Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 5, Issue 1, Jan 2016, Pages 74 - 83
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.074-083
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.2016.1.074-083
Copyright © 2016 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



The effect of zeolite and some plant residues on soil organic carbon changes in density and soluble fractions: Incubation study

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Mirzaei Aminiyan,M., Sinegani,A., Sheklabadi,M., 2016. The effect of zeolite and some plant residues on soil organic carbon changes in density and soluble fractions: Incubation study. Eurasian J Soil Sci 5(1):74 - 83. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.074-083
Mirzaei Aminiyan,M.,Sinegani,A.,& Sheklabadi,M. The effect of zeolite and some plant residues on soil organic carbon changes in density and soluble fractions: Incubation study Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.074-083
Mirzaei Aminiyan,M.,Sinegani,A., and ,Sheklabadi,M."The effect of zeolite and some plant residues on soil organic carbon changes in density and soluble fractions: Incubation study" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.074-083
Mirzaei Aminiyan,M.,Sinegani,A., and ,Sheklabadi,M. "The effect of zeolite and some plant residues on soil organic carbon changes in density and soluble fractions: Incubation study" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.074-083
M,Mirzaei Aminiyan.AA,Sinegani.M,Sheklabadi "The effect of zeolite and some plant residues on soil organic carbon changes in density and soluble fractions: Incubation study" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol., no., pp., DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.074-083
Mirzaei Aminiyan,Milad ;Sinegani,Ali ;Sheklabadi,Mohsen The effect of zeolite and some plant residues on soil organic carbon changes in density and soluble fractions: Incubation study. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.074-083

How to cite

Mirzaei Aminiyan, M., Sinegani, A., A. Sheklabadi, M., A.2016. The effect of zeolite and some plant residues on soil organic carbon changes in density and soluble fractions: Incubation study. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 5(1): 74 - 83. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.074-083

Author information

Milad Mirzaei Aminiyan , Soil Science Department, College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran Hamedan, Iran
Ali Sinegani , Soil Science Department, College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
Mohsen Sheklabadi , Soil Science Department, College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

Publication information

Issue published online: 01 Jan 2016
Article first published online : 13 Oct 2015
Manuscript Accepted : 12 Oct 2015
Manuscript Received: 27 Aug 2015
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.074-083
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.2016.1.074-083

Abstract

Organic carbon (OC) fractions play an important role in soil and many ecosystem processes. This study focuses on changing of OC in different fractions in a soil treated with different levels of zeolite and plant residue that incubated for 90 days. The results showed that the amounts of light fraction (LF) and heavy fraction (HF) increased with increasing the percentage of zeolite and plant residues in the soil. The highest amounts of LF (22.7 g LF. Kg-1Soil) and HF (26.7 g. Kg-1Soil) were found when 30% zeolite, 5% wheat and alfalfa straws was added to the soil respectively. Accordingly, wheat straw and alfalfa straw were effective for increasing the LF and HF respectively. However they declined with decreasing the OC from the 1st day of experiment until the 90th day of experiment. Soluble OC in hot (2.80 g. Kg-1Soil) and cool (2.25 g. Kg-1Soil) water fractions increased with the addition of 30% zeolite and 5% plant residues particularly alfalfa straw in comparison with control. Although they increased after 30 days of starting incubation but, then they decreased in the continuation of the experiment. In fact, OC contents in density and soluble fractions increased with application and addition of 30% zeolite and 5% plant residues into the soil; however they decreased after 30 days of incubation with decreasing the OC. The findings of this research revealed the application of zeolite and plant residues improved carbon pools in density and soluble fractions and carbon sequestration increase by increasing the OC contents in soil.

Keywords

Alfalfa straw, wheat straw, light fraction, heavy fraction, hot water, cool water

Corresponding author

References

Aitkenhead-Peterson, J.A., McDowell, W.H., Neff, J.C., 2003. Sources, production, and regulation of allochthonous dissolved organic matter. In: Findlay, S. (Ed.), dissolved organic matter sources, transport, and transformation in aquatic ecosystems. Academic Press, New York.

Alvarez, R., Alvarez, C.R., 2000. Soil organic matter pools and their associations with carbon mineralization kinetics. Soil Science Society of American Journal 64: 184–189.

Amelung, W., Brodowski, S., Sandhage-Hofmann, A., Bol, R., 2008. Combining biomarker with stable isotope analyses for assessing the transformation and turnover of soil organic matter. In: Sparks, D.L. (Ed.), Advances in Agronomy. Academic Press, Burlington, pp. 155-250

Aminiyan, M.M., Sinegani, A.A.S., Sheklabadi, M., 2015. Aggregation stability and organic carbon fraction in a soil amended with some plant residues, zeolite, and natural zeolite. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture 4: 11-22.

