Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 6, Issue 1, Jan 2017, Pages 65 - 74
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.284267
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.284267
Copyright © 2017 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Soil organic matter content and composition in different pedoclimatic zones of Bulgaria

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Hristov,B., Filcheva,E., 2017. Soil organic matter content and composition in different pedoclimatic zones of Bulgaria. Eurasian J Soil Sci 6(1):65 - 74. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284267
Hristov,B.,,& Filcheva,E. Soil organic matter content and composition in different pedoclimatic zones of Bulgaria Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6(1):65 - 74. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284267
Hristov,B.,, and ,Filcheva,E."Soil organic matter content and composition in different pedoclimatic zones of Bulgaria" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6.1 (2017):65 - 74. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284267
Hristov,B.,, and ,Filcheva,E. "Soil organic matter content and composition in different pedoclimatic zones of Bulgaria" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,6(Jan 2017):65 - 74 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284267
BE,Hristov.E,Filcheva "Soil organic matter content and composition in different pedoclimatic zones of Bulgaria" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.6, no.1, pp.65 - 74 (Jan 2017), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284267
Hristov,Biser ;Filcheva,Ekaterina Soil organic matter content and composition in different pedoclimatic zones of Bulgaria. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2017),6.1:65 - 74. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284267

How to cite

Hristov, B., E. Filcheva, E., E.2017. Soil organic matter content and composition in different pedoclimatic zones of Bulgaria. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 6(1): 65 - 74. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284267

Author information

Biser Hristov , 10 Kl. Ohridski Blvd., . Sofia, Bulgaria
Ekaterina Filcheva , "N. Poushkarov" Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnology and Plant Protection, Sofia, Bulgaria

Publication information

Article first published online : 03 Aug 2016
Manuscript Accepted : 02 Aug 2016
Manuscript Received: 13 May 2016
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.284267
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.284267

Abstract

The present paper focused on content, quality and composition of soil organic matter in different pedoclimatic zones of Bulgaria. The country has temperate continental climate with Mediterranean influence. There are six combinations of soil temperature and moisture regimes over the territory of Bulgaria, such as Thermic-Xeric, Mesic-Xeric, Mesic-Ustic, Mesic-Udic, Cryic-Udic and Pergelic – Udic. Typical soil types for Bulgaria are Chernozems, Luvisols. Vertisols, Cambisols, Phaeozems, Leptosols, Regosols, Planosols, Umbrisols and etc. Fifteen soil profiles were studied which are representative for the area. The content and composition of organic matter were determined according to the method of Kononova-Belchikova. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of pedoclimatic conditions over soil organic matter content and composition of various areas with different soil cover, vegetation, management and etc. Grouping soil types in different soil temperature and moisture regimes shows that there are similarities in soil carbon content and composition. Soils developed under cooler and moister conditions accumulate more organic carbon. In such areas the content of organic carbon can reach about 255 t.ha-1 in a surface horizon and the type of humus is predominantly Fulvic. Respectively, soils developed under dry and warmer conditions have lower organic carbon content and the type of humus is usually Humic.

Keywords

Soil organic matter, soil carbon, pedoclimate, soil temperature, moisture regimes

Corresponding author

References

Andreeva, N., 2014, Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of soils from the highest parts of Vitosha mountain and the relationship with the soil-forming substrate. St. Climent Ohridski University, Sofia, Bulgaria. PhD thesis. [in Bulgarian].

Artinova, N., 1978. Organic Matter in Pseudopodzolic soils of Bulgaria. Agricultural Institute, “V. Kolarov”, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. PhD thesis. 178 p. [in Bulgarian].

Artinova, N., Gurov G., 1985. Organic matter in some mountain-meadow and brown forest soils. International meeting on classification and management of soils in mountain regions, 25 – 29 September 1984, Sofia, pp 203- 210 [in Bulgarian]

Artinova, N., 1989. Humus content of uncultivated Chernozems in Bulgaria. Forth National Conference of Soil Science, 28 – 30 May, Sofia, Bulgaria. pp. 95–100 [in Bulgarian].

