Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 1, Issue 2, Sep 2012, Pages 92 - 97

Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.2012.2.092-097
Copyright © 2012 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Soil erodibility evaluation by splash cups under the simulated rainfalls

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Pınar ,M., Erpul,G., 2012. Soil erodibility evaluation by splash cups under the simulated rainfalls. Eurasian J Soil Sci 1(2):92 - 97.
Pınar ,M.,,& Erpul,G. Soil erodibility evaluation by splash cups under the simulated rainfalls Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2012.2.092-097
Pınar ,M.,, and ,Erpul,G."Soil erodibility evaluation by splash cups under the simulated rainfalls" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2012.2.092-097
Pınar ,M.,, and ,Erpul,G. "Soil erodibility evaluation by splash cups under the simulated rainfalls" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2012.2.092-097
MÖ,Pınar .G,Erpul "Soil erodibility evaluation by splash cups under the simulated rainfalls" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol., no., pp., DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2012.2.092-097
Pınar ,Melis ;Erpul,Günay Soil erodibility evaluation by splash cups under the simulated rainfalls. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2012.2.092-097

How to cite

Pınar , M., Ö. Erpul, G., Ö.2012. Soil erodibility evaluation by splash cups under the simulated rainfalls. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 1(2): 92 - 97.

Author information

Melis Pınar , Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute, 26002 Eskisehir, Turkey
Günay Erpul , Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 06110 Ankara, Turkey

Publication information

Issue published online: 25 Sep 2012
Article first published online : 07 Sep 2012
Manuscript Accepted : 06 Jun 2012
Manuscript Received: 11 Nov 2011

Abstract

Soil erodibility is an important parameter to determine the sensibility of soil to the erosion and there are many methods to specify the erodibility. Until today, many methods were improved and the “Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), which has the most common use in worldwide, is one of them. In this prediction technology, the soil susceptibility to the water erosion is represented by a multiplier factor together with those for climate, topography, vegetation and conservation practices. This study aimed to determine a soil erodibility factor by the laboratory simulated rainfall tests under the specified kinetic energy and rainfall intensity values using the splash cups. For test soils, a total of 256 surface samples were taken from the fallow-crop system in the Asartepe Dam Basin and the splash erosion rate was found with the units compatible with the USLE. However, since the USLE predicts soil losses from not only splash erosion but also sheet and rill erosions, the measured splash values should be mathematically related to the erodibility equations commonly employed in the model in order to meet the model requirement.

Keywords

Splash erosion, rainfall simulation, energy flow, soil erodibility

Corresponding author

References

Bouyoucous, G.J. 1951. A recalibration of hydrometer method for making mechanical analysis of soils. Agronomy Journal 43, 434-438.

Bubenzer, G.D., Jones Jr. B.A., 1971. Drop size and impact velocity effects on the detachment of soils under simulated rainfall. Transactions of the ASAE 14, 625-628

Ellison, W.D. 1947. Soil erosion studies. Agricultural Engineering 28, 145-146.

Erpul, G., Çanga, M.R., 2001 Toprak Erozyon Çalışmaları Için Bir Yapay Yağmurlama Aletinin Tasarım Prensipleri ve Yapay Yağış Karakteristikleri. Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi 7(1), 75-83.

Ghadiri, H. 2004. Creater formation in soils by raindrop impact. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 29, 77-89.

Ghadiri, H., Payne, D., 1981. Raindrop impact stress. Journal of Soil Science 32, 41-49.

Ghadiri, H., Payne, D., 1986 The risk of leaving soil surface unprotected against falling rain. Journal of Soil and Tillage Research 8, 119 – 130.

Ghadiri, H., Payne, D., 1988. The formation and characteristics of splash following raindrop impact on soil. Journal of Soil Science 39, 563-75.

Gilley, J.E., Finkner, S.C., 1985. Estimating soil detachment caused by raindrop impact. Transactions of the ASAE 28, 140-146.

Greweling, T., Peech, M., 1960. Chemical soil tests. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull.960. Cornell University, USA.

Kemper, W.D., Rosenau, R. C. 1986. Aggregate stability and size distribution. In: A. Klute (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1. Agronomy Monographs, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, USA.

