Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 6, Issue 1, Jan 2017, Pages 75 - 83
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.284269
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.284269
Copyright © 2017 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Optimizing land use pattern to reduce soil erosion

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Sokouti,R., Nikkami,D., 2017. Optimizing land use pattern to reduce soil erosion. Eurasian J Soil Sci 6(1):75 - 83. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284269
Sokouti,R.,,& Nikkami,D. Optimizing land use pattern to reduce soil erosion Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6(1):75 - 83. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284269
Sokouti,R.,, and ,Nikkami,D."Optimizing land use pattern to reduce soil erosion" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6.1 (2017):75 - 83. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284269
Sokouti,R.,, and ,Nikkami,D. "Optimizing land use pattern to reduce soil erosion" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,6(Jan 2017):75 - 83 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284269
R,Sokouti.D,Nikkami "Optimizing land use pattern to reduce soil erosion" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.6, no.1, pp.75 - 83 (Jan 2017), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284269
Sokouti,Reza ;Nikkami,Davood Optimizing land use pattern to reduce soil erosion. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2017),6.1:75 - 83. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284269

How to cite

Sokouti, R., Nikkami, D., 2017. Optimizing land use pattern to reduce soil erosion. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 6(1): 75 - 83. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284269

Author information

Reza Sokouti , Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of West Azerbaijan, 57135-365 Urmia, Iran
Davood Nikkami , Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Institute, Iran

Publication information

Article first published online : 28 Aug 2016
Manuscript Accepted : 26 Aug 2016
Manuscript Received: 14 May 2016
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.284269
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.284269

Abstract

Soil erosion hazard is one of the main problems can affect ecological balance in watersheds. This study aimed to determine the optimal use of land to reduce erosion and increase the resident's income of Qushchi watershed in West Azerbaijan province, Iran. Income and expenses for the current land uses were calculated with field studies. Damages resulting from the soil erosion were estimated by soil depth equal to the specified land uses. For three different options including the current status of land uses without and with land management, and the standard status of land uses, multi-objective linear programming model was established by LINGO software. Then the optimization problem of the land use was solved by simplex method. Finally, the best option of land use was determined by comparing erosion rate and its cost in each scenario. Then the circumstances and the recommended conditions were compared. The results indicated that the current surface area of current land uses is not suitable to reduce erosion and increase income of residents and should change in the optimum conditions. At the optimum level, there should change horticulture area of 408 to 507 (ha), irrigated land area of 169 to 136 (ha) and dry farming of 636 to 570 (ha), while conversion of rangeland area not indispensable. In addition, the results showed that in case of the optimization of land use, soil erosion and the profitability of the whole area will decrease 0.75% and increase 3.68%, respectively. In case of land management practices, soil erosion will decrease 42.27% and the profitability increase 21.39% while in the standard conditions, soil erosion will decrease 60.95% and profitability will increase 24.20%. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that the changes in the horticulture and range land areas have the greatest impact on the increasing profitability and reducing soil erosion of Qushchi watershed. So, it is recommended using Education and Extension to promote the importance of land management to understand how proper use of the land.

Keywords

Linear programming, land management, soil erosion sensitivity analysis, profitability

Corresponding author

References

Benli, B., Kodal, S., 2003. A non-linear model for farm optimization with adequate and limited water supplies: Application to the South-east Anatolian Project (GAP) Region. Agricultural Water Management 62(3): 187–203.  

Ferreira, V., Panagopoulos, T., Cakula, A., Andrade, R., Arvela. A., 2015. Predicting soil erosion after land use changes for irrigating agriculture in a large reservoir of Southern Portugal. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 4: 40-49.

Flah-Shamsi, R., 2004. Economic assessment of different applications in the Middle Kalaybar-chay Watershed (North Arasbaran) using linear programming and GIS. Tehran University, Faculty of Forestry, Natural Resources, Iran. PhD thesis. 331 p. [in Persian]

Gholami, M., 2003. Determination of the optimal crop rotation using linear programming (case study farm of 110 ha in Bojnoord). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources 10 (1): 17-24 [in Persian].

