Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 6, Issue 1, Jan 2017, Pages 59 - 64
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.284266
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.284266
Copyright © 2017 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Contamination of soils with Cu, Na and Hg due to the highway and railway transport

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Šeda ,M., Šíma,J., Volavka,T., Vondruška,J., 2017. Contamination of soils with Cu, Na and Hg due to the highway and railway transport. Eurasian J Soil Sci 6(1):59 - 64. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284266
Šeda ,M.,Šíma,J.Volavka,T.,& Vondruška,J. Contamination of soils with Cu, Na and Hg due to the highway and railway transport Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6(1):59 - 64. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284266
Šeda ,M.,Šíma,J.Volavka,T., and ,Vondruška,J."Contamination of soils with Cu, Na and Hg due to the highway and railway transport" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6.1 (2017):59 - 64. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284266
Šeda ,M.,Šíma,J.Volavka,T., and ,Vondruška,J. "Contamination of soils with Cu, Na and Hg due to the highway and railway transport" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,6(Jan 2017):59 - 64 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284266
M,Šeda .J,Šíma.T,Volavka.J,Vondruška "Contamination of soils with Cu, Na and Hg due to the highway and railway transport" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.6, no.1, pp.59 - 64 (Jan 2017), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284266
Šeda ,Martin ;Šíma,Jan ;Volavka,Tomáš ;Vondruška,Jan Contamination of soils with Cu, Na and Hg due to the highway and railway transport. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2017),6.1:59 - 64. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284266

How to cite

Šeda , M., Šíma, J., Volavka, T., Vondruška, J., 2017. Contamination of soils with Cu, Na and Hg due to the highway and railway transport. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 6(1): 59 - 64. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284266

Author information

Martin Šeda , University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Applied Chemistry, Czech Republic
Jan Šíma , University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Applied Chemistry, Czech Republic
Tomáš Volavka , University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Applied Chemistry, Czech Republic
Jan Vondruška , University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Applied Chemistry, Czech Republic

Publication information

Article first published online : 21 Jul 2016
Manuscript Accepted : 20 Jul 2016
Manuscript Received: 09 May 2016
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.284266
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.284266

Abstract

Contamination of soils with three metals due to the highway and railway transport was studied. Copper was selected as a suitable indicator for both kinds of transportation. Sodium served to assess the level of contamination resulting from the road salting in winter. Mercury was determined in samples taken close to the railway in order to test its release from impregnated wooden ties. All analyses were determined using the methods of the trace element analysis; values are expressed as dry matter. The highest concentrations of copper, sodium and total mercury in soil samples were 52.7 mg/kg, 770 mg/kg and 0.181 mg/kg respectively. The highest copper content was observed in soils taken close to the railroad and the highway. Elevated sodium levels originated from winter road salting – the highest winter value was 770 mg/kg as compared with maximal summer value of 416 mg/kg. The concentration of total mercury in soils depended on the type of railway ties used – the highest values for location with wooden and concrete ties were 0.181 mg/kg and 0.145 mg/kg, respectively. Wooden railroad ties are considered as a potential source of mercury because of impregnation with antifungal mercury compounds.

Keywords

Copper, environment protection, mercury, salting of roads, trace element analysis

Corresponding author

References

Borůvka, L., Huan, W.C., Kozák, J., Krištoufková, S., 1996. Heavy contamination of soil with cadmium, lead and zinc in the alluvium of the Litavka River. Rostlinná Výroba 42: 543-550.

Bukowiecki, N., Gehrig, R., Hill, M., Lienemann, P., Zwicky, C. N., Buchmann, B., Weingarten, E., Baltensperger, U., 2007. Iron, manganese and copper emitted by cargo and passenger trains in Zürich (Switzerland): Size-segregated mass concentrations in ambient air. Atmospheric Environment 41(4):  878–889.

Czech Hydrometeorological Institute Data, 2014. Available at: http://portal.chmi.cz/portal/dt?action=content&provider=JSPTabContainer&menu=JSPTabContainer/P4_Historicka_data/P4_1_Pocasi/P4_1_9_Mesicni_data&nc=1&portal_lang=cs#PP_Mesicni_data. [Access date: 07.09.2015]

Czech Traffic Survey, 2010. Available at: http://scitani2010.rsd.cz/pages/map/default.aspx. [Access date: 01.03.2015]

Davis, A.P., Shokouhian, M., Ni, S., 2001. Loading estimates of lead, copper, cadmium, and zinc in urban runoff from specific sources. Chemosphere 44(5): 997-1009.

Geochemical Atlas of Europe, 2016. Available at: http://www.gtk.fi/publ/foregsatlas. [Access date: 05.06.2016]

Harley, J., Lieske, C., Bhojwani, S., Castellini, J. M., López, J. A., O’Hara, T.M., 2015. Mercury and methylmercury distribution in tissues of sculpins from the Bering Sea. Polar Biology 38(9): 1535–1543.

