Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 1, Issue 1, Jun 2012, Pages 22 - 27

Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.2012.1.022-027
Copyright © 2012 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Dynamic of the active fraction of organic matter in some meadow soils

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Sbih,M., Karam,A., N’Dayegamiye,A., Bensid,Z., Boukaboub,A., 2012. Dynamic of the active fraction of organic matter in some meadow soils. Eurasian J Soil Sci 1(1):22 - 27.
Sbih,M.,Karam,A.N’Dayegamiye,A.Bensid,Z.,& Boukaboub,A. Dynamic of the active fraction of organic matter in some meadow soils Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2012.1.022-027
Sbih,M.,Karam,A.N’Dayegamiye,A.Bensid,Z., and ,Boukaboub,A."Dynamic of the active fraction of organic matter in some meadow soils" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2012.1.022-027
Sbih,M.,Karam,A.N’Dayegamiye,A.Bensid,Z., and ,Boukaboub,A. "Dynamic of the active fraction of organic matter in some meadow soils" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2012.1.022-027
M,Sbih.A,Karam.A,N’Dayegamiye.Z,Bensid.A,Boukaboub "Dynamic of the active fraction of organic matter in some meadow soils" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol., no., pp., DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2012.1.022-027
Sbih,Mahtali ;Karam,Antoine ;N’Dayegamiye,Adrien ;Bensid,Zoubeir ;Boukaboub,Amar Dynamic of the active fraction of organic matter in some meadow soils. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2012.1.022-027

How to cite

Sbih, M., Karam, A., N’Dayegamiye, A., Bensid, Z., Boukaboub, A., 2012. Dynamic of the active fraction of organic matter in some meadow soils. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 1(1): 22 - 27.

Author information

Mahtali Sbih , Allées 19 mai, Route de Biskra - Batna, 05 000 Algérie Batna, Algeria
Antoine Karam , Département des sols et de génie agroalimentaire, Université Laval, Sainte-Foy, Québec. G1V 0A6, Canada
Adrien N’Dayegamiye , Institut de recherche et de développement en agroenvironnement, Sainte-Foy, Québec. G1P 3W8, Canada
Zoubeir Bensid , Université de Batna, Institut des Sciences Vétérinaires et Agronomiques, département d’Agronomie, Batna, Algeria
Amar Boukaboub , Université de Batna, Institut des Sciences Vétérinaires et Agronomiques, département d’Agronomie, Batna, Algeria

Publication information

Issue published online: 25 Jun 2012
Article first published online : 10 May 2012
Manuscript Accepted : 07 May 2012
Manuscript Received: 04 Nov 2011

Abstract

The microbial biomass (MB) and light fraction (LF) of organic matter are often considered as active fraction of organic matter (AFOM) and as indices of soil fertility and microbial activity. This study was performed in order to assess the turnover of AFOM using long-term incubation (56 weeks) at25 °Cin 34 meadow soils with different physical and chemical properties such as soil texture, organic C and total N. The MB and LF were determined at 8 and 5 times during the incubation period using fumigation-extraction technique for MB and densimetric method for LF. The amount of MB-C and MB-N mineralized increased with time of incubation. At the beginning of incubation, the C and N content of soil MB represented respectively 0.76 to 3.7% of total organic C and 1.94 to 10.7% of total N. The C and N content of LF represented respectively 2.9 to 25.6% of total organic C and 1.7 to 17.5% of total N. At the end of incubation, the losses of MB-C and MB-N from soils reached respectively 71 and 82% of the initial amounts. The MB and LF dynamic were well described by a two-component first-order rate model. The amount of N in the labile MB and LF pools represented respectively 54% of total MB-N and 61% of total LF-N. The more stable MB and LF pools had higher half-life than labile pools. The results obtained indicated that the stable LF would be the precursor of soil humic compounds.

Keywords

Microbial biomass, light fraction, carbon and N dynamic

Corresponding author

References

Alvarez, C.R., Alvarez, R., Grigera, M.S., Lavado, R.S., 1998. Associations between organic matter fractions and the actives soil microbial biomass. Soil Biololy and Biochemistry, 30, 767-773.

Amalfitano, C., Quezada, R. A., Wilson, M. A., Hann, J.V., 1995. Chemical composition of humic acids - a comparison with precursor light fraction litter from different vegetations using spectroscopic techniques. Soil Science, 159, 391-401.