Jalili, Kh., 2004. Optimization land use of watershed to minimize soil erosion using linear programming. Tarbiat Modarres University. Department of Watershed Management of Natural Resources, Iran. MSc thesis 87 p. [in Persian].

Li, L., Wang, Y., Liu, C., 2013. Effects of land use changes on soil erosion in a fast developing area. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 11(6): 1549-1562.

Liu, D., Stewart, T.J., 2004. Object-oriented decision support system modeling for multicriteria decision making natural resource management. Computer and Operation Research 31(7): 985-999.   

Mohseny Saravi, M., Farzanegan, M., Koopayee, M., Kholgi, M., 2001. Determination of optimal utilization of resources of watersheds using goal programming. Iranian Journal of Natural Resources 56 (1 & 2): 3-16 [in Persian].

Nikkami, D. Elektorowicz, M., Mehuys, G.R., 2002. Optimizing the management of soil erosion. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada 37(3): 577-586.

Pasour, E.C., 1983. Land use planning: Implications of the economic calculation debate. The Journal of Libertarian Studies 7 (1): 127-139.

Pfaff, A.S.P., Sanchez-Azofeifa, G.A., 2004. Deforestation pressure and biological reserve planning: a conceptual approach and an illustrative application for Costa Rica. Resource and Energy Economics 26(2):237–254.

Riedel, C., 2003. Optimizing land use planning for mountainous regions using LP and GIS towards sustainability. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation 34(1): 121-124.

Rounsevell, M.D.A., Annetts, J.E., Audsley, E., Mayr, T., Reginster, I., 2003. Modelling the spatial distribution of agricultural land use at the regional scale. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 95(2-3): 465-479.

Shively, G., Coxhead, I., 2004. Conducting economic policy analysis at a landscape scale: examples from a Philippine watershed. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 104(1): 159-170.  

Singh, A., 2016. Optimal allocation of resources for increasing farm revenue under hydrological uncertainty. Water Resources Management 30(7): 2569–2580.

Singh, A.K., Singh J.P., 1999.  Production and benefit maximization through optimal crop planning: A case study of Mahi Command. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation 27(2):157-152.

Tra, N.T., Egashira, K., 2004. Land use effectiveness by farm households after land and forest allocation at Tran Yen district, Yen Bai province. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu University 49(2): 461-466.

Wang, X.H., Yu, S., Huang, G.H., 2004. Land allocation based on integrated GIS-optimization modeling at a watershed level. Landscape and Urban Planning 66 (2): 61-74.  

Yueqing, X., Luo, D., Peng. J., 2011. Land use change and soil erosion in the Maotiao River watershed of Guizhou Province. Journal of Geographical Sciences 21: 1138.

Abstract

Soil erosion hazard is one of the main problems can affect ecological balance in watersheds. This study aimed to determine the optimal use of land to reduce erosion and increase the resident's income of Qushchi watershed in West Azerbaijan province, Iran. Income and expenses for the current land uses were calculated with field studies. Damages resulting from the soil erosion were estimated by soil depth equal to the specified land uses. For three different options including the current status of land uses without and with land management, and the standard status of land uses, multi-objective linear programming model was established by LINGO software. Then the optimization problem of the land use was solved by simplex method. Finally, the best option of land use was determined by comparing erosion rate and its cost in each scenario. Then the circumstances and the recommended conditions were compared. The results indicated that the current surface area of current land uses is not suitable to reduce erosion and increase income of residents and should change in the optimum conditions. At the optimum level, there should change horticulture area of 408 to 507 (ha), irrigated land area of 169 to 136 (ha) and dry farming of 636 to 570 (ha), while conversion of rangeland area not indispensable. In addition, the results showed that in case of the optimization of land use, soil erosion and the profitability of the whole area will decrease 0.75% and increase 3.68%, respectively. In case of land management practices, soil erosion will decrease 42.27% and the profitability increase 21.39% while in the standard conditions, soil erosion will decrease 60.95% and profitability will increase 24.20%. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that the changes in the horticulture and range land areas have the greatest impact on the increasing profitability and reducing soil erosion of Qushchi watershed. So, it is recommended using Education and Extension to promote the importance of land management to understand how proper use of the land.

