Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 6, Issue 1, Jan 2017, Pages 84 - 91
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.284270
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.284270
Copyright © 2017 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



The effects of CaCl2 on fruit yield, quality and nutrient contents of tomato under NaCl stress conditions

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Korkmaz,A., Karagöl,A., Akınoğlu,G., 2017. The effects of CaCl2 on fruit yield, quality and nutrient contents of tomato under NaCl stress conditions. Eurasian J Soil Sci 6(1):84 - 91. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284270
Korkmaz,A.,Karagöl,A.,& Akınoğlu,G. The effects of CaCl2 on fruit yield, quality and nutrient contents of tomato under NaCl stress conditions Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6(1):84 - 91. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284270
Korkmaz,A.,Karagöl,A., and ,Akınoğlu,G."The effects of CaCl2 on fruit yield, quality and nutrient contents of tomato under NaCl stress conditions" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6.1 (2017):84 - 91. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284270
Korkmaz,A.,Karagöl,A., and ,Akınoğlu,G. "The effects of CaCl2 on fruit yield, quality and nutrient contents of tomato under NaCl stress conditions" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,6(Jan 2017):84 - 91 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284270
A,Korkmaz.A,Karagöl.G,Akınoğlu "The effects of CaCl2 on fruit yield, quality and nutrient contents of tomato under NaCl stress conditions" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.6, no.1, pp.84 - 91 (Jan 2017), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284270
Korkmaz,Ahmet ;Karagöl,Arife ;Akınoğlu,Güney The effects of CaCl2 on fruit yield, quality and nutrient contents of tomato under NaCl stress conditions. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2017),6.1:84 - 91. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284270

How to cite

Korkmaz, A., Karagöl, A., Akınoğlu, G., 2017. The effects of CaCl2 on fruit yield, quality and nutrient contents of tomato under NaCl stress conditions. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 6(1): 84 - 91. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284270

Author information

Ahmet Korkmaz , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Samsun, Turkey
Arife Karagöl , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Samsun, Turkey
Güney Akınoğlu , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Samsun, Turkey

Publication information

Article first published online : 29 Aug 2016
Manuscript Accepted : 26 Aug 2016
Manuscript Received: 16 May 2016
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.284270
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.284270

Abstract

In this study, the effects of CaCl2 on fruit yield, quality Ca/Na and K/Na ratios and Na content of tomato leaves under NaCl stress conditions were determined. The doses of 0, 6.8 and 16.8 mM CaCl2 were combined with the doses of 0, 44.4, 70.4 mM NaCl in complete nutrient solution. General, NaCl and CaCl2 decreased fruit yield, NaCl decreased stem amount, whereas it increased at 6.8 mM CaCl2. CaCl2 decreased fruit yield without NaCl, but it increased fruit yield significantly at 44.4 mM dose and caused tolerance to NaCl. The 6.8 mM dose of CaCl2 increased stem amount without NaCl. However, CaCl2 did not cause tolerance at high doses of NaCl in terms of growth. CaCl2 decreased brix of fruit, while NaCl increased it. CaCl2 increased brix without NaCl, but decreased it at 44.4 and 70.4 mM NaCl. CaCl2 and NaCl decreased fruit juice pH significantly. Besides, CaCl2 decreased fruit juice pH at 0 and 44.4 mM of NaCl. The number of fruits which were found to have blossom-end rot (NFBER) did not change without NaCl with the influence of CaCl2. However, CaCl2 applied at high doses of NaCl decreased the NFBER and provided tolerance to NaCl. Increasing dose of NaCl increased significantly the Na content in leaves, but the addition CaCl2 decreased significantly the Na content in leaves. Increasing the dose of CaCl2 applications at 0 and 44.4 mM NaCl levels increased the Ca/Na ratio in tomato leaves. But, the effect of CaCl2 on Ca/Na ratio of leaves was statistically insignificant. The addition of NaCl into the solution nutrient decreased the Ca/Na and K/Na ratios in tomato leaves. The effect of CaCl2 on the K/Na ratio of leaves was not found significant.