Artinova, N., 2014. Humus status of soils in Bulgaria. In: Soil Organic Matter and Fertility of Soils in Bulgaria. Bulgarian Humic Substances Society. p. 29 - 74 [in Bulgarian].

Boyadjiev, T., 1989, Temperature and water regime of Bulgarian soils. Forth National Conference of Soil Science. 28 – 30 May, Sofia, Bulgaria. pp. 207 – 213 [in Bulgarian].

Costantini, E.A.C., Fantappie´, M., L’Abate, G., 2013, Climate and Pedoclimate of Italy. In: Soils of Italy. Costantini, E. A. C., Dazzi, C. (Eds.). Springer, pp.19-38.

Dialo, A., 1995, Basic genetic process in soils in some from hilly-mountaious territories of Southwest Bulgaria. ISAPP “N. Poushkarov”. PhD thesis, 144 p. [in Bulgarian].

Dilkova, R., Filcheva, E., Kerchev, G., Kercheva, M., 1998. Humus peculiarities of the virgin surface waterlogged soils. In: 16th World Congress of Soil Science, 20–26 August 1998, Montpelier, France.

Dimitrov E., 2014. Variation in the physical properties of soil at different spatial and temporal scales. ISSAPP “N. Poushkarov” Department of Soil Physics, PhD thesis, 154 p. [in Bulgarian].

FAO. 2006. Guidelines for soil description. 4th edition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 97 p.

Filcheva, E., Rousseva, S., Kulikov, A., Nedyalkov, S., Chernogorova, T., 2002. Organic carbon stocks in soils of Bulgaria. In: Agricultural practices and policies for carbon sequestration in soils. Kimble, J.M., Lal, R., Follett, R.F. (Eds.), Lewis Publishers, CRC Press LLC, New York, USA. pp 471–476.

Filcheva, E.G., Tsadilas, C.D., 2002. Influence of clinoptilolite and compost on soil properties. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis  33 (3-4): 595-607.

Filcheva, E., 2014. Humus development, content of the soil organic matter and carbon stocks in different soil groups, pp. 88 – 106. In: Soil organic matter and fertility of soils in Bulgaria. Bulgarian Humic Substances Society. 475 p. [in Bulgarian].

Flicheva, E., 2015. Characteristics of soil organic matter of Bulgarian soils. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 184 p.

Geography of Bulgaria, 2002. Physical and social-economical geography. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria. 760 p. [in Bulgarian].

Hadgiyanakiev, A., Angelov, E., 1981. Analytical data of soil profiles study tour. Second International Meeting on Soil Classification, Institute of Soil Science “N. Poushkarov”, Sofia, Bulgaria. 64 p.

Hristov, B., Filcheva, E., Ivanov, P., 2016. Organic matter content and composition of soils with stagnic properties from Bulgaria. Bulgarian Journal of Soil Science 1(1): 26-32.

Kirschbaum, M.U.F., 1995. The temperature dependence of soil organic matter decomposition, and the effect of global warming on soil organic C storage. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 27(6): 753-760.

Krastanov, S., Filcheva, E., Rousseva, S., Raichev, T., Dimitrov, I., Pachev, I., 2003. Tendencies and perspectives of the research on humic substances. Ecology and Future 2(3-4): 11 – 18.

Koinov, V., H. Trashliev, N. Ninov, M. Jolevski, T. Boyadjiev. 1963. Classification and systematic of soils in Bulgaria. In: Soils of South–Eastern Europe. Proceedings of the international symposium of soil science, June 1963, Sofia. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Press, Sofia, Bulgaria. p 231–246. [in Russian]

Koinov, V., Kabakchiev, I., Boneva, K., 1998. Atlas of the soils in Bulgaria. Zemizdat, Sofia, Bulgaria [in Bulgarian].

