Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 5, Issue 2, Apr 2016, Pages 155 - 165
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2016.2.155-165
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.2016.2.155-165
Copyright © 2016 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Benzo[a]pyrene contamination in Rostov Region of Russian Federation: A 10-year retrospective of soil monitoring under the effect of long-term technogenic pollution

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Sushkova,S., Minkina,T., Turina,I., Mandzhieva,S., Bauer,T., Zamulina,I., ,., 2016. Benzo[a]pyrene contamination in Rostov Region of Russian Federation: A 10-year retrospective of soil monitoring under the effect of long-term technogenic pollution. Eurasian J Soil Sci 5(2):155 - 165. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.2.155-165
Sushkova,S.,Minkina,T.Turina,I.Mandzhieva,S.Bauer,T.Zamulina,I.,& ,. Benzo[a]pyrene contamination in Rostov Region of Russian Federation: A 10-year retrospective of soil monitoring under the effect of long-term technogenic pollution Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.2.155-165
Sushkova,S.,Minkina,T.Turina,I.Mandzhieva,S.Bauer,T.Zamulina,I., and ,,."Benzo[a]pyrene contamination in Rostov Region of Russian Federation: A 10-year retrospective of soil monitoring under the effect of long-term technogenic pollution" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.2.155-165
Sushkova,S.,Minkina,T.Turina,I.Mandzhieva,S.Bauer,T.Zamulina,I., and ,,. "Benzo[a]pyrene contamination in Rostov Region of Russian Federation: A 10-year retrospective of soil monitoring under the effect of long-term technogenic pollution" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.2.155-165
S,Sushkova.T,Minkina.I,Turina.S,Mandzhieva.T,Bauer.I,Zamulina., "Benzo[a]pyrene contamination in Rostov Region of Russian Federation: A 10-year retrospective of soil monitoring under the effect of long-term technogenic pollution" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol., no., pp., DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.2.155-165
Sushkova,Svetlana ;Minkina,Tatiana ;Turina,Irina ;Mandzhieva,Saglara ;Bauer,Tatiana ;Zamulina,Inna ;, Benzo[a]pyrene contamination in Rostov Region of Russian Federation: A 10-year retrospective of soil monitoring under the effect of long-term technogenic pollution. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.2.155-165

How to cite

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Turina, I., Mandzhieva, S., Bauer, T., Zamulina, I., , ., 2016. Benzo[a]pyrene contamination in Rostov Region of Russian Federation: A 10-year retrospective of soil monitoring under the effect of long-term technogenic pollution. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 5(2): 155 - 165. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.2.155-165

Author information

Svetlana Sushkova , Academy of Biology and Biotechnology, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation
Tatiana Minkina , Academy of Biology and Biotechnology, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation
Irina Turina , Academy of Biology and Biotechnology, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation
Saglara Mandzhieva , Academy of Biology and Biotechnology, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation
Tatiana Bauer , Academy of Biology and Biotechnology, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation
Inna Zamulina , Academy of Biology and Biotechnology, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation
,

Publication information

Issue published online: 01 Apr 2016
Article first published online : 17 Dec 2015
Manuscript Accepted : 14 Dec 2015
Manuscript Received: 15 Oct 2015
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2016.2.155-165
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.2016.2.155-165

Abstract

The aim of the current work was to study the main tendencies in the accumulation and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in soils of the affected zone of the Novocherkassk regional power plant. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk regional power plant emissions. Monitoring plots were established at different distances from the Novocherkassk regional power plant (1.0–20.0 km). Regularities in the accumulation and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in chernozemic, meadow-chernozemic, and alluvial soils under the effect of aerotechnogenic emissions from the Novocherkassk regional power plant have been revealed on the basis of long-term monitoring studies (from 2002 to 2011). The tendencies in the distribution and accumulation of BaP in the studied soils coincided during the 10 years of monitoring studies. It has been found the 5-km zone to the northwest from the power station, which coincides with the predominant wind direction, is most subjected to contamination by benzo[a]pyrene, with the maximum accumulation at a distance of about 1.6 km from the source. Dynamics of pollutant accumulation in soils depends on number of Novocherkassk regional power plant emissions. The content of benzo[a]pyrene in the soil is an indicator of the technogenic load impact on the areas, for which the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuel are the major pollutants. A gradual decrease of the pollutant content in the soils was revealed during the period from 2002 to 2011. It explained by the significant decrease in the volume of pollutant emissions from the plant and the self-purification capacity of soils and mechanisms of benzo[a]pyrene degradation.

