Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 6, Issue 2, Apr 2017, Pages 121-133
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.286546
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.286546
Copyright © 2017 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Effect of mulch types on nutrient composition, maize (Zea mays L.) yield and soil properties of a tropical Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria

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Awopegba,M., Oladele,S., Awodun,M., 2017. Effect of mulch types on nutrient composition, maize (Zea mays L.) yield and soil properties of a tropical Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria. Eurasian J Soil Sci 6(2):121-133. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286546
Awopegba,M.Oladele,S.,,& Awodun,M. Effect of mulch types on nutrient composition, maize (Zea mays L.) yield and soil properties of a tropical Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6(2):121-133. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286546
Awopegba,M.Oladele,S.,, and ,Awodun,M."Effect of mulch types on nutrient composition, maize (Zea mays L.) yield and soil properties of a tropical Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6.2 (2017):121-133. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286546
Awopegba,M.Oladele,S.,, and ,Awodun,M. "Effect of mulch types on nutrient composition, maize (Zea mays L.) yield and soil properties of a tropical Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,6(Apr 2017):121-133 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286546
M,Awopegba.S,Oladele.M,Awodun "Effect of mulch types on nutrient composition, maize (Zea mays L.) yield and soil properties of a tropical Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.6, no.2, pp.121-133 (Apr 2017), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286546
Awopegba,Matthew ;Oladele,Segun ;Awodun,Moses Effect of mulch types on nutrient composition, maize (Zea mays L.) yield and soil properties of a tropical Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2017),6.2:121-133. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286546

How to cite

Awopegba, M., Oladele, S., Awodun, M., 2017. Effect of mulch types on nutrient composition, maize (Zea mays L.) yield and soil properties of a tropical Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 6(2): 121-133. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.286546

Author information

Matthew Awopegba , Federal University of Technology Akure, Department of Crop Soil and Pest Management, Ondo State, Nigeria
Segun Oladele , Adekunle Ajasin University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria Ondo State, Nigeria
Moses Awodun , Federal University of Technology Akure, Department of Crop Soil and Pest Management, Ondo State, Nigeria

Publication information

Article first published online : 28 Oct 2016
Manuscript Accepted : 17 Oct 2016
Manuscript Received: 08 Jul 2016
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.286546
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.286546

Abstract

Field investigations were carried out to evaluate the influence of shrub and herbaceous mulch types on soil properties and nutrient composition of maize (Zea mays L.) at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Akure in the rainforest zone of southwestern Nigeria in 2013 and 2014 respectively. The shrub mulch; Gliricidia sepium and Tithonia diversifolia, herbaceous mulch; Calopogonium mucunoides and Moringa oleifera were applied at the rate of 5 t ha-1. Application of NPK (20:10:10) fertilizer at the rate of 200 kg ha-1 was included as the standard treatment for the experiments. The treatments were laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replication. The growth, agronomic parameters and nutritional quality of maize (Zea mays L.) were monitored and determined in both experiments. Results indicated that herbaceous mulch types and NPK fertilizer significantly (P<0.05) increased the number of leaves, plant height and leaf area when compared with the control in both years. Significant increases in yield parameters over the control were obtained for the NPK fertilizer treatment. In 2013 and 2014 cropping season NPK 20-10-10 treatment significantly produced the highest cob yield but was not significantly higher than the yield from Gliricidia sepium treatment in 2014. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen (N), potassium (K), and exchangeable cations were positively stimulated by herbaceous mulches while residual phosphorus (P) was increased by NPK fertilizer treatment. Mulched treatments significantly increased crude protein, carbohydrate, nitrogen, phosphorus and ash content of maize grain in both years of cropping season thereby improving nutritional content of maize grain. Therefore, shrub and herbaceous mulch treatments applied at 5t/ha-1 could be applied alternatively in lieu of scarce and expensive inorganic fertilizer for improved maize yield, soil properties and nutrient composition.

Keywords

Mulch types, nutrient composition, soil properties, maize, tropical alfisol.