Helmreich, B., Hilliges, R., Schriewer, A., Horn, H., 2010. Runoff pollutants of a highly trafficked urban road – Correlation analysis and seasonal influences. Chemosphere 80(9): 991–997.

King, J.K., Harmon, S.M., Fu, T.T., Gladden, J.B., 2002 Mercury removal, methylmercury formation, and sulfate-reducing bacteria profiles in wetland mesocosms. Chemosphere 46(6): 859-870.

Kluge, B., Wessolek, G., 2012. Heavy metal pattern and solute concentration in soils along the oldest highway of the world – the AVUS Autobahn. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184(11): 6469–6481.

Malawska, M., Wiłkomirski, B., 2001.  An Analysis of Soil and Plant (Taraxacum Officinale) Contamination with Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) In the Area of the Railway Junction Iława Główna, Poland. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 127(1): 339–349.

Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic 1994. Regulation No. 13/1994 [online], Available at: http://www.mzp.cz/www/platnalegislativa.nsf/d79c09c54250df0dc1256e8900296e32/43B5A6E50D46EB69C12564EA003DE8B0/$file/V%2013_1994.pdf. Access date: 07.09.2015]

Moťková, K., Podlipná, R., Vaněk, T., Kafka, Z., 2014. Halophytes and their use in phytoremediation. Chemické Listy 108: 586–591. [in Czech]

Norrström, A.C., 2005. Metal mobility by de-icing salt from an infiltration trench for highway runoff. Applied Geochemistry 20(10): 1907–1919.

Reinprecht, L., 2010. Fungicides for wood protection – World viewpoint and evaluation/testing in Slovakia. In: Fungicides. Carisse, O. (Ed.), InTech, pp. 95-122. Available at: http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/12383.pdf [Access date: 08.05.2016]

Sabienë, N., Brazauskienë, D.M., Rimmer, D., 2004. Determination of heavy metal mobile forms by different extraction methods. Ekologija 1: 36–41.

Smičiklas, I., Jović, M., Šljivić-Ivanović, M., Mrvić, V., Čakmak, D., Dimović, S., 2015. Correlation of Sr2+ retention and distribution with properties of different soil types. Geoderma 253-254: 21-29.

Száková, J., Miholová, D., Tlustoš, P., Šestáková, I., Frková, Z., 2010. Effect of soil properties and sample preparation on extractable and soluble Pb and Cd fractions in soils. Agricultural Sciences 1(3): 119-130.

Tromp, K., Lima, A.T., Barendregt, A., Verhoeven, J.T.A., 2012. Retention of heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons from road water in a constructed wetland and the effect of de-icing. Journal of Hazardous Materials 203–204: 290–298.

Vitaliano, D.F., 1992. An economic assessment of the social costs of highway salting and the efficiency of substituting a new deicing material. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 11(3): 397–418.

Wiłkomirski, B., Sudnik-Wójcikowska, B., Galera, H., Wierzbicka, M., Malawska, M., 2011. Railway transportation as a serious source of organic and inorganic pollution. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 218 (1-4): 333–345.

Zehetner, F., Rosenfellner, U., Mentler, A., Gerzabek, M.H., 2009. Distribution of road salt residues, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons across a highway-forest interface. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 198(1): 125–132.

Zhang, H., Wang, Z., Zhang, Y., Hu, Z., 2012. The effects of the Qinghai–Tibet railway on heavy metals enrichment in soils. Science of the Total Environment 439: 240–248.

Zhang, H., Zhang, Y., Wang, Z., Ding, M., 2013. Heavy metal enrichment in the soil along the Delhi–Ulan section of the Qinghai–Tibet railway in China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 185(7): 5435–5447.

Abstract

Contamination of soils with three metals due to the highway and railway transport was studied. Copper was selected as a suitable indicator for both kinds of transportation. Sodium served to assess the level of contamination resulting from the road salting in winter. Mercury was determined in samples taken close to the railway in order to test its release from impregnated wooden ties. All analyses were determined using the methods of the trace element analysis; values are expressed as dry matter. The highest concentrations of copper, sodium and total mercury in soil samples were 52.7 mg/kg, 770 mg/kg and 0.181 mg/kg respectively. The highest copper content was observed in soils taken close to the railroad and the highway. Elevated sodium levels originated from winter road salting – the highest winter value was 770 mg/kg as compared with maximal summer value of 416 mg/kg. The concentration of total mercury in soils depended on the type of railway ties used – the highest values for location with wooden and concrete ties were 0.181 mg/kg and 0.145 mg/kg, respectively. Wooden railroad ties are considered as a potential source of mercury because of impregnation with antifungal mercury compounds.

Keywords: Copper, environment protection, mercury, salting of roads, trace element analysis.

References

Borůvka, L., Huan, W.C., Kozák, J., Krištoufková, S., 1996. Heavy contamination of soil with cadmium, lead and zinc in the alluvium of the Litavka River. Rostlinná Výroba 42: 543-550.