Barrios, E., Buresh, R.J., Sprent, J.I., 1996. Nitrogen mineralization in density fractions of soil organic matter from maize and legume cropping systems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 28: 1459–1465.

Beheshti, A., Raiesi, F., Golchin, A., 2012. Soil properties, C fractions and their dynamics in land use conversion from native forests to croplands in northern Iran. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 148: 121–133.

Boissier, J.M., Fontvieille, D., 1993. Biodegradable dissolved organic carbon in seepage waters from two forest soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 25: 1257–1261.

Boyer, J.N., Groffman, P.M., 1996. Bioavailability of water extractable organic carbon fractions in forest and agricultural soil profiles. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 28: 783– 790.

Bremer, E., Jansen, H.H., Johnston, A.M., 1994. Sensitivity of total, light fraction and mineralizable organic matter to management practices in a Lethbridge soil. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 74: 131–138.

Brooks, P.D., McKnight, D.M., Bencala, K.E., 1999. The relationship between soil heterotrophic activity, soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leachate, and catchment-scale DOC export in headwater catchments. Water Resources Research 35: 1895– 1902.

Cambardella, C.A., Elliott, E.T., 1992. Particulate soil organic matter changes across a grassland sequence. Soil Science Society of American Journal 56: 777–783.

Cambardella, C.A., Elliott, E.T., 1993. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in aggregates from cultivated and native grassland soils. Soil Science Society of American Journal 57: 1071–1076.

Cances, B., Ponthieu, M., Castrec-Rouelle, M., Aubry, E., Benedetti, M.F., 2003. Metal ions speciation in a soil and its solution: experimental data and model results. Geoderma 113: 341– 355.

Collins, H.P., Paul, E.A., Paustian, K., Elliott, E.T., 1997. Characterization of soil organic carbon relative to its stability and turnover. In: Paul E A, Elliott E T, Paustian K, Cole C V. (Eds.), Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems, Long-term Experiments in North America. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 51–72.

Creamer, C., Filley, T., Boutton, T., 2012. Long-term incubations of size and density separated soil fractions to inform soil organic carbon decay dynamics. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 51: 8-11.

Davidson, E.A., Galloway, L.F., Strand, M.K., 1987. Assessing available carbon: comparison of techniques across selected forest soils. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analyses 18: 45– 64.

Feller, C., Albrecht, A., Tessier, D., 1996. Aggregation and organic matter storage in kaolinitic and smectitic tropical soils. In: Carter, M.R., Stewart, B.A. (Eds.), Structure and Organic Matter Storage in Agricultural Soils. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 309–359.

Gianello, C., Bremner, J.M., 1986. A simple chemical method of assessing potentially available organic nitrogen in soil. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analyses 17: 195– 214.

Golchin, A., Oades, J.M., Skjemstad, J.O., Clarke, P., 1994. Study of free and occluded particulate organic matter in soils by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Australian Journal of Soil Research 32: 285–309.

Golchin, A., Clarke, P., Oades, J.M., Skjemstad, J.O., 1995a. The effects of cultivation on the composition of organic matter and structural stability of soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research 33: 975–993.

Golchin, A., Oades, J.M., Skjemstad, J.O., Clarke, P., 1995b. Structure and dynamic properties of soil organic matter reflected by 13C natural abundance, pyrolysis mass spectrometry and solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy in density fractions of an Oxisol under forest and pasture. Australian Journal of Soil Research 33: 59–76.

Gregorich, E.G., Beare, M.H., Stoklas, U., St-Georges, P., 2003. Biodegradability of soluble organic matter in maize-cropped soils. Geoderma 113: 237– 252.

Gregorich, E.G., Janzen, H.H., 1996. Storage of soil carbon in the light fraction and macro organic matter. In: Carter M R, Stewart B A. (Eds.), Advances in Soil Science. Structure and Organic Matter Storage in Agricultural Soils. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp.167–190.

Gregorich, E.G., Liang, B.C., Mackenzie, A.F., Drury, C.F., McGill, W.B., 2000. Elucidation of the source and turnover of water soluble and microbial biomass carbon in agricultural soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 32: 581– 587.

Gregorich, E.G., Monreal, C.M., Schnitzer, M., Schulten, H.R., 1996. Transformation of plant residues into soil organic matter; chemical characterization of plant tissue, isolated soil fraction, and whole soil. Soil Science 161: 680–693.

Guggenberger, G., Zech, W., 1994. Composition and dynamics of dissolved organic carbohydrates and lignin degradation products in two coniferous forests, N.E. Bavaria, Germany. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 26: 19–27.

