Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 6, Issue 1, Jan 2017, Pages 28 - 36
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.284261
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.284261
Copyright © 2017 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Influence of the artisanal gold mining on soil contamination with heavy metals: A case study from Dar-Mali locality, North of Atbara, River Nile State, Sudan

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Ali,M., Elhagwa,A., Elfaki,J., Sulieman,M., 2017. Influence of the artisanal gold mining on soil contamination with heavy metals: A case study from Dar-Mali locality, North of Atbara, River Nile State, Sudan. Eurasian J Soil Sci 6(1):28 - 36. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284261
Ali,M.Elhagwa,A.Elfaki,J.,& Sulieman,M. (2017). Influence of the artisanal gold mining on soil contamination with heavy metals: A case study from Dar-Mali locality, North of Atbara, River Nile State, Sudan Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6(1):28 - 36. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284261
Ali,M.Elhagwa,A.Elfaki,J., and ,Sulieman,M. "Influence of the artisanal gold mining on soil contamination with heavy metals: A case study from Dar-Mali locality, North of Atbara, River Nile State, Sudan" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6.1 (2017):28 - 36. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284261
Ali,M.Elhagwa,A.Elfaki,J., and ,Sulieman,M. "Influence of the artisanal gold mining on soil contamination with heavy metals: A case study from Dar-Mali locality, North of Atbara, River Nile State, Sudan" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,6(Jan 2017):28 - 36 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284261
M,Ali.A,Elhagwa.J,Elfaki.M,Sulieman "Influence of the artisanal gold mining on soil contamination with heavy metals: A case study from Dar-Mali locality, North of Atbara, River Nile State, Sudan" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.6, no.1, pp.28 - 36 (Jan 2017), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284261
Ali,Mushtaha ;Elhagwa,Abdalla ;Elfaki,Jamal ;Sulieman,Magboul Influence of the artisanal gold mining on soil contamination with heavy metals: A case study from Dar-Mali locality, North of Atbara, River Nile State, Sudan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2017),6.1:28 - 36. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284261

How to cite

Ali, M., Elhagwa, A., Elfaki, J., Sulieman, M., 2017. Influence of the artisanal gold mining on soil contamination with heavy metals: A case study from Dar-Mali locality, North of Atbara, River Nile State, Sudan. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 6(1): 28 - 36. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.284261

Author information

Mushtaha Ali , General Administration of Natural Resource and Sustainable Development, Khartoum, Sudan
Abdalla Elhagwa , Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC), Land and Water Research Centre, Wad Madani, Sudan
Jamal Elfaki , Faculty of Agriculture, Nile Valley University, River Nile State, Sudan
Magboul Sulieman , Soil and Environment Sciences Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan

Publication information

Article first published online : 02 Jun 2016
Manuscript Accepted : 25 May 2016
Manuscript Received: 03 Mar 2016
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.284261
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.284261

Abstract

Twenty soil samples were collected from North of Atbara (Dar-Mali locality),River Nile State, Sudan (17.82289 to 17.82389N and 33.99974 to 34.02127E) inside and outside gold mining area in order to assess the influence of the gold mining on the concentrations of selected heavy metals (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Hg) in study area. The soil contamination by heavy metals of study area was studied using two parameters; (i) Comparison of the heavy metals concentrations with mean concentrations in most world soils, (ii) Enrichment Factor (EF). Results revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals were varying in the study area, the highest concentrations were obtained at the center of mining area particularly inside the mining basins of gold extraction. The concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Ni, and Pb were ranged from (4.85 to 34.65 mg kg-1 soil), (6,355 to 14,635 mg kg-1 soil), (37.35 to 655 mg kg-1 soil), (11.85 to 42.7 mg kg-1 soil), (0 to 16.5 mg kg-1 soil,) (2.5 to 47.3 mg kg-1 soil) and (2.65 to 823.5 mg kg-1 soil), respectively. The results also indicated that the soil samples which collected from inside mining basins have a highest EF for most heavy metals particularly Pb, which showed EF value of (676.3), suggesting that the Pb may be derived from anthropogenic source. This study recommends regular monitoring of heavy metals in the soils around the Artisanal gold Mining for conservation and protection from pollution.

Keywords

Sudan, River Nile State, gold mining, enrichment factor, mining basins

Corresponding author

References

Almasoud, F.I., Adel, R.U., Al-Farraj, A.S. 2015. Heavy metals in the soils of the Arabian Gulf coast affected by industrial activities: analysis and assessment using enrichment factor and multivariate analysis. Arabian Journal of Geoscience 8(3): 1691-1703.

Cooke, J.A., Johnson, M.S., 2002. Ecological restoration of land with particular reference to the mining of metals and industrial minerals: a review of theory and practice. Environmental Reviews 10(1): 41-71.