Keywords

Tomato, NaCl stress, tolerance, CaCl2, yield, quality, Ca/Na, K/Na ratios

Corresponding author

References

Abdel Latef, A.A.H., 2011. Ameliorative effect of calcium chloride on growth, antioxidant enzymes, protein patterns and some metabolic activities of canola (Brassica napus L.) under seawater stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition 34(9): 1303-1320.

Adams, P., 2002. Nutritional control in hydroponics, In: D. Savvas, H. C. Passam (Eds). Hydroponic Production of Vegetables and Ornamentals. Embryo Publications, Athens, pp: 211-261.

Busch, D.S., 1995. Calcium regulation in plant cell and his role in signalling. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 46: 95-102.

Caldwell, C. R., Haug, A., 1981. Temperature dependence of the barley root plasma membrane-bound Ca+2 and Mg+2 dependent ATPase. Physiologia Plantarum 53(2): 117-124.

Cuartero, J., Fernández-Muñoz, R., 1999. Tomato and salinity. Scientia Horticulturae 78(1-4): 83-125.

Daşgan, H.Y,, Aktaş, H., Abak, K., Cakmak, I., 2002. Determination of screening techniques to salinity tolerance in tomatoes and investigation of genotype responses. Plant Science 163 (4): 695-703.  

Del Amor, F.M., Marcelis, L.F.M., 2006. Differential effect of transpiration and Ca supply on growth and Ca concentration of tomato plants. Scientia Horticulturae 111(1): 17-23.

Grattan, S. V., Grieve, C. M., 1999. Mineral nutrient acquisition and response by plants grown in saline environments, In: Handbook of Plant and Crop Stress. M. Pessarakli (Ed). Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA. pp: 203-229.

Gürel, A., Avcıoğlu, R., 2001. Bitkilerde Strese Dayanıklılık Fizyolojisi. In: Bitki Biyoteknolojisi II, Genetik Mühendisliği ve Uygulamaları. S. Özcan, E. Gürel, M. Babaoğlu (Eds.). Selçuk Üniversitesi Vakfı Yayınları, Konya, Turkey. pp: 308-313. [in Turkish]

Hoagland, D.R., Arnon, D.I., 1950. The water-culture method for growing plants without soil. The Circular 347. California Agricultural Experiment Station, College of Agriculture, University of California, Berkeley, USA. 31 p.

Jaleel, C.A., Gopi, R., Manivannan, P., Panneerselvam, R., 2007. Antioxidative potentials as a protective mechanism in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. plants under salinity stress. Turkish Journal of Botany 31: 245–251.

Jaleel, C.A., Kishorekumar, A., Manivannan, P., Sankar, B., Gomathinayagam, M.,  Panneerselvam, R., 2008. Salt stress mitigation by calcium chloride in Phyllanthus amarus. Acta Botanica Croatica 67(1): 53–62.

Kacar, B., Katkat,  V. A., 2010. Bitki Besleme. Nobel Yayınları No. 849, Ankara, Turkey. 678 p. [in Turkish]

Kacar, B., 2014. Bitki, Toprak ve Gübre Analizleri 2. Kolay Uygulanabilir Bitki Analizleri. Nobel Yayınları No. 910, Ankara, Turkey. 407 p. [in Turkish]

Kaya, C., Kirnak, H., Higgs, D., Saltali, K., 2002. Supplementary calcium enhances plant growth and fruit yield in strawberry cultivars grown at high (NaCl) salinity. Scientia Horticulturae 93(1): 65-74.

Leonardi, C., Martorana, M., Giuffirda, F., Fogliano, V.,  Pernice, R., 2004. Tomato fruit quality in relation to the content of sodium chloride in the nutrient solution. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 659: 769-774.

Marschner, H., 1995. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. 2nd Edition. Academic Press, London, UK. pp. 657-680.

Montesano, F.,  van Iersel, M.W., 2007. Calcium can prevent toxic effects of Na+ on tomato leaf photosynthesis but does not restore growth. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 132(3): 310–318.