Anderson, J.P.E., Domsch, K.H., 1987. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Microbial Ecology (pp. 471-476). 24-29 August, Ljubljana, Yugoslavia.

Angers, D.A., N’Dayegamiye, A., Côté, D., 1993. Tillage induced differences in organic matter of particle size fractions and microbial biomass. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 57, 512-516.

Belay-Tedla, A., Bo Su, X.Z., Wan, S., Luo, Y., 2009. Labile, recalcitrant, and microbial carbon and nitrogen pools of a tall grass prairie soil in the US Great Plains subjected to experimental warming and clipping. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41, 110-116.

Benbi, D. K., Nieder, R., 2003. Handbook of Processes and modelling the soil-plant system. The Haworth Press, Inc. NY.

Biederbeck, V.O., Janzen, H.H., Campbell, C.A., Zentner, R.P., 1994. Labile soil organic matter as influenced by cropping practices in an arid environment. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 26, 1647-1656.

Bonde, T.A, Schnürer, J., Rosswall, T., 1988. Microbial biomass as a fraction of potentially mineralizable nitrogen in soils from long-term field experiments. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 20, 447-452.

Boone, R.D., 1994. Light fraction soil organic matter: origin and contribution to net nitrogen mineralization. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 26, 1459–1468.

Brookes, P. C., Powlson, D. S., Jenkinson, D.S., 1985. In Ecological interactions in soil (pp. 123-125). Special Publication No. 4 British Ecological Society. Blackwell, London.

Carter, M.R., Gregorich, E.G., 2007. Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton, FL, USA.

Christensen, B. T., (1992). Physical fractionation of soil and organic matter in primary particle size 20 and density separates. Advances in Soil Science, 20, 1-90.

Cusack, D.F., Silver, W.L., Torn, M.S., Burton, S.D., Firestone, M.K., 2011. Changes in microbial community characteristics and soil organic matter with nitrogen additions in two tropical forests. Ecology, 92, 621–632.

Elliott, E.T., Cambardella, C.A., 1991. Physical separation of soil organic matter. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 34, 407-419.

Golchin, A., Clarke, P., Oades, J.M., Skjemstad, J.O., 1995. The effects of cultivation on the composition of organic matter and structural stability of soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 33, 975-993.

Golchin, A., Oades, J.M., Skjemstad, J.O., Clarke, P., 1994. Study of free and occluded particulate organic matter in soils by solid-state 13CNMRspectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 32, 285-309.

Gregorich E.G., Carter M..R., Angers, D.A., Monreal, C.M., Ellert, B.H., 1994. Towards a minimum data set to assess soil organic matter quality in agricultural soils. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 74, 367-385.

Gregorich, E. G., Drury, C. F., Ellert, B. H., Liang, B. C., 1997. Fertilization effects on physically protected light fraction organic matter. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 61, 482-484.

Gregorich, E.G., Monreal, C.M., Schnitzer, M., Schulten, H.R., 1996. Transformation of plant residues into soil organic matter; chemical characterization of plant tissue, isolated soil fraction, and whole soil. Soil Science, 161, 680–693.

Haynes, R. J., (2000). Labile organic matter as an indicator of organic matter quality in arable and pastoral soils in New Zealand. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 211-219.

Janzen, H. H., Campbell, C. A., Brandt, S. A., Lafond, G. P., Townley-Smith, L., 1992. Light-fraction organic matter in soils from long-term crop rotations. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 56, 1799-1806.

Joergensen, R.G., 1996. The fumigation-extraction method to estimate soil microbial biomass: calibration of the kEC value. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 28: 25-31.

Kalinina, O., Goryachkin, S.V., Karavaeva, N.A., Lyuri, D.I., Giani, L., 2010. Dynamics of carbon pools in post-agrogenic sandy soils of southern taiga of Russia. Carbon Balance and Management, 5, 1-9.

Larney, F.J., Bremer, E., Janzen, H.H., Johnston, A.M., Lindwall, C.W., 1997. Changes in total, mineralizable and light fraction soil organic matter with cropping and tillage intensities in semiarid southern Alberta, Canada Soil and Tillage Research, 42, 229-240.