Corresponding author

References

Adeniyan, B.O., Ojeniyi, S.O., Awodun, M.A., 2008. Relative effect of weed mulch types on soil properties and yield of yam in southwest Nigeria. Journal of Soil and Nature 2(3):1-5.

Adeoye, G.O., Agboola, A.A., 1985. Critical levels for soil pH, available P, K, Zn and Mg and ear leaf content of P, Cu and Mn in sedimentary soil of south western Nigeria. Fertilizer Research 6 (1):65-71.

Akinrinde, E.A., Obegbesan, G.O., 2000. Evaluation of fertility status of selected soil for crop production in five ecological zones of Western Nigeria. Proceeding of the 26th Annual Conference of Soil Science Society of Nigeria, 3:279-288. University of Ibadan October 30th - November 3rd 2000. 3: 279-288.            

Anikwe, M.A.N., Mbah, C.N., Ezeaku, P.I., Onyia, V.N., 2007. Tillage and plastic mulch effects on soil properties and growth and yield of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) on an ultisol in south eastern Nigeria. Soil and Tillage Research 93(2): 264-273.

AOAC, 1997. Association of analytical communities official method 973.18, fiber (acid detergent) and lignin in animal feed. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 16th ed. Arlington: ASA-SSA Inc. pp 28–29

Aslam, M., Anwar, F., Nadeem R., Rashid, U., Kazi, T.G., Nadeem, M., 2005. Mineral composition of Moringa oleifera leaves and pods from different regions of Punjab, Pakistan. Asian Journal Plant Science 4(4): 417-421.

Atayese, M.O., Liasu, M.O., 2001. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi weeds and earthworm interactions in the restoration of soil fertility in the guinea savanna region of Nigeria. Moor Journal of Agriculture Research 3: 104-109.

Ayoola, O.T., Adeniyan O.N., 2006. Influence of poultry on yield and yield components of crops under different cropping systems in South west Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 5(15): 1386-1392.

Awodun, M.A., Odogiyan, A., Ojeniyi, S.O., 2007. Effect of gliricidia pruning on soil and plant nutrient status and yield of cowpea. International Journal of Agricultural Research 2: 402-405.

Barzegar, A. R., Yousefi, V., Daryashenas, A., 2002. The effect of addition of different amounts and types of organic materials on soil physical properties and yield of wheat. Plant Soil 247(2): 295-301.

Bhatt, R., Kheral, K.L., 2006. Effect of tillage and mode of straw mulch application on soil erosion in submontaneous tract of Punjab, India. Soil and Tillage Research 88(1-2): 107-115.

Boomsma, C.R., Santini, J.B., M. Tollenaar, M., Vyn, T.J., 2009. Maize morphophysiological response to intense crowing and low nitrogen availability: an analysis and review. Agronomy Journal 101(6): 1426-1452.

Bouyoucos, G. J. 1951. A recalibration of the hydrometer method for making mechanical analysis of soils. Agronomy Journal 43(9); 434-438.

Egbe, E.A., Fonge, B.A., Mokake, S.E., Besong, M., Fongod, A.N., 2012. The effects of green manure and NPK fertilizer on the growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in the mount Cameroon region. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America 3(3); 82-92. 

Erin, H., 2007. "Organic Farming" Microsoft Student 2008 (DVD).WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2007. Microsoft Encarta 2008(C) 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation.

Enwenzor, W.O., Udo, B.J., Usoroh, N.J., Ayotade, K.A., Adepetu, J.A., Chude, V.A., Udegbe, C.A., 1979. Fertilizer use and management for crops in Nigeria (Series No 2). Fertilizer Procurement and Distribution Division, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Water Resources and Rural Development, Lagos, Nigeria. 163pp.

Farhad, W., Saleem, M.F., Cheema, M.A., Hammad, H.M., 2009. Effect of different manures on the productivity of spring maize (Zea mays L). The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences 19(3): 122 – 125.

Folkard, G.K., Sutherland, J.P., 1996. Moringa oleifera: a tree and a litany of potential. Agroforestry Today 8(3): 5-8.