Keywords

Benzo[a]pyrene, soil, contamination, monitoring, soil properties, regional power plant

Corresponding author

References

Anonymous, 2008. Procedure of measurements benzo(a)pyrene content in soils, sediments and sludges by highly effective liquid chromatography method. Certificate 27-08, 2008. Moscow, Russia. 56 p. [in Russian].

Antizar-Ladislao, B., Lopez-Real, J., Beck, A.J., 2006. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an aged coal tar contaminated soil under in-vessel composting conditions. Environmental Pollution 141(3): 459–468.

Augusto, S., Pereira, M.J., Máguas, C., Branquinho, C., 2013. A step towards the use of biomonitors as estimators of atmospheric PAHs for regulatory purposes. Chemosphere 92(5): 626–632.

Callén, M.S., López, J.M., Iturmendi, A., Mastral, A.M., 2013. Nature and sources of particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the atmospheric environment of an urban area. Environmental Pollution 183: 166–174.

Cristale, J., Silva, F.S., Zocolo, G. J., Rodrigues Marchi, M.R., 2012. Influence of sugarcane burning on indoor/outdoor PAH air pollution in Brazil. Environmental Pollution 169: 210–216.

DEFRA and EA 2002. Contaminants in soil: Collation of toxicological data and intake values for humans. Benzo[a]pyrene. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and the Environment Agency, Bristol, UK.

Directive document 52.10.556-95. Methodical Instructions. Definition of Polluting Substances in Sediments and Suspension. Roshydromet, 2002, Moscow. [in Russian].

Ecological messenger of Don “About environmental conditions and natural resources of the rostov region in 2011”. Rostov-on-Don: Administration of Rostov Region, 2012, The Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, 359 p. [in Russian].

Gabov, D.N, Beznosikov, V.A., 2014. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tundra soils of the Komi Republic. Eurasian Soil Science 47(1): 18−25.

Gabov, D.N, Beznosikov, V.A., Kondratenok, B.M., 2007. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in background podzolic and gleyic peat-podzolic soils. Eurasian Soil Science 40(3): 256-264.

Galiulin, R.V., Bashkin, V.N., Galiulina, R.A., 2002. Behavior of persistent organic pollutants in the air-plant-soil system. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 137(1):179-191

Gennadiev, A., Delvig, I., Kasimov, N., Teplitskaya, T., 1989. PAHs in soils of background areas and natural pedogenesis. In: Monitoring of Background Pollutants in the Natural Environment, Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad. 5, 149−161 [in Russian]

Gennadiev, A.N., Pikovskii, Y.I., Chernyavskii, S.S., Alekseeva, T.A., Kovach, R.G., 2004. Forms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and factors of their accumulations in soils affected by technogenic pollution (Moscow oblast). Eurasian Soil Science 37(7): 697−709.

Gorobtsova, O., Nazarenko, O., Minkina, T., Borisenko, N., Yaroshchuk A., 2005. Role of soil cover in the accumulation and migration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under technogenic contamination. Izv Vuzov Sev Kav Region Est Nauki 1, 73−79 [in Russian].

GOST 14.4.3.06-86. Nature protection. Soils. General requirements for the classification of soils in accordance with the impact of chemical pollutants on them, 1986, Moscow [in Russian].