Kolchakov, I., 1994. Soil Project CESD-Communataree and N. Poushkarov Institute of Soil Science and Agroecology, N 392 EHL/SW). Soil Geographical Data Base of Europe at Scale 1:1,000,000 version 3.27, 20/04/1998.

Kononova M., 1966. Soil Organic Matter. Its Nature, its role in soil formation and in soil fertility. 2nd Edition. Pergamon Press, Oxford. UK., 544 p.

Newhall, F., 1972. Calculation of soil moisture regimes from the climatic record, Revision 4. USDA Soil Conservation Service: Washington DC, USA.

Mihailov, M., 1988. Genesis, diagnostic and classifications of the soils develop over sands in Danubian palin. Institute of Soil Science “N. Poushkarov”, Sofia, Bulgaria. PhD thesis. 169 p. [in Bulgarian].

Orlov, D.S., 1985. Soil chemistry. Moscow State University,  Moscow, Russia. 376 p. [in Russian].

Penkov, M., Donov, V.D., Boyadjiev, T., Andonov, T., Ninov, N., Yolevski, M., Andonov, G., Gencheva, S., 1992. Classification and diagnostic of Bulgarian soils related with land reform. Zemizdat, Sofia, Bulgaria. 151 p. [in Bulgarian].

Shnitzer, M., Khan, S.U., 1972. Humic substances in the environment. Marcel Dekker, New York, USA. 327p.

Shishkov, T., 1998. An idea concerning genesis and classification of soils from northern part of Danube Valley in Bulgaria. 16th World Congress of Soil Science, 20–26 August 1998, Montpelier, France.

Shishkov, T., Kolev, N. 2014 . The Soils of Bulgaria, World Soils Book Series,  Springer, 208 p.

Shishkov, T., Hristov, B., Kolchakov, V., Hristova, M., Anachkov, K., 2015. Soil field guide. Ambrozia NT., 16 p.

Smith P., Fang, C.. Dawson, J.J.C., Moncrieff, J.B., 2008.  Impact of global warming on soil organic carbon. Advances in Agronomy 97:1-43.

Soil Survey Staff, 1999. Soil taxonomy. 2nd edition, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Agricultural Handbook, No. 436. Washington DC., USA. 886 p.

Soil Survey Staff. 2010. Keys to soil taxonomy. 11th edition, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Washington DC., USA. 338 p.

Stevenson, F.J., 1994. Humus chemistry: Genesis, composition, reaction. John Wiley, New York,  USA. 496 p.

Subev, A., Stanev, S., 1963, Climatic regions of Bulgaria and their climate. Zemizdat. Sofia, Bulgaria. [in Bulgarian].

Teoharov, M., Ilieva, R., Nedyalkov, S., Popova, Z., Hristov, B., 2007. Soil Guide. 60 Years Institute “N. Poushkarov” of Soil Science, Sofia, Bulgaria. 90 p. [in Bulgarian].

WRB, 2014 - IUSS Working Group WRB. 2014. World reference base for soil resources 2014. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Abstract

The present paper focused on content, quality and composition of soil organic matter in different pedoclimatic zones of Bulgaria. The country has temperate continental climate with Mediterranean influence. There are six combinations of soil temperature and moisture regimes over the territory of Bulgaria, such as Thermic-Xeric, Mesic-Xeric, Mesic-Ustic, Mesic-Udic, Cryic-Udic and Pergelic – Udic.  Typical soil types for Bulgaria are Chernozems, Luvisols. Vertisols, Cambisols, Phaeozems, Leptosols, Regosols, Planosols, Umbrisols and etc. Fifteen soil profiles were studied which are representative for the area. The content and composition of organic matter were determined according to the method of Kononova-Belchikova. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of pedoclimatic conditions over soil organic matter content and composition of various areas with different soil cover, vegetation, management and etc. Grouping soil types in different soil temperature and moisture regimes shows that there are similarities in soil carbon content and composition. Soils developed under cooler and moister conditions accumulate more organic carbon. In such areas the content of organic carbon can reach about 255 t.ha-1 in a surface horizon and the type of humus is predominantly Fulvic. Respectively, soils developed under dry and warmer conditions have lower organic carbon content and the type of humus is usually Humic.