Donkor, A.K., Bonzongo, J.C.J., Nartey, V.K., Adotey, D.K., 2005. Heavy metals in sediments of the gold mining impacted Pra River Basin, Ghana, West Africa. Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal 14(6): 479-503.

DPR-EGASPIN, 2002. Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN), Department of Petroleum Resources, Lagos, Nigeria.

FAO, 2006. Guidelines for soil profile description. Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nation. Rome, Italy.

Hernandez, L., Probst, A., Probst, J.L., Ulrich, E., 2003. Heavy metal distribution in some French forest soils: evidence for atmosphere contamination. Science of The Total Environment 312(1-3): 195–210.

Horneck, D.A., Sullivan, D.M., Owen, J.S., Hart J.M., 2011. Soil test interpretation guide. Oregon State University, Extension Service, USA. 12p. Available at [access date: 03.03.2016]:

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/22023/ec1478.pdf.

Horváth, B., Opara-Nadi, O., Beese, F., 2005. A simple method for measuring the carbonate content of soils. Soil Science Society America Journal 69(4): 1066-1068.

IBM Corp., 2012. Statistics for Windows (Computer Program Manual), IBM SPSS Armonk, NY, USA.

Ledin, M., Pedersen, K., 1996. The environmental impact of mine wastes — Roles of microorganisms and their significance in treatment of mine wastes. Earth-Science Reviews 41(1–2): 67–108.

Lindsay, W.L., 1979. Chemical Equilibria in Soils. 1st Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA. 449 p.

Link, D.D., Kingston, H.M., Walter, P.J., 1998.. Development and Validation of the New EPA Microwave-Assisted Leach Method 3051A. Environmental Science and Technology 32 (22): 3628–3632.

NIDEP, 2012. Soil Cleanup Criteria, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Remediation Standards at N.J.A.C. 7:26D. USA. Available at [access date: 03.03.2016]: http://www.nj.gov/dep/rules/rules/njac7_26d.pdf

Rhoades, J.D., 1996. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. In: Methods of Soil Analysis Part 3—Chemical Methods. Sparks, D.L., Page, A.L., Helmke, P.A., Loeppert, R.H.(Eds.). SSSA Book Series 5.3. Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA. pp. 417-435.

Riley, R.G., Zachara, J. M., Wobber, F.J., 1992. Chemical contaminants on DOE lands and selection of contaminated mixtures for subsurface science research. DOE/ER-0547T. Energy Resource Subsurface Science Program, Washington DC, USA.

Singh, S., Kumar, M., 2006. Heavy metal load of soil, water and vegetables in Peri-Urban Delhi. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 120(1): 79–91.

Soil Survey Staff, 2014a. Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 12th edition. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, USA. 359p.

Soil Survey Staff, 2014b. Kellogg soil survey laboratory methods manual. Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 42, Version 5.0. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, USA. 1001p.

Sparks, D.L., Page, A.L., Helmke, P.A., Loeppert, R.H., 1996. Methods of Soil Analysis Part 3—Chemical Methods. SSSA Book Series 5.3. Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA. 1390p.

Sutherland, R.A., 2000. Bed sediment-associated trace metals in an urban stream, Oahu, Hawaii. Environmental Geology 39(6): 611-627.

U.S. Salinity Lab. Staff, 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. Agricultural Handbook No. 60. United States Department of Agronomy, Washington DC, USA. 159 pp.

Van der Kevie, W.,1973. Climate Zones in the Sudan. Soil Survey Department, Wad Medani.

Ye, C., Li, S., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Q., 2011. Assessing soil heavy metal pollution in the water-level-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Journal of Hazardous Materials 191(1-3):366–372.

Yongming, H., Peixuan, D., Junji, C., Posmentier, E.S., 2006. Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination in urban dusts of Xi'an, Central China. Science of The Total Environment 355(1-3): 176–186.

Abstract

Twenty soil samples were collected from North of Atbara (Dar-Mali locality), River Nile State, Sudan (17.82289 to 17.82389N and 33.99974 to 34.02127E) inside and outside gold mining area in order to assess the influence of the gold mining on the concentrations of selected heavy metals (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Hg) in study area. The soil contamination by heavy metals of study area was studied using two parameters; (i) Comparison of the heavy metals concentrations with mean concentrations in most world soils, (ii) Enrichment Factor (EF). Results revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals were varying in the study area, the highest concentrations were obtained at the center of mining area particularly inside the mining basins of gold extraction. The concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Ni, and Pb were ranged from (4.85 to 34.65 mg kg-1 soil), (6,355 to 14,635 mg kg-1 soil), (37.35 to 655 mg kg-1 soil), (11.85 to 42.7 mg kg-1 soil), (0 to 16.5 mg kg-1 soil,) (2.5 to 47.3 mg kg-1 soil) and (2.65 to 823.5 mg kg-1 soil), respectively. The results also indicated that the soil samples which collected from inside mining basins have a highest EF for most heavy metals particularly Pb, which showed EF value of (676.3), suggesting that the Pb may be derived from anthropogenic source. This study recommends regular monitoring of heavy metals in the soils around the Artisanal gold Mining for conservation and protection from pollution.