GOST 17.4.1.02.-83. Nature protection. Soils. Classification of chemical compounds for pollution control, 2004, Moscow [in Russian].

GOST 26423-85. Soils. Methods for determination of specific electric conductivity, pH, and dissolved solids, 1985, Moscow [in Russian].

Hybholt, T.K., Aamand, J., Johnsen, A.R., 2011. Quantification of centimeter-scale spatial variation in PAH, glucose and benzoic acid mineralization and soil organic matter in road-side soil. Environmental Pollution 159(5): 1085-1091.

ISO, 2005. Soil quality - Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons - Method using high-performance liquid chromatography. 13877-2005. 20 p.

Jian, Y., Wang, L., Fu, P.P., Yu, H., 2004. Photomutagenicity of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the US EPA priority pollutant list. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 557(1): 99-108.

Mandzhieva, S.S., Minkina, T.M., Sushkova, S.N., Motuzova, G.V., Bauer, T.V., Chapligin, V.A., 2014. The group composition of metal compounds in soil as an index of soil ecological state. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 9(1): 19-24.

Minkina, T.M., Motuzova, G.V., Mandzhieva, S.S., Nazarenko, O.G., 2012. Ecological resistance of the soil–plant system to contamination by heavy metals. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 123: 33-40.

Minkina, T.M, Pinskii, D.L, Mandzhieva, S.S., Antonenko, E.M., Sushkova, S.N., 2011. Effect of the particle-size distribution on the adsorption of copper, lead, and zinc by Chernozemic soils of Rostov oblast. Eurasian Soil Science 44(11): 1193-1200.

Nazarenko, O., Gorobtsova, O., Minkina, T., Mandzhieva, S., 2007. Integral contamination index in the environmental assessment of technogenic areas. In: Proceedings of 3rd International Scientific Conferences on Current Problems of Soil Pollution. Moscow, Russia. pp. 130−133 [in Russian].

Oros, D.R., Ross, J.R.M., Spies, R.B., Mumley, T., 2007. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in San Francisco Bay: A 10-year retrospective of monitoring in an urbanized estuary. Environmental Research 105(1): 101-118.

Page, D.S., Brown, J.S., Boehm, P.D., Bence, A.E., Neff, J.M., 2006. A hierarchical approach measures the aerial extent and concentration levels of PAH-contaminated shoreline sediments at historic industrial sites in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52(4): 367-379.

Pereira, T.S., Beltrami, L.S., Rocha, J.A.V., Broto, F.P., Comellas, L.R., Salvadori, D.M.F., Vargas, V.M.F., 2013. Toxicogenetic monitoring in urban cities exposed to different airborne contaminants. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 90: 174-182.

Pikovskii, Y., 1993. Natural and Technogenic Fluxes of Hydrocarbons in the Environment, MGU, Moscow, Russia. [in Russian].

Shabad, L., 1982. Chemical carcinogens in the natural environment. In: Integrated Global Monitoring of Pollution in the Natural Environment, Gidrometeoizdat, 1982. Leningrad, pp. 69−77 [in Russian].

Singh, D.P., Gadi, R., Mandal, T.K., Saud, T., Saxena, M., Sharma, S.K., 2013. Emissions estimates of PAH from biomass fuels used in rural sector of Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. Atmospheric Environment 68: 120-126.

Sokolov, A., 1975. Agrochemical methods of soil study. Science publishing. Moscow, Russia. [in Russian]

Sushkova, S.N, Minkina, T.M., Mandzhieva, S.S., Vasilyeva, G.K., Borisenko, N.I., Turina, I.G., Bolotova, O.V., Varduni, T.V., Kızılkaya, R., 2015. New alternative method of benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soils and its approbation in soil under technogenic pressure. Journal of Soil and Sediments [in press]

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Mandzhieva, S., Borisenko, N., Fedchenko, T., 2012. Determination of 3,4-benz[a]pyrene in soils adjacent to the Novocherkassk power plant by subcritical water extraction. Plodorodie 4 (67): 55−56 [in Russian].