Keywords: Soil organic matter, soil carbon, pedoclimate, soil temperature, moisture regimes

References

Andreeva, N., 2014, Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of soils from the highest parts of Vitosha mountain and the relationship with the soil-forming substrate. St. Climent Ohridski University, Sofia, Bulgaria. PhD thesis. [in Bulgarian].

Artinova, N., 1978. Organic Matter in Pseudopodzolic soils of Bulgaria. Agricultural Institute, “V. Kolarov”, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. PhD thesis. 178 p. [in Bulgarian].

Artinova, N., Gurov G., 1985. Organic matter in some mountain-meadow and brown forest soils. International meeting on classification and management of soils in mountain regions, 25 – 29 September 1984, Sofia, pp 203- 210 [in Bulgarian]

Artinova, N., 1989. Humus content of uncultivated Chernozems in Bulgaria. Forth National Conference of Soil Science, 28 – 30 May, Sofia, Bulgaria. pp. 95–100 [in Bulgarian].

Artinova, N., 2014. Humus status of soils in Bulgaria. In: Soil Organic Matter and Fertility of Soils in Bulgaria. Bulgarian Humic Substances Society. p. 29 - 74 [in Bulgarian].

Boyadjiev, T., 1989, Temperature and water regime of Bulgarian soils. Forth National Conference of Soil Science. 28 – 30 May, Sofia, Bulgaria. pp. 207 – 213 [in Bulgarian].

Costantini, E.A.C., Fantappie´, M., L’Abate, G., 2013, Climate and Pedoclimate of Italy. In: Soils of Italy. Costantini, E. A. C., Dazzi, C. (Eds.). Springer, pp.19-38.

Dialo, A., 1995, Basic genetic process in soils in some from hilly-mountaious territories of Southwest Bulgaria. ISAPP “N. Poushkarov”. PhD thesis, 144 p. [in Bulgarian].

Dilkova, R., Filcheva, E., Kerchev, G., Kercheva, M., 1998. Humus peculiarities of the virgin surface waterlogged soils. In: 16th World Congress of Soil Science, 20–26 August 1998, Montpelier, France.

Dimitrov E., 2014. Variation in the physical properties of soil at different spatial and temporal scales. ISSAPP “N. Poushkarov” Department of Soil Physics, PhD thesis, 154 p. [in Bulgarian].

FAO. 2006. Guidelines for soil description. 4th edition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 97 p.

Filcheva, E., Rousseva, S., Kulikov, A., Nedyalkov, S., Chernogorova, T., 2002. Organic carbon stocks in soils of Bulgaria. In: Agricultural practices and policies for carbon sequestration in soils. Kimble, J.M., Lal, R., Follett, R.F. (Eds.), Lewis Publishers, CRC Press LLC, New York, USA. pp 471–476.

Filcheva, E.G., Tsadilas, C.D., 2002. Influence of clinoptilolite and compost on soil properties. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis  33 (3-4): 595-607.

Filcheva, E., 2014. Humus development, content of the soil organic matter and carbon stocks in different soil groups, pp. 88 – 106. In: Soil organic matter and fertility of soils in Bulgaria. Bulgarian Humic Substances Society. 475 p. [in Bulgarian].

Flicheva, E., 2015. Characteristics of soil organic matter of Bulgarian soils. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 184 p.

Geography of Bulgaria, 2002. Physical and social-economical geography. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria. 760 p. [in Bulgarian].

Hadgiyanakiev, A., Angelov, E., 1981. Analytical data of soil profiles study tour. Second International Meeting on Soil Classification, Institute of Soil Science “N. Poushkarov”, Sofia, Bulgaria. 64 p.

Hristov, B., Filcheva, E., Ivanov, P., 2016. Organic matter content and composition of soils with stagnic properties from Bulgaria. Bulgarian Journal of Soil Science 1(1): 26-32.