Kinnell, P.I.A. 1973. The problem of assessing of erosive power of rainfall from meteorological observations. Soil Science Society America Proceedings 37, 617-621.

Klute, A., Dirksen, C. 1986. Hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity laboratory methods. In: A. Klute (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1. Agronomy Monographs, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, USA.

McIsaac, G.F. 1990. Apparent geographic and atmospheric influences on raindrop sizes and rainfall kinetic energy. Journal Soil and Water Conservation 45, 663-665.

Meyer, L. D. 1981. How rainfall intensity affects inter-rill erosion. Transactions of the ASAE 24, 1472-1475.

Morgan, R.P.C. 1978. Field studies of rainsplash erosion. Earth Surface Processesa3, 295– 299.

Nelson, D.W., Sommers LE. 1982. Total Carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: A. L. Page (Ed.), Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, USA.

Park, S.W., Mitchell, J.K., Bubenzer, G.D., 1983. Rainfall Characteristics and Their Relation to Splash Erosion. Transactions of the ASAE 26, 795-804.

Peech, M., Dean, L.A., Reed, J.F., 1947. Methods of soil analysis for soil-fertility investigations: USDA. Circ. No. 757, pp. 7-12. USA.

Poesen, J., Savat, J., 1981. Detachment and transportation of Loose sediments by raindrop splash. Catena 8, 19-41.

Poesen, J., Torri, D., 1988. The effect of cup size on splash detachment and transport measurements. Part II. Field measurements. Catena 12, 113–126.

Renard, K.G., Foster, G.A., Weesies, D.A., McCool, D.K., Yoder, D.C., 1997. Predicting soil erosion by water: a guide to conservation planning with the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE). Agriculture Handbook No. 703. USDA, Washington, DC.

Salles, C., Poesen, J., 2000. Rain properties controlling soil splash detachment. Hydrological Processes 14, 271-282.

Sharma, P.P., Gupta, S.C., 1989. Sand Detachment by Single raindrops of varing kinetic energy and momentum. Soil Science Society America Journal 53, 1005-1010.

Sharma, P.P., Gupta, S.C., Foster, G.R. 1993. Predicting Soil Detacment by raindrops. Soil Science Society America Journal 57, 674-680.

Sharma, P.P., Gupta, S.C., Foster, G.R. 1995. Raindrop induced soil detachment and sediment transport :frominterrill areas. Soil Science Society America Journal 59, 727-734.

Walkley, A., Black, I.A., 1934. An examination of the effect of the degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37, 29-38.

Walkley, A., 1947. A critical examination of a rapid method for determining organic carbon in soils - effect of variations in digestion conditions and of inorganic soil constituents. Soil Science 63, 251-264.

Young, R. A., Wiersma, J. L. 1973. The role of rainfall impact in soil detachment and transport. Water Resources Research 9, 1629–1636.

Tüzüner, A., 1990. Toprak ve Su Analiz Laboratuarları El Kitabı. Tarım Orman ve Köyişleri Bakanlığı Köy Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Ankara.

Abstract
Soil erodibility is an important parameter to determine the sensibility of soil to the erosion and there are many methods to specify the erodibility. Until today, many methods were improved and the “Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), which has the most common use in worldwide, is one of them. In this prediction technology, the soil susceptibility to the water erosion is represented by a multiplier factor together with those for climate, topography, vegetation and conservation practices. This study aimed to determine a soil erodibility factor by the laboratory simulated rainfall tests under the specified kinetic energy and rainfall intensity values using the splash cups. For test soils, a total of 256 surface samples were taken from the fallow-crop system in the Asartepe Dam Basin and the splash erosion rate was found with the units compatible with the USLE. However, since the USLE predicts soil losses from not only splash erosion but also sheet and rill erosions, the measured splash values should be mathematically related to the erodibility equations commonly employed in the model in order to meet the model requirement.

Keywords: Splash erosion, rainfall simulation, energy flow, soil erodibility

References

Bouyoucous, G.J. 1951. A recalibration of hydrometer method for making mechanical analysis of soils. Agronomy Journal 43, 434-438.

Bubenzer, G.D., Jones Jr. B.A., 1971. Drop size and impact velocity effects on the detachment of soils under simulated rainfall. Transactions of the ASAE 14, 625-628

Ellison, W.D. 1947. Soil erosion studies. Agricultural Engineering 28, 145-146.