McGill, W. B., Hunt, H. W., Woodmansee, R.G., Reuss, J.O., (981. In Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycles (pp. 45-115). Proc. Ecosys. Strat. Manag. Inputs. Ecol. Bull. (Stockholm) 33.

N’Dayegamiye, A., Goulet, M., Laverdière, M.R., 1997. Effet à long terme d’apports d’engrais minéraux et de fumier sur les teneurs en C et en N des fractions densimétriques et des agrégats du loam limoneux Le Bras. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 77, 351-358.

Nicolardot, B., 1988. Évolution du niveau de la biomasse microbienne du sols au cours d’une incubation de longue durée: Relation avec la minéralisation du carbone et de l’azote organique. Revue d’Écologie et de Biologie du Sol, 25, 287-304.

Nieder, R., Benbi, D.K., 2008. Carbon and nitrogen in the terrestrial environment. Springer.

O’Hara, C.P., Bauhus, J., Smethurst, P.J., 2006. Role of light fraction soil organic matter in the phosphorus nutrition of Eucalyptus globules seedlings. Plant and Soil, 280, 127-134.

Olfs, H.-W., Neu, A., Werner, W., 2004. Soil N transformations after application of 15N-labeled biomass in incubation experiments with repeated soil drying and rewetting. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 167, 147-152.

Paré, M.C., Bedard-Haughn, A., 2011. Optimum liquid density in separation of the physically uncomplexed organic matter in Arctic soils. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 91, 65-68.

Parton, W. J., Schimel, D. S., Cole, C. V., Ojima, D. S., 1987. Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in Great Plains grasslands. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 51, 1173-1179.

Paul, E. A., Follett, R. F., Haddix, M., Pruessner, E., 2011. Soil N dynamics related to soil C and microbial changes during long-term incubation. Soil Science, 176, 527-536.

Rovira, P., Casals, P. Romanyà, J., Bottner, P. Coûteaux, M.-H., Vallejo, V.R., 1998. Recovery of fresh debris of different sizes in density fractions of two contrasting soils. European Journal of Soil Biology, 34, 31-37.

Saviozzi, A., Biasci, R., Riffaldi, Levi-Minzi, R., 1999. Long-term effects of farmyard manure and sewage sludge on some soil biochemical characteristics. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 30, 100-106.

Sbih, M., N’Dayegamiye, A., Karam, A., 2003. Evaluation of carbon and nitrogen mineralization rates in meadow soils from dairy farms under transit to biological cropping systems. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 83, 25-33.

Six, J., Conant, R.T., Paul, E.A., Paustian, K., 2002. Stabilization mechanisms of soil organic matter: Implications for C-saturation of soils. Plant and Soil, 241, 155-176.

Sollins, P., Spycher, G., Glassman, C.A., 1984. Net nitrogen mineralization from light and heavy-fraction forest soil organic matter. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 16, 13-37.

SYSTAT, 1992. 5.2 Edition. Evaston, IL, USA.

Tan, Z., Lal, R., Owens, L., Izaurralde, R.C., 2007. Distribution of light and heavy fractions of soil organic carbon as related to land use and tillage practice. Soil Tillage Research, 92, 53-59.

Vance, E.D., Brookes, P.C., Jenkinson, D.S., 1987. An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 19, 703-707.

Wallenstein, M. D., McNulty, S., Fernandez, I.J., Boggs, J., Schlesinger, W.H., 2006. Nitrogen fertilization decreases forest soil fungal and bacterial biomass in three long-term experiments. Forest Ecology and Management, 222, 459-468.

Wander, M.M., Traina, S.J., 1996. Organic matter fractions from organically and conventionally managed soils: I. Carbon and nitrogen distribution. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 60, 1081-1087.

Wang, Q., and Wang, S., 2011. Response of labile soil organic matter to changes in forest vegetation in subtropical regions. Applied Soil Ecology, 47, 210-216.

Weil, R.R., Islam, K.R., Stine, M.A., Gruver, J.B., Samson-Liebig, S.E., 2003. Estimating active carbon for soil quality assessment: A simplified method for laboratory and field use. America Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 18, 3-17.

Whitbread, A.M., 1994. In ACIAR workshop Soil Organic Matter Management for Sustainable Agriculture (pp. 124–131). Ubon, Thailand, 24–26 August 1994. Canberra.