Navarro, J.M., Flores, P., Carvajal, M.,  Martinez, V., 2005. Changes in quality and yield of tomato fruit with ammonium, bicarbonate and calcium fertilisation under saline conditions. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 80(3): 351-357.

Parida, A.K., Das, A.B., 2005. Salt tolerance and salinity effect on plant: a review. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 60(3): 324-349.

Peet, M.M., Harlow, C.D.,  Larrea, E.S., 2004. Fruit quality and yield in five small-fruited greenhouse tomato cultivars under high fertilization regime.  Acta Horticulturae 659, 811-818.

Renault, S., 2005. Response of red-oiser dogwood (Cornus stolonifera) seedlings to sodium sulphate salinity: effects of supplemental calcium. Physiologia Plantarum 123(1): 75-81.

Rengel, Z., 1992. The role of calcium in salt toxicity. Plant Cell and Environment 15(6): 625-632.

Tabatabaeian, J., 2014. Effect of calcium nutrition on reducing the effects of salinity on tomato plant. American Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization Technology 4, 11-17.

Taylor, M. D., Locascio, S. J.,  Alligood, M. R., 2004. Blossom-end rot incidence of tomato as affected by irrigation quantity, calcium source, and reduced potassium. HortScience 39(5): 1110-1115.

Thybo, A. K., Edelenbos, M., Christensen, L. P., Sorensen, J. N., Thorup-Kristensen, K., 2006. Effect of growing systems on sensory quality and chemical composition of tomatoes. LWT - Food Science and Technology 39(8): 835-843.

Tuna, A. L., Kaya, C., Ashraf, M., Altunlu, H., Yokas, I.,  Yağmur, B., 2007. The effects of calcium sulphate on growth, membrane stability and nutrient uptake of tomato plants grown under salt stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 59(2): 173-178.

Türkmen, Ö., Şensoy, S.,  Erdal, İ., 2000. Effect of potassium on emergence and seedling growth of cucumber grown in salty conditions. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi, Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi 10(1): 113-117.

 Türkmen, Ö., Şensoy, S., Erdal, İ.,  Kabay, T., 2002. Kalsiyum uygulamalarının tuzlu fide yetiştirme ortamlarında domateste çıkış ve fide gelişimi üzerine etkileri. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi, Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi 12(2): 53-57. [in Turkish]

Yan, F.,  Schubert, S.,  Mengel, K., 1992. Effect of low root medium pH on net proton release, root respiration and root growth of corn (Zea mays L.) and broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Plant Physiology 99(2): 415-421.

Yetişir, H., Uygur, V., 2009. Plant growth and mineral element concentration of different gourd species and watermelon under salinity stress. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 33: 65-77.

Yokoi, S., Bressan, R.  A.,  Hasegawa, P. M., 2002. Salt stress tolerance of plants. JIRCAS Working Report. 25-33. Available at [Access date : 15.05.2016]: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.528.5895&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Yurtsever, N., 1982. Tarla Deneme Tekniği. Toprak ve Gübre Araştırma Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü Yayınları, Yayın No: 91, Ankara, 121p. [in Turkish]