Fonsca, A.J.M., Cabrita, A.R.J., Lage, A.M., Gome, E., 2000. Evalution of the chemical composition and the partical size of the Maize silage produced in north west of Portugal. Animal Feed Science Technology 83: 173-183

Gardner, C., 2016. Soluble and insoluble fibre: what’s the difference? Available at: http://www.webmd.com/diet/fiber-health-benefits-11/insoluble-soluble-fiber [access date: 05.09.2015]

Glab, T., Kulig, B., 2008. Effect of mulch and tillage system on soil porosity under wheat (Triticum aestivum). Soil and Tillage Research 99(2): 169-178.

Inyang, E.U., 2005. An evaluation of tillage and storage systems applied by traditional root crop farmers in Cameroon. Agricultural and Environmental Journal 7(2): 15–22.

Jaliya, A.M., Falaki, A.M., Mahmud, M., Sani, Y.A., 2008. Effects of sowing date and NPK fertilizer rate on yield and yield components of quality protein maize (Zea mays L.). ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 3(2): 23-29.

Jama, B., Palm, C.A., Buresh, R.J., Niang, A., Gachengo, C., Nziguheba, G., Amadalo, B., 2000. Tithonia diversifolia as a green manure for soil fertility mprovement in western Kenya. A Review, Agroforestry Systems. 49(2): 201-221.

 Liasu, M.O., Achakzai, A.K., 2007. Influence of Tithonia diversifolia leaf mulch and fertilizer application in the growth and yield of potted tomato plants. American Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences 2: 335-340.

Mkhabelaa, M.S., Warmanb, P.R., 2005. The influence of municipal solid waste compost on yield, soil phosphorus availability and uptake by two vegetable crops grown in a Pugwashsandy loam soil in Nova Scotia. Agriculture, Ecosystem & Environment 106(1): 57-67.

Olabode, O.S., Sola, O., Akanbi, W.B., Adesina, G.O., Babajide, P.A., 2007. Evaluation of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A Gray for soil improvement. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 3(4): 503-507.

Pervaiz, M.A., Iqbal, M., Shahzad, K., Hassan, A.U., 2009. Effect of mulch on soil physical properties and NPK concentration in maize (Zea mays) shoots under two tillage systems. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 11: 120-124

Rafiq, M.A., Ali, A., Malik, M.A., Hussain, M., 2010. Effects of mulches and plant densities on yield and protein contents of autumn planted maize. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 47(3): 201-208.

Rao, A.S., Chand, S., Srivastava S., 2002.  Opportunities for integrated plant nutrient supply system for crops/cropping system in different agro-eco-regions. Fertilizer News 47(12): 75-78.

Sangakkara, U.R., Pietsch, G., Gollner, R.M., Freyer, B., 2005. Effect of incorporating rice straw or leaves of gliricidia (G. sepium) on the productivity of mungbean (Vigna radiata) and on soil properties. In: Proceedings of ISOFAR Conference, Adelaide, Australia.

Sarkar, S., Singh, S.R., 2007. Interactive effect of tillage depth and mulch on soil temperature, productivity and water use pattern of rainfed barley (Hordium vulgare L.). Soil and Tillage Research 92(1-2): 79-86.

Simon, T., Mikanová, O., Cerhanová, D., 2013. Long-term effect of straw and farmyard manure on soil organic matter in field experiment in the Czech Republic. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 59(9): 1193-1205.

Sobulo, R.A, Osiname, O.A. 1981. Soils and fertilizer use in Western Nigeria. Research Bulletin   (11), I. A. R &T University of Ife. 20-26.

Sridhar, M.K.C., Adeoye, G.O., 2003. Organo-mineral fertilizer from urban wastes. The Field 68: 91-111.

Taiwo, I.B., Makinde J.O., 2005. Influence of water extract of Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).  African Journal of Biotechnology 4(4): 355-360.

Tejada, M., Gonzalex, J.L., Garcia-Martinez, A.M., Parrado, J., 2007. Application of a green manure and green manure composted with beet vinasse on soil restoration; Effects on soil properties. Bioresources Technology 99(11): 4949-4957.