Hassink, J., 1995. Density fractions of soil macroorganic matter and microbial biomass as predictors of C and N mineralization. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 27: 1099–1108.

Haynes, R.J., Swift, R.S., 1990. Stability of soil aggregates in relation to organic constituents and soil water content. European Journal of Soil Science 41: 73– 83.

Hinds, A., Lowe, L.E., 1980. Ammonium-N determination soil nitrogen Berthelot reaction. Soil Science and Plant Analysis 11: 469-475.

Jansen, B., Nierop, K.G.J., Verstraten, J.M., 2003. Mobility of Fe(II), Fe(III) and Al in acidic forest soils mediated by dissolved organic matter: influence of solution pH and metal/organic carbon ratios. Geoderma 113: 323–340.

Janzen, H.H., Campbell, C.A., Brandt, S.A., Lafond, G.P., Townley-Smith, L., 1992. Light-fraction organic matter in soils from long-term crop rotations. Soil Science Society of American Journal 56: 1799–1806.

Kaiser, K., Zech, W., 1998. Rates of dissolved organic matter release and sorption in forest soils. Soil Science 168: 714– 725.

Kalbitz, K., Schmerwitz, J., Schwesig, D., Matzer, E., 2003. Biodegradation of soil-derived dissolved organic matter as related to its properties. Geoderma 113: 273–291.

Kalbitz, K., Solinger, S., Park, J.H., Michalzik, B., Matzner, E., 2000. Controls on the dynamics of dissolved organic matter in soils: a review. Soil Science 165: 277– 304.

Kay, B.D., 1998. Soil structure and organic carbon, a review. In: Lal R, Kimble, J M, Follett R F, Stewart B A. (Eds.), Soil Processes and the Carbon Cycle. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 169–197.

Magid, J., Gorissen, A., Giller, K.E., 1996. In search of the elusive ‘‘active’’ fraction of soil organic carbon: three size-density fractionation methods for tracing the fate of homogeneously 14C labeled plant materials. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 28: 89–99.

Marschner, B., Bredow, A., 2002. Temperature effects on release and ecologically relevant properties of dissolved organic carbon in sterilized and biologically active soil samples. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34: 459– 466.

Marschner, B., Kalbitz, K., 2003. Controls of bioavailability and biodegradability of dissolved organic matter in soils. Geoderma 113: 211– 235.

Miller, R.M., Jastrow, J.D., 1990. Hierarchy of root and mycorrhizal fungal interactions with soil aggregation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 22: 579–584.

Muller, J., Miller, M., Kjuller, A., 1999. Fungal–bacterial interaction on beech leaves: influence on decomposition and dissolved organic carbon quality. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 31: 367– 374.

Murphy, D.V., Macdonald, A.J., Stockdale, E.A., Goulding, K.W.T., Fortune, S., Gaunt, J.L,. Poulton, P.R., Wakefield, J.A., Webster, C.P., Wilmer, W.S., 2000. Soluble organic nitrogen in agricultural soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils 30: 374–387.

Nelson, P.N., Dictor, M.C., Soulas, G., 1994. Availability of organic carbon in soluble and particle-size fractions from a soil profile. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 26: 1549-1555.

Park, J.H., Kalbitz, K., Matzner, E., 2002. Resource control on the production of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in a deciduous forest floor. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34: 813-822.

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Abstract

Organic carbon (OC) fractions play an important role in soil and many ecosystem processes. This study focuses on changing of OC in different fractions in a soil treated with different levels of zeolite and plant residue that incubated for 90 days. The results showed that the amounts of light fraction (LF) and heavy fraction (HF) increased with increasing the percentage of zeolite and plant residues in the soil. The highest amounts of LF (22.7 g LF. Kg-1Soil) and HF (26.7 g. Kg-1Soil) were found when 30% zeolite, 5% wheat and alfalfa straws was added to the soil respectively. Accordingly, wheat straw and alfalfa straw were effective for increasing the LF and HF respectively. However they declined with decreasing the OC from the 1st day of experiment until the 90th day of experiment. Soluble OC in hot (2.80 g. Kg-1Soil) and cool (2.25 g. Kg-1Soil) water fractions increased with the addition of 30% zeolite and 5% plant residues particularly alfalfa straw in comparison with control. Although they increased after 30 days of starting incubation but, then they decreased in the continuation of the experiment. In fact, OC contents in density and soluble fractions increased with application and addition of 30% zeolite and 5% plant residues into the soil; however they decreased after 30 days of incubation with decreasing the OC. The findings of this research revealed the application of zeolite and plant residues improved carbon pools in density and soluble fractions and carbon sequestration increase by increasing the OC contents in soil.