Kirschbaum, M.U.F., 1995. The temperature dependence of soil organic matter decomposition, and the effect of global warming on soil organic C storage. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 27(6): 753-760.

Krastanov, S., Filcheva, E., Rousseva, S., Raichev, T., Dimitrov, I., Pachev, I., 2003. Tendencies and perspectives of the research on humic substances. Ecology and Future 2(3-4): 11 – 18.

Koinov, V., H. Trashliev, N. Ninov, M. Jolevski, T. Boyadjiev. 1963. Classification and systematic of soils in Bulgaria. In: Soils of South–Eastern Europe. Proceedings of the international symposium of soil science, June 1963, Sofia. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Press, Sofia, Bulgaria. p 231–246. [in Russian]

Koinov, V., Kabakchiev, I., Boneva, K., 1998. Atlas of the soils in Bulgaria. Zemizdat, Sofia, Bulgaria [in Bulgarian].

Kolchakov, I., 1994. Soil Project CESD-Communataree and N. Poushkarov Institute of Soil Science and Agroecology, N 392 EHL/SW). Soil Geographical Data Base of Europe at Scale 1:1,000,000 version 3.27, 20/04/1998.

Kononova M., 1966. Soil Organic Matter. Its Nature, its role in soil formation and in soil fertility. 2nd Edition. Pergamon Press, Oxford. UK., 544 p.

Newhall, F., 1972. Calculation of soil moisture regimes from the climatic record, Revision 4. USDA Soil Conservation Service: Washington DC, USA.

Mihailov, M., 1988. Genesis, diagnostic and classifications of the soils develop over sands in Danubian palin. Institute of Soil Science “N. Poushkarov”, Sofia, Bulgaria. PhD thesis. 169 p. [in Bulgarian].

Orlov, D.S., 1985. Soil chemistry. Moscow State University,  Moscow, Russia. 376 p. [in Russian].

Penkov, M., Donov, V.D., Boyadjiev, T., Andonov, T., Ninov, N., Yolevski, M., Andonov, G., Gencheva, S., 1992. Classification and diagnostic of Bulgarian soils related with land reform. Zemizdat, Sofia, Bulgaria. 151 p. [in Bulgarian].

Shnitzer, M., Khan, S.U., 1972. Humic substances in the environment. Marcel Dekker, New York, USA. 327p.

Shishkov, T., 1998. An idea concerning genesis and classification of soils from northern part of Danube Valley in Bulgaria. 16th World Congress of Soil Science, 20–26 August 1998, Montpelier, France.

Shishkov, T., Kolev, N. 2014 . The Soils of Bulgaria, World Soils Book Series,  Springer, 208 p.

Shishkov, T., Hristov, B., Kolchakov, V., Hristova, M., Anachkov, K., 2015. Soil field guide. Ambrozia NT., 16 p.

Smith P., Fang, C.. Dawson, J.J.C., Moncrieff, J.B., 2008.  Impact of global warming on soil organic carbon. Advances in Agronomy 97:1-43.

Soil Survey Staff, 1999. Soil taxonomy. 2nd edition, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Agricultural Handbook, No. 436. Washington DC., USA. 886 p.

Soil Survey Staff. 2010. Keys to soil taxonomy. 11th edition, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Washington DC., USA. 338 p.

Stevenson, F.J., 1994. Humus chemistry: Genesis, composition, reaction. John Wiley, New York,  USA. 496 p.

Subev, A., Stanev, S., 1963, Climatic regions of Bulgaria and their climate. Zemizdat. Sofia, Bulgaria. [in Bulgarian].

Teoharov, M., Ilieva, R., Nedyalkov, S., Popova, Z., Hristov, B., 2007. Soil Guide. 60 Years Institute “N. Poushkarov” of Soil Science, Sofia, Bulgaria. 90 p. [in Bulgarian].

WRB, 2014 - IUSS Working Group WRB. 2014. World reference base for soil resources 2014. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. FAO, Rome, Italy.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science