toze, A.G., 2009. Human pathogens and their indicators in biosolids: a literature review. Environment International 3(1)5: 187-201.

Smith, S.R., 2009. A critical review of the bioavailability and impacts of heavy metals in municipal solid waste compost compared to sewage sludge. Environment International 35(1): 142-156.

Spaccini, R., Piccolo, A., Conte, P., Haberhauer, G., Gerzabek, M.H., 2002. Increased soil organic carbon sequestration through hydrophobic protection by humic substances. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34(12): 1839-1851.

Sort, X., Alcañiz, J.M., 1999. Effects of sewage sludge amendment on soil aggregation. Land Degradation and Development 10(1): 3-12.

Veeresh, H., Tripathy, S., Chaudhuri, D., Ghosh, B., Hart, B., Powell, M., 2009. Changes in physical and chemical properties of three soil types in India as a result of amendment with fly ash and sewage sludge. Environmental Geology 43(5): 513-520.

Wen, G., Bates, T.E., Voroney, R.P., Winter, J.P, Schellenberg, M.P., 1999. Influence of application of sewage sludges, and sludge and manure composts on plant Ca and Mg concentrations and soil extractability in field experiments. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 55(1): 51-61.

Zheliazkov, V.D., Warman, P.R., 2002. Comparison of three digestion methods for the recovery of 17 plant essential nutrients and trace elements from six composts. Compost Science and Utilization 10(3): 197-203.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science