Keywords: Sudan, River Nile State, gold mining, enrichment factor, mining basins.

References

Almasoud, F.I., Adel, R.U., Al-Farraj, A.S. 2015. Heavy metals in the soils of the Arabian Gulf coast affected by industrial activities: analysis and assessment using enrichment factor and multivariate analysis. Arabian Journal of Geoscience 8(3): 1691-1703.

Cooke, J.A., Johnson, M.S., 2002. Ecological restoration of land with particular reference to the mining of metals and industrial minerals: a review of theory and practice. Environmental Reviews 10(1): 41-71.

Donkor, A.K., Bonzongo, J.C.J., Nartey, V.K., Adotey, D.K., 2005. Heavy metals in sediments of the gold mining impacted Pra River Basin, Ghana, West Africa. Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal 14(6): 479-503.

DPR-EGASPIN, 2002. Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN), Department of Petroleum Resources, Lagos, Nigeria.

FAO, 2006. Guidelines for soil profile description. Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nation. Rome, Italy.

Hernandez, L., Probst, A., Probst, J.L., Ulrich, E., 2003. Heavy metal distribution in some French forest soils: evidence for atmosphere contamination. Science of The Total Environment 312(1-3): 195–210.

Horneck, D.A., Sullivan, D.M., Owen, J.S., Hart J.M., 2011. Soil test interpretation guide. Oregon State University, Extension Service, USA. 12p. Available at [access date: 03.03.2016]:

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/22023/ec1478.pdf.

Horváth, B., Opara-Nadi, O., Beese, F., 2005. A simple method for measuring the carbonate content of soils. Soil Science Society America Journal 69(4): 1066-1068.

IBM Corp., 2012. Statistics for Windows (Computer Program Manual), IBM SPSS Armonk, NY, USA.

Ledin, M., Pedersen, K., 1996. The environmental impact of mine wastes — Roles of microorganisms and their significance in treatment of mine wastes. Earth-Science Reviews 41(1–2): 67–108.

Lindsay, W.L., 1979. Chemical Equilibria in Soils. 1st Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA. 449 p.

Link, D.D., Kingston, H.M., Walter, P.J., 1998.. Development and Validation of the New EPA Microwave-Assisted Leach Method 3051A. Environmental Science and Technology 32 (22): 3628–3632.

NIDEP, 2012. Soil Cleanup Criteria, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Remediation Standards at N.J.A.C. 7:26D. USA. Available at [access date: 03.03.2016]: http://www.nj.gov/dep/rules/rules/njac7_26d.pdf

Rhoades, J.D., 1996. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. In: Methods of Soil Analysis Part 3—Chemical Methods. Sparks, D.L., Page, A.L., Helmke, P.A., Loeppert, R.H.(Eds.). SSSA Book Series 5.3. Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA. pp. 417-435.

Riley, R.G., Zachara, J. M., Wobber, F.J., 1992. Chemical contaminants on DOE lands and selection of contaminated mixtures for subsurface science research. DOE/ER-0547T. Energy Resource Subsurface Science Program, Washington DC, USA.

Singh, S., Kumar, M., 2006. Heavy metal load of soil, water and vegetables in Peri-Urban Delhi. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 120(1): 79–91.

Soil Survey Staff, 2014a. Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 12th edition. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, USA. 359p.

Soil Survey Staff, 2014b. Kellogg soil survey laboratory methods manual. Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 42, Version 5.0. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, USA. 1001p.

Sparks, D.L., Page, A.L., Helmke, P.A., Loeppert, R.H., 1996. Methods of Soil Analysis Part 3—Chemical Methods. SSSA Book Series 5.3. Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA. 1390p.

Sutherland, R.A., 2000. Bed sediment-associated trace metals in an urban stream, Oahu, Hawaii. Environmental Geology 39(6): 611-627.

U.S. Salinity Lab. Staff, 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. Agricultural Handbook No. 60. United States Department of Agronomy, Washington DC, USA. 159 pp.

Van der Kevie, W.,1973. Climate Zones in the Sudan. Soil Survey Department, Wad Medani.

Ye, C., Li, S., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Q., 2011. Assessing soil heavy metal pollution in the water-level-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Journal of Hazardous Materials 191(1-3):366–372.

Yongming, H., Peixuan, D., Junji, C., Posmentier, E.S., 2006. Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination in urban dusts of Xi'an, Central China. Science of The Total Environment 355(1-3): 176–186.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science