Ullah, I., Muhammad, A., Arifa. F., 2010. Chemical and nutritional properties of some maize (Zea  mays L) varieties grown in NWFP-Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (11): 1113 – 1117.

Uwah, D.F., Eneji, A.E., Eshietu U.J., 2011. Organic and mineral fertilizers on the performance of sweet maize (Zea Mays L. Saccharata Strut.) in South Rainforest zone of Nigeria. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences 3(1): 54-61.

Unagwu, B.O., Asadu C.L.A., Ezeaku P.I., 2013. Residual effects of organic and NPK fertilizers performance at different soil pH Levels. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science  (5): 47-53.

Walkley, A., Black, I.A., 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining organic carbon in soils: Effect of variations in digestion conditions and of inorganic soil constituents. Soil Science 63: 251-263.

Yiridoe, E.K., Langyintuo, A.S., Dogbe, W., 2006. Economics of the impact of alternative rice cropping systems on subsistence farming: Whole-farm analysis in northern Ghana. Agricultural Systems 99(1-2): 102-121.

 

Abstract

Field investigations were carried out to evaluate the influence of shrub and herbaceous mulch types on soil properties and nutrient composition of maize (Zea mays L.) at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Akure in the rainforest zone of southwestern Nigeria in 2013 and 2014 respectively. The shrub mulch; Gliricidia sepium and Tithonia diversifolia, herbaceous mulch; Calopogonium mucunoides and Moringa oleifera were applied at the rate of 5 t ha-1.  Application of NPK (20:10:10) fertilizer at the rate of 200 kg ha-1 was included as the standard treatment for the experiments. The treatments were laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replication. The growth, agronomic parameters and nutritional quality of maize (Zea mays L.) were monitored and determined in both experiments. Results indicated that herbaceous mulch types and NPK fertilizer significantly (P<0.05) increased the number of leaves, plant height and leaf area when compared with the control in both years. Significant increases in yield parameters over the control were obtained for the NPK fertilizer treatment. In 2013 and 2014 cropping season NPK 20-10-10 treatment significantly produced the highest cob yield but was not significantly higher than the yield from Gliricidia sepium treatment in 2014. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen (N), potassium (K), and exchangeable cations were positively stimulated by herbaceous mulches while residual phosphorus (P) was increased by NPK fertilizer treatment. Mulched treatments significantly increased crude protein, carbohydrate, nitrogen, phosphorus and ash content of maize grain in both years of cropping season thereby improving nutritional content of maize grain. Therefore, shrub and herbaceous mulch treatments applied at 5t/ha-1 could be applied alternatively in lieu of scarce and expensive inorganic fertilizer for improved maize yield, soil properties and nutrient composition.

Keywords: Mulch types, nutrient composition, soil properties, maize, tropical alfisol.

References

Adeniyan, B.O., Ojeniyi, S.O., Awodun, M.A., 2008. Relative effect of weed mulch types on soil properties and yield of yam in southwest Nigeria. Journal of Soil and Nature 2(3):1-5.

Adeoye, G.O., Agboola, A.A., 1985. Critical levels for soil pH, available P, K, Zn and Mg and ear leaf content of P, Cu and Mn in sedimentary soil of south western Nigeria. Fertilizer Research 6 (1):65-71.

Akinrinde, E.A., Obegbesan, G.O., 2000. Evaluation of fertility status of selected soil for crop production in five ecological zones of Western Nigeria. Proceeding of the 26th Annual Conference of Soil Science Society of Nigeria, 3:279-288. University of Ibadan October 30th - November 3rd 2000. 3: 279-288.            

Anikwe, M.A.N., Mbah, C.N., Ezeaku, P.I., Onyia, V.N., 2007. Tillage and plastic mulch effects on soil properties and growth and yield of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) on an ultisol in south eastern Nigeria. Soil and Tillage Research 93(2): 264-273.