Keywords: Alfalfa straw, wheat straw, light fraction, heavy fraction, hot water, cool water

References

Aitkenhead-Peterson, J.A., McDowell, W.H., Neff, J.C., 2003. Sources, production, and regulation of allochthonous dissolved organic matter. In: Findlay, S. (Ed.), dissolved organic matter sources, transport, and transformation in aquatic ecosystems. Academic Press, New York.

Alvarez, R., Alvarez, C.R., 2000. Soil organic matter pools and their associations with carbon mineralization kinetics. Soil Science Society of American Journal 64: 184–189.

Amelung, W., Brodowski, S., Sandhage-Hofmann, A., Bol, R., 2008. Combining biomarker with stable isotope analyses for assessing the transformation and turnover of soil organic matter. In: Sparks, D.L. (Ed.), Advances in Agronomy. Academic Press, Burlington, pp. 155-250

Aminiyan, M.M., Sinegani, A.A.S., Sheklabadi, M., 2015. Aggregation stability and organic carbon fraction in a soil amended with some plant residues, zeolite, and natural zeolite. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture 4: 11-22.

Barrios, E., Buresh, R.J., Sprent, J.I., 1996. Nitrogen mineralization in density fractions of soil organic matter from maize and legume cropping systems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 28: 1459–1465.

Beheshti, A., Raiesi, F., Golchin, A., 2012. Soil properties, C fractions and their dynamics in land use conversion from native forests to croplands in northern Iran. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 148: 121–133.

Boissier, J.M., Fontvieille, D., 1993. Biodegradable dissolved organic carbon in seepage waters from two forest soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 25: 1257–1261.

Boyer, J.N., Groffman, P.M., 1996. Bioavailability of water extractable organic carbon fractions in forest and agricultural soil profiles. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 28: 783– 790.

Bremer, E., Jansen, H.H., Johnston, A.M., 1994. Sensitivity of total, light fraction and mineralizable organic matter to management practices in a Lethbridge soil. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 74: 131–138.

Brooks, P.D., McKnight, D.M., Bencala, K.E., 1999. The relationship between soil heterotrophic activity, soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leachate, and catchment-scale DOC export in headwater catchments. Water Resources Research 35: 1895– 1902.

Cambardella, C.A., Elliott, E.T., 1992. Particulate soil organic matter changes across a grassland sequence. Soil Science Society of American Journal 56: 777–783.

Cambardella, C.A., Elliott, E.T., 1993. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in aggregates from cultivated and native grassland soils. Soil Science Society of American Journal 57: 1071–1076.

Cances, B., Ponthieu, M., Castrec-Rouelle, M., Aubry, E., Benedetti, M.F., 2003. Metal ions speciation in a soil and its solution: experimental data and model results. Geoderma 113: 341– 355.

Collins, H.P., Paul, E.A., Paustian, K., Elliott, E.T., 1997. Characterization of soil organic carbon relative to its stability and turnover. In: Paul E A, Elliott E T, Paustian K, Cole C V. (Eds.), Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems, Long-term Experiments in North America. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 51–72.

Creamer, C., Filley, T., Boutton, T., 2012. Long-term incubations of size and density separated soil fractions to inform soil organic carbon decay dynamics. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 51: 8-11.

Davidson, E.A., Galloway, L.F., Strand, M.K., 1987. Assessing available carbon: comparison of techniques across selected forest soils. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analyses 18: 45– 64.

Feller, C., Albrecht, A., Tessier, D., 1996. Aggregation and organic matter storage in kaolinitic and smectitic tropical soils. In: Carter, M.R., Stewart, B.A. (Eds.), Structure and Organic Matter Storage in Agricultural Soils. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 309–359.

Gianello, C., Bremner, J.M., 1986. A simple chemical method of assessing potentially available organic nitrogen in soil. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analyses 17: 195– 214.

Golchin, A., Oades, J.M., Skjemstad, J.O., Clarke, P., 1994. Study of free and occluded particulate organic matter in soils by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Australian Journal of Soil Research 32: 285–309.

Golchin, A., Clarke, P., Oades, J.M., Skjemstad, J.O., 1995a. The effects of cultivation on the composition of organic matter and structural stability of soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research 33: 975–993.

Golchin, A., Oades, J.M., Skjemstad, J.O., Clarke, P., 1995b. Structure and dynamic properties of soil organic matter reflected by 13C natural abundance, pyrolysis mass spectrometry and solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy in density fractions of an Oxisol under forest and pasture. Australian Journal of Soil Research 33: 59–76.