Abstract

In this study, the effects of CaCl2 on fruit yield, quality Ca/Na and K/Na ratios and Na content of tomato leaves under NaCl stress conditions were determined. The doses of 0, 6.8 and 16.8 mM CaCl2 were combined with the doses of 0, 44.4, 70.4 mM  NaCl in complete nutrient solution. General, NaCl and CaCl2 decreased fruit yield, NaCl decreased stem amount, whereas it increased at 6.8 mM CaCl2. CaCl2 decreased fruit yield without NaCl, but it increased fruit yield significantly at 44.4 mM dose and caused tolerance to NaCl. The  6.8 mM dose of CaCl2 increased stem amount without NaCl. However, CaCl2 did not cause tolerance at high doses of NaCl in terms of growth. CaCl2 decreased brix of fruit, while NaCl increased it. CaCl2 increased brix without NaCl, but decreased it at 44.4 and 70.4 mM NaCl. CaCl2 and NaCl decreased fruit juice pH significantly. Besides, CaCl2 decreased fruit juice pH at 0 and 44.4 mM of NaCl. The number of fruits which were found to have blossom-end rot (NFBER) did not change without NaCl with the influence of CaCl2. However, CaCl2 applied at high doses of NaCl decreased the NFBER and provided tolerance to NaCl.  Increasing dose of NaCl increased significantly the Na content in leaves, but the addition CaCl2 decreased significantly the Na content in leaves. Increasing the dose of CaCl2 applications at 0 and 44.4 mM NaCl levels increased the Ca/Na ratio in tomato leaves. But, the effect of CaCl2 on Ca/Na ratio of leaves was statistically insignificant. The addition of NaCl into the solution nutrient decreased the Ca/Na and K/Na ratios in tomato leaves. The effect of CaCl2 on the K/Na ratio of leaves was not found significant.

Keywords: Tomato, NaCl stress, tolerance, CaCl2, yield, quality, Ca/Na, K/Na ratios

References

Abdel Latef, A.A.H., 2011. Ameliorative effect of calcium chloride on growth, antioxidant enzymes, protein patterns and some metabolic activities of canola (Brassica napus L.) under seawater stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition 34(9): 1303-1320.

Adams, P., 2002. Nutritional control in hydroponics, In: D. Savvas, H. C. Passam (Eds). Hydroponic Production of Vegetables and Ornamentals. Embryo Publications, Athens, pp: 211-261.

Busch, D.S., 1995. Calcium regulation in plant cell and his role in signalling. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 46: 95-102.

Caldwell, C. R., Haug, A., 1981. Temperature dependence of the barley root plasma membrane-bound Ca+2 and Mg+2 dependent ATPase. Physiologia Plantarum 53(2): 117-124.

Cuartero, J., Fernández-Muñoz, R., 1999. Tomato and salinity. Scientia Horticulturae 78(1-4): 83-125.

Daşgan, H.Y,, Aktaş, H., Abak, K., Cakmak, I., 2002. Determination of screening techniques to salinity tolerance in tomatoes and investigation of genotype responses. Plant Science 163 (4): 695-703.  

Del Amor, F.M., Marcelis, L.F.M., 2006. Differential effect of transpiration and Ca supply on growth and Ca concentration of tomato plants. Scientia Horticulturae 111(1): 17-23.

Grattan, S. V., Grieve, C. M., 1999. Mineral nutrient acquisition and response by plants grown in saline environments, In: Handbook of Plant and Crop Stress. M. Pessarakli (Ed). Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA. pp: 203-229.

Gürel, A., Avcıoğlu, R., 2001. Bitkilerde Strese Dayanıklılık Fizyolojisi. In: Bitki Biyoteknolojisi II, Genetik Mühendisliği ve Uygulamaları. S. Özcan, E. Gürel, M. Babaoğlu (Eds.). Selçuk Üniversitesi Vakfı Yayınları, Konya, Turkey. pp: 308-313. [in Turkish]

Hoagland, D.R., Arnon, D.I., 1950. The water-culture method for growing plants without soil. The Circular 347. California Agricultural Experiment Station, College of Agriculture, University of California, Berkeley, USA. 31 p.

Jaleel, C.A., Gopi, R., Manivannan, P., Panneerselvam, R., 2007. Antioxidative potentials as a protective mechanism in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. plants under salinity stress. Turkish Journal of Botany 31: 245–251.

Jaleel, C.A., Kishorekumar, A., Manivannan, P., Sankar, B., Gomathinayagam, M.,  Panneerselvam, R., 2008. Salt stress mitigation by calcium chloride in Phyllanthus amarus. Acta Botanica Croatica 67(1): 53–62.