AOAC, 1997. Association of analytical communities official method 973.18, fiber (acid detergent) and lignin in animal feed. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 16th ed. Arlington: ASA-SSA Inc. pp 28–29

Aslam, M., Anwar, F., Nadeem R., Rashid, U., Kazi, T.G., Nadeem, M., 2005. Mineral composition of Moringa oleifera leaves and pods from different regions of Punjab, Pakistan. Asian Journal Plant Science 4(4): 417-421.

Atayese, M.O., Liasu, M.O., 2001. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi weeds and earthworm interactions in the restoration of soil fertility in the guinea savanna region of Nigeria. Moor Journal of Agriculture Research 3: 104-109.

Ayoola, O.T., Adeniyan O.N., 2006. Influence of poultry on yield and yield components of crops under different cropping systems in South west Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 5(15): 1386-1392.

Awodun, M.A., Odogiyan, A., Ojeniyi, S.O., 2007. Effect of gliricidia pruning on soil and plant nutrient status and yield of cowpea. International Journal of Agricultural Research 2: 402-405.

Barzegar, A. R., Yousefi, V., Daryashenas, A., 2002. The effect of addition of different amounts and types of organic materials on soil physical properties and yield of wheat. Plant Soil 247(2): 295-301.

Bhatt, R., Kheral, K.L., 2006. Effect of tillage and mode of straw mulch application on soil erosion in submontaneous tract of Punjab, India. Soil and Tillage Research 88(1-2): 107-115.

Boomsma, C.R., Santini, J.B., M. Tollenaar, M., Vyn, T.J., 2009. Maize morphophysiological response to intense crowing and low nitrogen availability: an analysis and review. Agronomy Journal 101(6): 1426-1452.

Bouyoucos, G. J. 1951. A recalibration of the hydrometer method for making mechanical analysis of soils. Agronomy Journal 43(9); 434-438.

Egbe, E.A., Fonge, B.A., Mokake, S.E., Besong, M., Fongod, A.N., 2012. The effects of green manure and NPK fertilizer on the growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in the mount Cameroon region. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America 3(3); 82-92. 

Erin, H., 2007. "Organic Farming" Microsoft Student 2008 (DVD).WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2007. Microsoft Encarta 2008(C) 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation.

Enwenzor, W.O., Udo, B.J., Usoroh, N.J., Ayotade, K.A., Adepetu, J.A., Chude, V.A., Udegbe, C.A., 1979. Fertilizer use and management for crops in Nigeria (Series No 2). Fertilizer Procurement and Distribution Division, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Water Resources and Rural Development, Lagos, Nigeria. 163pp.

Farhad, W., Saleem, M.F., Cheema, M.A., Hammad, H.M., 2009. Effect of different manures on the productivity of spring maize (Zea mays L). The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences 19(3): 122 – 125.

Folkard, G.K., Sutherland, J.P., 1996. Moringa oleifera: a tree and a litany of potential. Agroforestry Today 8(3): 5-8.

Fonsca, A.J.M., Cabrita, A.R.J., Lage, A.M., Gome, E., 2000. Evalution of the chemical composition and the partical size of the Maize silage produced in north west of Portugal. Animal Feed Science Technology 83: 173-183

Gardner, C., 2016. Soluble and insoluble fibre: what’s the difference? Available at: http://www.webmd.com/diet/fiber-health-benefits-11/insoluble-soluble-fiber [access date: 05.09.2015]

Glab, T., Kulig, B., 2008. Effect of mulch and tillage system on soil porosity under wheat (Triticum aestivum). Soil and Tillage Research 99(2): 169-178.

Inyang, E.U., 2005. An evaluation of tillage and storage systems applied by traditional root crop farmers in Cameroon. Agricultural and Environmental Journal 7(2): 15–22.

Jaliya, A.M., Falaki, A.M., Mahmud, M., Sani, Y.A., 2008. Effects of sowing date and NPK fertilizer rate on yield and yield components of quality protein maize (Zea mays L.). ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 3(2): 23-29.