Keywords: Linear programming, land management, soil erosion sensitivity analysis, profitability

References

Benli, B., Kodal, S., 2003. A non-linear model for farm optimization with adequate and limited water supplies: Application to the South-east Anatolian Project (GAP) Region. Agricultural Water Management 62(3): 187–203.  

Ferreira, V., Panagopoulos, T., Cakula, A., Andrade, R., Arvela. A., 2015. Predicting soil erosion after land use changes for irrigating agriculture in a large reservoir of Southern Portugal. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 4: 40-49.

Flah-Shamsi, R., 2004. Economic assessment of different applications in the Middle Kalaybar-chay Watershed (North Arasbaran) using linear programming and GIS. Tehran University, Faculty of Forestry, Natural Resources, Iran. PhD thesis. 331 p. [in Persian]

Gholami, M., 2003. Determination of the optimal crop rotation using linear programming (case study farm of 110 ha in Bojnoord). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources 10 (1): 17-24 [in Persian].

Jalili, Kh., 2004. Optimization land use of watershed to minimize soil erosion using linear programming. Tarbiat Modarres University. Department of Watershed Management of Natural Resources, Iran. MSc thesis 87 p. [in Persian].

Li, L., Wang, Y., Liu, C., 2013. Effects of land use changes on soil erosion in a fast developing area. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 11(6): 1549-1562.

Liu, D., Stewart, T.J., 2004. Object-oriented decision support system modeling for multicriteria decision making natural resource management. Computer and Operation Research 31(7): 985-999.   

Mohseny Saravi, M., Farzanegan, M., Koopayee, M., Kholgi, M., 2001. Determination of optimal utilization of resources of watersheds using goal programming. Iranian Journal of Natural Resources 56 (1 & 2): 3-16 [in Persian].

Nikkami, D. Elektorowicz, M., Mehuys, G.R., 2002. Optimizing the management of soil erosion. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada 37(3): 577-586.

Pasour, E.C., 1983. Land use planning: Implications of the economic calculation debate. The Journal of Libertarian Studies 7 (1): 127-139.

Pfaff, A.S.P., Sanchez-Azofeifa, G.A., 2004. Deforestation pressure and biological reserve planning: a conceptual approach and an illustrative application for Costa Rica. Resource and Energy Economics 26(2):237–254.

Riedel, C., 2003. Optimizing land use planning for mountainous regions using LP and GIS towards sustainability. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation 34(1): 121-124.

Rounsevell, M.D.A., Annetts, J.E., Audsley, E., Mayr, T., Reginster, I., 2003. Modelling the spatial distribution of agricultural land use at the regional scale. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 95(2-3): 465-479.

Shively, G., Coxhead, I., 2004. Conducting economic policy analysis at a landscape scale: examples from a Philippine watershed. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 104(1): 159-170.  

Singh, A., 2016. Optimal allocation of resources for increasing farm revenue under hydrological uncertainty. Water Resources Management 30(7): 2569–2580.

Singh, A.K., Singh J.P., 1999.  Production and benefit maximization through optimal crop planning: A case study of Mahi Command. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation 27(2):157-152.

Tra, N.T., Egashira, K., 2004. Land use effectiveness by farm households after land and forest allocation at Tran Yen district, Yen Bai province. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu University 49(2): 461-466.

Wang, X.H., Yu, S., Huang, G.H., 2004. Land allocation based on integrated GIS-optimization modeling at a watershed level. Landscape and Urban Planning 66 (2): 61-74.  

Yueqing, X., Luo, D., Peng. J., 2011. Land use change and soil erosion in the Maotiao River watershed of Guizhou Province. Journal of Geographical Sciences 21: 1138.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science