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Mandzhieva, S., Borisenko, N., Vasilyeva, G., Kizilkaya, R., Askin, T., 2015. Approbation of express-method for benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soils in the technogenic emission zone territories. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 4(1): 15 – 21.

Tobiszewski, M, Namieśnik, J., 2012. PAH diagnostic ratios for the identification of pollution emission sources. Environmental Pollution 162: 110-119.

Wenzl, T., Simon, R., Anklam, E., Kleiner, J., 2006. Analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food and the environment needed for new food legislation in the European Union. Trends in Analytical Chemistry 25(7): 716-725.

Witter, A.E., Nguyen, M.H., Baidar, S., Sak, P.B., 2014. Coal-tar-based sealcoated pavement: A major PAH source to urban stream sediments. Environmental Pollution 185: 59-68.

Li, X.-H., Ma, L-L., Liu, X-F., Fu, S., Cheng, H-X., Xu, X-B., 2006. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in urban soil from Beijing, China. Journal of Environmental Sciences 18(5): 944-950.

Yam, R.C.M., Leung, W.H., 2013. Emissions trading in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta region—A modeling approach to trade decisions in Hong Kong's electricity industry. Environmental Science and Policy 31: 1-12.

Zhu, Y., Yang, L., Yuan, Q., Yan, C., Dong, C., Meng, C., Sui, X., Yao, L., Yang, F., Lu, Y., Wang, W., 2015. Airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution in a background site in the North China Plain: Concentration, size distribution, toxicity and sources. Science of the Total Environment 466-467: 357-368.

Abstract

The aim of the current work was to study the main tendencies in the accumulation and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in soils of the affected zone of the Novocherkassk regional power plant. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk regional power plant emissions. Monitoring plots were established at different distances from the Novocherkassk regional power plant (1.0–20.0 km). Regularities in the accumulation and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in chernozemic, meadow-chernozemic, and alluvial soils under the effect of aerotechnogenic emissions from the Novocherkassk regional power plant have been revealed on the basis of long-term monitoring studies (from 2002 to 2011). The tendencies in the distribution and accumulation of BaP in the studied soils coincided during the 10 years of monitoring studies. It has been found the 5-km zone to the northwest from the power station, which coincides with the predominant wind direction, is most subjected to contamination by benzo[a]pyrene, with the maximum accumulation at a distance of about 1.6 km from the source. Dynamics of pollutant accumulation in soils depends on number of Novocherkassk regional power plant emissions. The content of benzo[a]pyrene in the soil is an indicator of the technogenic load impact on the areas, for which the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuel are the major pollutants. A gradual decrease of the pollutant content in the soils was revealed during the period from 2002 to 2011. It explained by the significant decrease in the volume of pollutant emissions from the plant and the self-purification capacity of soils and mechanisms of benzo[a]pyrene degradation.

Keywords: Benzo[a]pyrene, soil, contamination, monitoring, soil properties, regional power plant

References                       

Anonymous, 2008. Procedure of measurements benzo(a)pyrene content in soils, sediments and sludges by highly effective liquid chromatography method. Certificate 27-08, 2008. Moscow, Russia. 56 p. [in Russian].

Antizar-Ladislao, B., Lopez-Real, J., Beck, A.J., 2006. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an aged coal tar contaminated soil under in-vessel composting conditions. Environmental Pollution 141(3): 459–468.

Augusto, S., Pereira, M.J., Máguas, C., Branquinho, C., 2013. A step towards the use of biomonitors as estimators of atmospheric PAHs for regulatory purposes. Chemosphere 92(5): 626–632.

Callén, M.S., López, J.M., Iturmendi, A., Mastral, A.M., 2013. Nature and sources of particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the atmospheric environment of an urban area. Environmental Pollution 183: 166–174.