Jama, B., Palm, C.A., Buresh, R.J., Niang, A., Gachengo, C., Nziguheba, G., Amadalo, B., 2000. Tithonia diversifolia as a green manure for soil fertility mprovement in western Kenya. A Review, Agroforestry Systems. 49(2): 201-221.

 Liasu, M.O., Achakzai, A.K., 2007. Influence of Tithonia diversifolia leaf mulch and fertilizer application in the growth and yield of potted tomato plants. American Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences 2: 335-340.

Mkhabelaa, M.S., Warmanb, P.R., 2005. The influence of municipal solid waste compost on yield, soil phosphorus availability and uptake by two vegetable crops grown in a Pugwashsandy loam soil in Nova Scotia. Agriculture, Ecosystem & Environment 106(1): 57-67.

Olabode, O.S., Sola, O., Akanbi, W.B., Adesina, G.O., Babajide, P.A., 2007. Evaluation of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A Gray for soil improvement. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 3(4): 503-507.

Pervaiz, M.A., Iqbal, M., Shahzad, K., Hassan, A.U., 2009. Effect of mulch on soil physical properties and NPK concentration in maize (Zea mays) shoots under two tillage systems. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 11: 120-124

Rafiq, M.A., Ali, A., Malik, M.A., Hussain, M., 2010. Effects of mulches and plant densities on yield and protein contents of autumn planted maize. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 47(3): 201-208.

Rao, A.S., Chand, S., Srivastava S., 2002.  Opportunities for integrated plant nutrient supply system for crops/cropping system in different agro-eco-regions. Fertilizer News 47(12): 75-78.

Sangakkara, U.R., Pietsch, G., Gollner, R.M., Freyer, B., 2005. Effect of incorporating rice straw or leaves of gliricidia (G. sepium) on the productivity of mungbean (Vigna radiata) and on soil properties. In: Proceedings of ISOFAR Conference, Adelaide, Australia.

Sarkar, S., Singh, S.R., 2007. Interactive effect of tillage depth and mulch on soil temperature, productivity and water use pattern of rainfed barley (Hordium vulgare L.). Soil and Tillage Research 92(1-2): 79-86.

Simon, T., Mikanová, O., Cerhanová, D., 2013. Long-term effect of straw and farmyard manure on soil organic matter in field experiment in the Czech Republic. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 59(9): 1193-1205.

Sobulo, R.A, Osiname, O.A. 1981. Soils and fertilizer use in Western Nigeria. Research Bulletin   (11), I. A. R &T University of Ife. 20-26.

Sridhar, M.K.C., Adeoye, G.O., 2003. Organo-mineral fertilizer from urban wastes. The Field 68: 91-111.

Taiwo, I.B., Makinde J.O., 2005. Influence of water extract of Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).  African Journal of Biotechnology 4(4): 355-360.

Tejada, M., Gonzalex, J.L., Garcia-Martinez, A.M., Parrado, J., 2007. Application of a green manure and green manure composted with beet vinasse on soil restoration; Effects on soil properties. Bioresources Technology 99(11): 4949-4957.

Ullah, I., Muhammad, A., Arifa. F., 2010. Chemical and nutritional properties of some maize (Zea  mays L) varieties grown in NWFP-Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (11): 1113 – 1117.

Uwah, D.F., Eneji, A.E., Eshietu U.J., 2011. Organic and mineral fertilizers on the performance of sweet maize (Zea Mays L. Saccharata Strut.) in South Rainforest zone of Nigeria. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences 3(1): 54-61.

Unagwu, B.O., Asadu C.L.A., Ezeaku P.I., 2013. Residual effects of organic and NPK fertilizers performance at different soil pH Levels. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science  (5): 47-53.

Walkley, A., Black, I.A., 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining organic carbon in soils: Effect of variations in digestion conditions and of inorganic soil constituents. Soil Science 63: 251-263.

Yiridoe, E.K., Langyintuo, A.S., Dogbe, W., 2006. Economics of the impact of alternative rice cropping systems on subsistence farming: Whole-farm analysis in northern Ghana. Agricultural Systems 99(1-2): 102-121.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science