Gregorich, E.G., Beare, M.H., Stoklas, U., St-Georges, P., 2003. Biodegradability of soluble organic matter in maize-cropped soils. Geoderma 113: 237– 252.

Gregorich, E.G., Janzen, H.H., 1996. Storage of soil carbon in the light fraction and macro organic matter. In: Carter M R, Stewart B A. (Eds.), Advances in Soil Science. Structure and Organic Matter Storage in Agricultural Soils. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp.167–190.

Gregorich, E.G., Liang, B.C., Mackenzie, A.F., Drury, C.F., McGill, W.B., 2000. Elucidation of the source and turnover of water soluble and microbial biomass carbon in agricultural soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 32: 581– 587.

Gregorich, E.G., Monreal, C.M., Schnitzer, M., Schulten, H.R., 1996. Transformation of plant residues into soil organic matter; chemical characterization of plant tissue, isolated soil fraction, and whole soil. Soil Science 161: 680–693.

Guggenberger, G., Zech, W., 1994. Composition and dynamics of dissolved organic carbohydrates and lignin degradation products in two coniferous forests, N.E. Bavaria, Germany. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 26: 19–27.

Hassink, J., 1995. Density fractions of soil macroorganic matter and microbial biomass as predictors of C and N mineralization. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 27: 1099–1108.

Haynes, R.J., Swift, R.S., 1990. Stability of soil aggregates in relation to organic constituents and soil water content. European Journal of Soil Science 41: 73– 83.

Hinds, A., Lowe, L.E., 1980. Ammonium-N determination soil nitrogen Berthelot reaction. Soil Science and Plant Analysis 11: 469-475.

Jansen, B., Nierop, K.G.J., Verstraten, J.M., 2003. Mobility of Fe(II), Fe(III) and Al in acidic forest soils mediated by dissolved organic matter: influence of solution pH and metal/organic carbon ratios. Geoderma 113: 323–340.

Janzen, H.H., Campbell, C.A., Brandt, S.A., Lafond, G.P., Townley-Smith, L., 1992. Light-fraction organic matter in soils from long-term crop rotations. Soil Science Society of American Journal 56: 1799–1806.

Kaiser, K., Zech, W., 1998. Rates of dissolved organic matter release and sorption in forest soils. Soil Science 168: 714– 725.

Kalbitz, K., Schmerwitz, J., Schwesig, D., Matzer, E., 2003. Biodegradation of soil-derived dissolved organic matter as related to its properties. Geoderma 113: 273–291.

Kalbitz, K., Solinger, S., Park, J.H., Michalzik, B., Matzner, E., 2000. Controls on the dynamics of dissolved organic matter in soils: a review. Soil Science 165: 277– 304.

Kay, B.D., 1998. Soil structure and organic carbon, a review. In: Lal R, Kimble, J M, Follett R F, Stewart B A. (Eds.), Soil Processes and the Carbon Cycle. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 169–197.

Magid, J., Gorissen, A., Giller, K.E., 1996. In search of the elusive ‘‘active’’ fraction of soil organic carbon: three size-density fractionation methods for tracing the fate of homogeneously 14C labeled plant materials. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 28: 89–99.

Marschner, B., Bredow, A., 2002. Temperature effects on release and ecologically relevant properties of dissolved organic carbon in sterilized and biologically active soil samples. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34: 459– 466.

Marschner, B., Kalbitz, K., 2003. Controls of bioavailability and biodegradability of dissolved organic matter in soils. Geoderma 113: 211– 235.

Miller, R.M., Jastrow, J.D., 1990. Hierarchy of root and mycorrhizal fungal interactions with soil aggregation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 22: 579–584.

Muller, J., Miller, M., Kjuller, A., 1999. Fungal–bacterial interaction on beech leaves: influence on decomposition and dissolved organic carbon quality. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 31: 367– 374.

Murphy, D.V., Macdonald, A.J., Stockdale, E.A., Goulding, K.W.T., Fortune, S., Gaunt, J.L,. Poulton, P.R., Wakefield, J.A., Webster, C.P., Wilmer, W.S., 2000. Soluble organic nitrogen in agricultural soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils 30: 374–387.

Nelson, P.N., Dictor, M.C., Soulas, G., 1994. Availability of organic carbon in soluble and particle-size fractions from a soil profile. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 26: 1549-1555.

Park, J.H., Kalbitz, K., Matzner, E., 2002. Resource control on the production of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in a deciduous forest floor. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34: 813-822.

Peperzak, P., Caldwell, A.G., Hunziker, R., Black, C.A., 1959. Phosphorus fractions in manures. Soil Science 87: 293-302.

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