Kacar, B., Katkat,  V. A., 2010. Bitki Besleme. Nobel Yayınları No. 849, Ankara, Turkey. 678 p. [in Turkish]

Kacar, B., 2014. Bitki, Toprak ve Gübre Analizleri 2. Kolay Uygulanabilir Bitki Analizleri. Nobel Yayınları No. 910, Ankara, Turkey. 407 p. [in Turkish]

Kaya, C., Kirnak, H., Higgs, D., Saltali, K., 2002. Supplementary calcium enhances plant growth and fruit yield in strawberry cultivars grown at high (NaCl) salinity. Scientia Horticulturae 93(1): 65-74.

Leonardi, C., Martorana, M., Giuffirda, F., Fogliano, V.,  Pernice, R., 2004. Tomato fruit quality in relation to the content of sodium chloride in the nutrient solution. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 659: 769-774.

Marschner, H., 1995. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. 2nd Edition. Academic Press, London, UK. pp. 657-680.

Montesano, F.,  van Iersel, M.W., 2007. Calcium can prevent toxic effects of Na+ on tomato leaf photosynthesis but does not restore growth. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 132(3): 310–318.

Navarro, J.M., Flores, P., Carvajal, M.,  Martinez, V., 2005. Changes in quality and yield of tomato fruit with ammonium, bicarbonate and calcium fertilisation under saline conditions. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 80(3): 351-357.

Parida, A.K., Das, A.B., 2005. Salt tolerance and salinity effect on plant: a review. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 60(3): 324-349.

Peet, M.M., Harlow, C.D.,  Larrea, E.S., 2004. Fruit quality and yield in five small-fruited greenhouse tomato cultivars under high fertilization regime.  Acta Horticulturae 659, 811-818.

Renault, S., 2005. Response of red-oiser dogwood (Cornus stolonifera) seedlings to sodium sulphate salinity: effects of supplemental calcium. Physiologia Plantarum 123(1): 75-81.

Rengel, Z., 1992. The role of calcium in salt toxicity. Plant Cell and Environment 15(6): 625-632.

Tabatabaeian, J., 2014. Effect of calcium nutrition on reducing the effects of salinity on tomato plant. American Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization Technology 4, 11-17.

Taylor, M. D., Locascio, S. J.,  Alligood, M. R., 2004. Blossom-end rot incidence of tomato as affected by irrigation quantity, calcium source, and reduced potassium. HortScience 39(5): 1110-1115.

Thybo, A. K., Edelenbos, M., Christensen, L. P., Sorensen, J. N., Thorup-Kristensen, K., 2006. Effect of growing systems on sensory quality and chemical composition of tomatoes. LWT - Food Science and Technology 39(8): 835-843.

Tuna, A. L., Kaya, C., Ashraf, M., Altunlu, H., Yokas, I.,  Yağmur, B., 2007. The effects of calcium sulphate on growth, membrane stability and nutrient uptake of tomato plants grown under salt stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 59(2): 173-178.

Türkmen, Ö., Şensoy, S.,  Erdal, İ., 2000. Effect of potassium on emergence and seedling growth of cucumber grown in salty conditions. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi, Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi 10(1): 113-117.

 Türkmen, Ö., Şensoy, S., Erdal, İ.,  Kabay, T., 2002. Kalsiyum uygulamalarının tuzlu fide yetiştirme ortamlarında domateste çıkış ve fide gelişimi üzerine etkileri. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi, Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi 12(2): 53-57. [in Turkish]

Yan, F.,  Schubert, S.,  Mengel, K., 1992. Effect of low root medium pH on net proton release, root respiration and root growth of corn (Zea mays L.) and broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Plant Physiology 99(2): 415-421.

Yetişir, H., Uygur, V., 2009. Plant growth and mineral element concentration of different gourd species and watermelon under salinity stress. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 33: 65-77.

Yokoi, S., Bressan, R.  A.,  Hasegawa, P. M., 2002. Salt stress tolerance of plants. JIRCAS Working Report. 25-33. Available at [Access date : 15.05.2016]: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.528.5895&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Yurtsever, N., 1982. Tarla Deneme Tekniği. Toprak ve Gübre Araştırma Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü Yayınları, Yayın No: 91, Ankara, 121p. [in Turkish]



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science