Bukowiecki, N., Gehrig, R., Hill, M., Lienemann, P., Zwicky, C. N., Buchmann, B., Weingarten, E., Baltensperger, U., 2007. Iron, manganese and copper emitted by cargo and passenger trains in Zürich (Switzerland): Size-segregated mass concentrations in ambient air. Atmospheric Environment 41(4):  878–889.

Czech Hydrometeorological Institute Data, 2014. Available at: http://portal.chmi.cz/portal/dt?action=content&provider=JSPTabContainer&menu=JSPTabContainer/P4_Historicka_data/P4_1_Pocasi/P4_1_9_Mesicni_data&nc=1&portal_lang=cs#PP_Mesicni_data. [Access date: 07.09.2015]

Czech Traffic Survey, 2010. Available at: http://scitani2010.rsd.cz/pages/map/default.aspx. [Access date: 01.03.2015]

Davis, A.P., Shokouhian, M., Ni, S., 2001. Loading estimates of lead, copper, cadmium, and zinc in urban runoff from specific sources. Chemosphere 44(5): 997-1009.

Geochemical Atlas of Europe, 2016. Available at: http://www.gtk.fi/publ/foregsatlas. [Access date: 05.06.2016]

Harley, J., Lieske, C., Bhojwani, S., Castellini, J. M., López, J. A., O’Hara, T.M., 2015. Mercury and methylmercury distribution in tissues of sculpins from the Bering Sea. Polar Biology 38(9): 1535–1543.

Helmreich, B., Hilliges, R., Schriewer, A., Horn, H., 2010. Runoff pollutants of a highly trafficked urban road – Correlation analysis and seasonal influences. Chemosphere 80(9): 991–997.

King, J.K., Harmon, S.M., Fu, T.T., Gladden, J.B., 2002 Mercury removal, methylmercury formation, and sulfate-reducing bacteria profiles in wetland mesocosms. Chemosphere 46(6): 859-870.

Kluge, B., Wessolek, G., 2012. Heavy metal pattern and solute concentration in soils along the oldest highway of the world – the AVUS Autobahn. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184(11): 6469–6481.

Malawska, M., Wiłkomirski, B., 2001.  An Analysis of Soil and Plant (Taraxacum Officinale) Contamination with Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) In the Area of the Railway Junction Iława Główna, Poland. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 127(1): 339–349.

Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic 1994. Regulation No. 13/1994 [online], Available at: http://www.mzp.cz/www/platnalegislativa.nsf/d79c09c54250df0dc1256e8900296e32/43B5A6E50D46EB69C12564EA003DE8B0/$file/V%2013_1994.pdf. Access date: 07.09.2015]

Moťková, K., Podlipná, R., Vaněk, T., Kafka, Z., 2014. Halophytes and their use in phytoremediation. Chemické Listy 108: 586–591. [in Czech]

Norrström, A.C., 2005. Metal mobility by de-icing salt from an infiltration trench for highway runoff. Applied Geochemistry 20(10): 1907–1919.

Reinprecht, L., 2010. Fungicides for wood protection – World viewpoint and evaluation/testing in Slovakia. In: Fungicides. Carisse, O. (Ed.), InTech, pp. 95-122. Available at: http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/12383.pdf [Access date: 08.05.2016]

Sabienë, N., Brazauskienë, D.M., Rimmer, D., 2004. Determination of heavy metal mobile forms by different extraction methods. Ekologija 1: 36–41.

Smičiklas, I., Jović, M., Šljivić-Ivanović, M., Mrvić, V., Čakmak, D., Dimović, S., 2015. Correlation of Sr2+ retention and distribution with properties of different soil types. Geoderma 253-254: 21-29.

Száková, J., Miholová, D., Tlustoš, P., Šestáková, I., Frková, Z., 2010. Effect of soil properties and sample preparation on extractable and soluble Pb and Cd fractions in soils. Agricultural Sciences 1(3): 119-130.

Tromp, K., Lima, A.T., Barendregt, A., Verhoeven, J.T.A., 2012. Retention of heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons from road water in a constructed wetland and the effect of de-icing. Journal of Hazardous Materials 203–204: 290–298.

Vitaliano, D.F., 1992. An economic assessment of the social costs of highway salting and the efficiency of substituting a new deicing material. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 11(3): 397–418.

Wiłkomirski, B., Sudnik-Wójcikowska, B., Galera, H., Wierzbicka, M., Malawska, M., 2011. Railway transportation as a serious source of organic and inorganic pollution. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 218 (1-4): 333–345.

Zehetner, F., Rosenfellner, U., Mentler, A., Gerzabek, M.H., 2009. Distribution of road salt residues, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons across a highway-forest interface. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 198(1): 125–132.

Zhang, H., Wang, Z., Zhang, Y., Hu, Z., 2012. The effects of the Qinghai–Tibet railway on heavy metals enrichment in soils. Science of the Total Environment 439: 240–248.

Zhang, H., Zhang, Y., Wang, Z., Ding, M., 2013. Heavy metal enrichment in the soil along the Delhi–Ulan section of the Qinghai–Tibet railway in China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 185(7): 5435–5447.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science