Erpul, G., Çanga, M.R., 2001 Toprak Erozyon Çalışmaları Için Bir Yapay Yağmurlama Aletinin Tasarım Prensipleri ve Yapay Yağış Karakteristikleri. Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi 7(1), 75-83.

Ghadiri, H. 2004. Creater formation in soils by raindrop impact. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 29, 77-89.

Ghadiri, H., Payne, D., 1981. Raindrop impact stress. Journal of Soil Science 32, 41-49.

Ghadiri, H., Payne, D., 1986 The risk of leaving soil surface unprotected against falling rain. Journal of Soil and Tillage Research 8, 119 – 130.

Ghadiri, H., Payne, D., 1988. The formation and characteristics of splash following raindrop impact on soil. Journal of Soil Science 39, 563-75.

Gilley, J.E., Finkner, S.C., 1985. Estimating soil detachment caused by raindrop impact. Transactions of the ASAE 28, 140-146.

Greweling, T., Peech, M., 1960. Chemical soil tests. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull.960. Cornell University, USA.

Kemper, W.D., Rosenau, R. C. 1986. Aggregate stability and size distribution. In: A. Klute (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1. Agronomy Monographs, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, USA.

Kinnell, P.I.A. 1973. The problem of assessing of erosive power of rainfall from meteorological observations. Soil Science Society America Proceedings 37, 617-621.

Klute, A., Dirksen, C. 1986. Hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity laboratory methods. In: A. Klute (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1. Agronomy Monographs, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, USA.

McIsaac, G.F. 1990. Apparent geographic and atmospheric influences on raindrop sizes and rainfall kinetic energy. Journal Soil and Water Conservation 45, 663-665.

Meyer, L. D. 1981. How rainfall intensity affects inter-rill erosion. Transactions of the ASAE 24, 1472-1475.

Morgan, R.P.C. 1978. Field studies of rainsplash erosion. Earth Surface Processesa3, 295– 299.

Nelson, D.W., Sommers LE. 1982. Total Carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: A. L. Page (Ed.), Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, USA.

Park, S.W., Mitchell, J.K., Bubenzer, G.D., 1983. Rainfall Characteristics and Their Relation to Splash Erosion. Transactions of the ASAE 26, 795-804.

Peech, M., Dean, L.A., Reed, J.F., 1947. Methods of soil analysis for soil-fertility investigations: USDA. Circ. No. 757, pp. 7-12. USA.

Poesen, J., Savat, J., 1981. Detachment and transportation of Loose sediments by raindrop splash. Catena 8, 19-41.

Poesen, J., Torri, D., 1988. The effect of cup size on splash detachment and transport measurements. Part II. Field measurements. Catena 12, 113–126.

Renard, K.G., Foster, G.A., Weesies, D.A., McCool, D.K., Yoder, D.C., 1997. Predicting soil erosion by water: a guide to conservation planning with the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE). Agriculture Handbook No. 703. USDA, Washington, DC.

Salles, C., Poesen, J., 2000. Rain properties controlling soil splash detachment. Hydrological Processes 14, 271-282.

Sharma, P.P., Gupta, S.C., 1989. Sand Detachment by Single raindrops of varing kinetic energy and momentum. Soil Science Society America Journal 53, 1005-1010.

Sharma, P.P., Gupta, S.C., Foster, G.R. 1993. Predicting Soil Detacment by raindrops. Soil Science Society America Journal 57, 674-680.

Sharma, P.P., Gupta, S.C., Foster, G.R. 1995. Raindrop induced soil detachment and sediment transport :frominterrill areas. Soil Science Society America Journal 59, 727-734.

Walkley, A., Black, I.A., 1934. An examination of the effect of the degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37, 29-38.

Walkley, A., 1947. A critical examination of a rapid method for determining organic carbon in soils - effect of variations in digestion conditions and of inorganic soil constituents. Soil Science 63, 251-264.

Young, R. A., Wiersma, J. L. 1973. The role of rainfall impact in soil detachment and transport. Water Resources Research 9, 1629–1636.

Tüzüner, A., 1990. Toprak ve Su Analiz Laboratuarları El Kitabı. Tarım Orman ve Köyişleri Bakanlığı Köy Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Ankara.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science