Cristale, J., Silva, F.S., Zocolo, G. J., Rodrigues Marchi, M.R., 2012. Influence of sugarcane burning on indoor/outdoor PAH air pollution in Brazil. Environmental Pollution 169: 210–216.

DEFRA and EA 2002. Contaminants in soil: Collation of toxicological data and intake values for humans. Benzo[a]pyrene. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and the Environment Agency, Bristol, UK.

Directive document 52.10.556-95. Methodical Instructions. Definition of Polluting Substances in Sediments and Suspension. Roshydromet, 2002, Moscow. [in Russian].

Ecological messenger of Don “About environmental conditions and natural resources of the rostov region in 2011”. Rostov-on-Don: Administration of Rostov Region, 2012, The Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, 359 p. [in Russian].

Gabov, D.N, Beznosikov, V.A., 2014. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tundra soils of the Komi Republic. Eurasian Soil Science 47(1): 18−25.

Gabov, D.N, Beznosikov, V.A., Kondratenok, B.M., 2007. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in background podzolic and gleyic peat-podzolic soils. Eurasian Soil Science 40(3): 256-264.

Galiulin, R.V., Bashkin, V.N., Galiulina, R.A., 2002. Behavior of persistent organic pollutants in the air-plant-soil system. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 137(1):179-191

Gennadiev, A., Delvig, I., Kasimov, N., Teplitskaya, T., 1989. PAHs in soils of background areas and natural pedogenesis. In: Monitoring of Background Pollutants in the Natural Environment, Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad. 5, 149−161 [in Russian]

Gennadiev, A.N., Pikovskii, Y.I., Chernyavskii, S.S., Alekseeva, T.A., Kovach, R.G., 2004. Forms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and factors of their accumulations in soils affected by technogenic pollution (Moscow oblast). Eurasian Soil Science 37(7): 697−709.

Gorobtsova, O., Nazarenko, O., Minkina, T., Borisenko, N., Yaroshchuk A., 2005. Role of soil cover in the accumulation and migration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under technogenic contamination. Izv Vuzov Sev Kav Region Est Nauki 1, 73−79 [in Russian].

GOST 14.4.3.06-86. Nature protection. Soils. General requirements for the classification of soils in accordance with the impact of chemical pollutants on them, 1986, Moscow [in Russian].

GOST 17.4.1.02.-83. Nature protection. Soils. Classification of chemical compounds for pollution control, 2004, Moscow [in Russian].

GOST 26423-85. Soils. Methods for determination of specific electric conductivity, pH, and dissolved solids, 1985, Moscow [in Russian].

Hybholt, T.K., Aamand, J., Johnsen, A.R., 2011. Quantification of centimeter-scale spatial variation in PAH, glucose and benzoic acid mineralization and soil organic matter in road-side soil. Environmental Pollution 159(5): 1085-1091.

ISO, 2005. Soil quality - Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons - Method using high-performance liquid chromatography. 13877-2005. 20 p.

Jian, Y., Wang, L., Fu, P.P., Yu, H., 2004. Photomutagenicity of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the US EPA priority pollutant list. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 557(1): 99-108.

Mandzhieva, S.S., Minkina, T.M., Sushkova, S.N., Motuzova, G.V., Bauer, T.V., Chapligin, V.A., 2014. The group composition of metal compounds in soil as an index of soil ecological state. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 9(1): 19-24.

Minkina, T.M., Motuzova, G.V., Mandzhieva, S.S., Nazarenko, O.G., 2012. Ecological resistance of the soil–plant system to contamination by heavy metals. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 123: 33-40.

Minkina, T.M, Pinskii, D.L, Mandzhieva, S.S., Antonenko, E.M., Sushkova, S.N., 2011. Effect of the particle-size distribution on the adsorption of copper, lead, and zinc by Chernozemic soils of Rostov oblast. Eurasian Soil Science 44(11): 1193-1200.

Nazarenko, O., Gorobtsova, O., Minkina, T., Mandzhieva, S., 2007. Integral contamination index in the environmental assessment of technogenic areas. In: Proceedings of 3rd International Scientific Conferences on Current Problems of Soil Pollution. Moscow, Russia. pp. 130−133 [in Russian].

Oros, D.R., Ross, J.R.M., Spies, R.B., Mumley, T., 2007. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in San Francisco Bay: A 10-year retrospective of monitoring in an urbanized estuary. Environmental Research 105(1): 101-118.

Page, D.S., Brown, J.S., Boehm, P.D., Bence, A.E., Neff, J.M., 2006. A hierarchical approach measures the aerial extent and concentration levels of PAH-contaminated shoreline sediments at historic industrial sites in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52(4): 367-379.

Pereira, T.S., Beltrami, L.S., Rocha, J.A.V., Broto, F.P., Comellas, L.R., Salvadori, D.M.F., Vargas, V.M.F., 2013. Toxicogenetic monitoring in urban cities exposed to different airborne contaminants. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 90: 174-182.

Pikovskii, Y., 1993. Natural and Technogenic Fluxes of Hydrocarbons in the Environment, MGU, Moscow, Russia. [in Russian].

Shabad, L., 1982. Chemical carcinogens in the natural environment. In: Integrated Global Monitoring of Pollution in the Natural Environment, Gidrometeoizdat, 1982. Leningrad, pp. 69−77 [in Russian].

Singh, D.P., Gadi, R., Mandal, T.K., Saud, T., Saxena, M., Sharma, S.K., 2013. Emissions estimates of PAH from biomass fuels used in rural sector of Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. Atmospheric Environment 68: 120-126.

Sokolov, A., 1975. Agrochemical methods of soil study. Science publishing. Moscow, Russia. [in Russian]

Sushkova, S.N, Minkina, T.M., Mandzhieva, S.S., Vasilyeva, G.K., Borisenko, N.I., Turina, I.G., Bolotova, O.V., Varduni, T.V., Kızılkaya, R., 2015. New alternative method of benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soils and its approbation in soil under technogenic pressure. Journal of Soil and Sediments [in press]

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Mandzhieva, S., Borisenko, N., Fedchenko, T., 2012. Determination of 3,4-benz[a]pyrene in soils adjacent to the Novocherkassk power plant by subcritical water extraction. Plodorodie 4 (67): 55−56 [in Russian].

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Mandzhieva, S., Borisenko, N., Vasilyeva, G., Kizilkaya, R., Askin, T., 2015. Approbation of express-method for benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soils in the technogenic emission zone territories. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 4(1): 15 – 21.

Tobiszewski, M, Namieśnik, J., 2012. PAH diagnostic ratios for the identification of pollution emission sources. Environmental Pollution 162: 110-119.

Wenzl, T., Simon, R., Anklam, E., Kleiner, J., 2006. Analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food and the environment needed for new food legislation in the European Union. Trends in Analytical Chemistry 25(7): 716-725.

Witter, A.E., Nguyen, M.H., Baidar, S., Sak, P.B., 2014. Coal-tar-based sealcoated pavement: A major PAH source to urban stream sediments. Environmental Pollution 185: 59-68.

Li, X.-H., Ma, L-L., Liu, X-F., Fu, S., Cheng, H-X., Xu, X-B., 2006. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in urban soil from Beijing, China. Journal of Environmental Sciences 18(5): 944-950.

Yam, R.C.M., Leung, W.H., 2013. Emissions trading in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta region—A modeling approach to trade decisions in Hong Kong's electricity industry. Environmental Science and Policy 31: 1-12.

Zhu, Y., Yang, L., Yuan, Q., Yan, C., Dong, C., Meng, C., Sui, X., Yao, L., Yang, F., Lu, Y., Wang, W., 2015. Airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution in a background site in the North China Plain: Concentration, size distribution, toxicity and sources. Science of the Total Environment 466-467: 357-368.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science