Woods, L.E., Schuman, G.E., 1988. Cultivation and slope position effects on soil organic matter. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 52, 1371-1376.

Woods, L. E., 1989. Active organic matter distribution in the surface 15 cm of undisturbed and cultivated soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 8, 271-278.

Yan, D., Wang, D., Yang, L., 2007. Long-term effect of chemical fertilizer, straw, and manure on labile organic matter fractions in a paddy soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 44, 93-101.

Abstract

The microbial biomass (MB) and light fraction (LF) of organic matter are often considered as active fraction of organic matter (AFOM) and as indices of soil fertility and microbial activity. This study was performed in order to assess the turnover of AFOM using long-term incubation (56 weeks) at25 °Cin 34 meadow soils with different physical and chemical properties such as soil texture, organic C and total N. The MB and LF were determined at 8 and 5 times during the incubation period using fumigation-extraction technique for MB and densimetric method for LF. The amount of MB-C and MB-N mineralized increased with time of incubation. At the beginning of incubation, the C and N content of soil MB represented respectively 0.76 to 3.7% of total organic C and 1.94 to 10.7% of total N. The C and N content of LF represented respectively 2.9 to 25.6% of total organic C and 1.7 to 17.5% of total N. At the end of incubation, the losses of MB-C and MB-N from soils reached respectively 71 and 82% of the initial amounts. The MB and LF dynamic were well described by a two-component first-order rate model. The amount of N in the labile MB and LF pools represented respectively 54% of total MB-N and 61% of total LF-N. The more stable MB and LF pools had higher half-life than labile pools. The results obtained indicated that the stable LF would be the precursor of soil humic compounds.

Keywords: Microbial biomass, light fraction, carbon and N dynamic

References

Alvarez, C.R., Alvarez, R., Grigera, M.S., Lavado, R.S., 1998. Associations between organic matter fractions and the actives soil microbial biomass. Soil Biololy and Biochemistry, 30, 767-773.

Amalfitano, C., Quezada, R. A., Wilson, M. A., Hann, J.V., 1995. Chemical composition of humic acids - a comparison with precursor light fraction litter from different vegetations using spectroscopic techniques. Soil Science, 159, 391-401.

Anderson, J.P.E., Domsch, K.H., 1987. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Microbial Ecology (pp. 471-476). 24-29 August, Ljubljana, Yugoslavia.

Angers, D.A., N’Dayegamiye, A., Côté, D., 1993. Tillage induced differences in organic matter of particle size fractions and microbial biomass. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 57, 512-516.

Belay-Tedla, A., Bo Su, X.Z., Wan, S., Luo, Y., 2009. Labile, recalcitrant, and microbial carbon and nitrogen pools of a tall grass prairie soil in the US Great Plains subjected to experimental warming and clipping. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41, 110-116.

Benbi, D. K., Nieder, R., 2003. Handbook of Processes and modelling the soil-plant system. The Haworth Press, Inc. NY.

Biederbeck, V.O., Janzen, H.H., Campbell, C.A., Zentner, R.P., 1994. Labile soil organic matter as influenced by cropping practices in an arid environment. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 26, 1647-1656.

Bonde, T.A, Schnürer, J., Rosswall, T., 1988. Microbial biomass as a fraction of potentially mineralizable nitrogen in soils from long-term field experiments. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 20, 447-452.

Boone, R.D., 1994. Light fraction soil organic matter: origin and contribution to net nitrogen mineralization. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 26, 1459–1468.

Brookes, P. C., Powlson, D. S., Jenkinson, D.S., 1985. In Ecological interactions in soil (pp. 123-125). Special Publication No. 4 British Ecological Society. Blackwell, London.

Carter, M.R., Gregorich, E.G., 2007. Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton, FL, USA.

Christensen, B. T., (1992). Physical fractionation of soil and organic matter in primary particle size 20 and density separates. Advances in Soil Science, 20, 1-90.

Cusack, D.F., Silver, W.L., Torn, M.S., Burton, S.D., Firestone, M.K., 2011. Changes in microbial community characteristics and soil organic matter with nitrogen additions in two tropical forests. Ecology, 92, 621–632.

Elliott, E.T., Cambardella, C.A., 1991. Physical separation of soil organic matter. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 34, 407-419.

Golchin, A., Clarke, P., Oades, J.M., Skjemstad, J.O., 1995. The effects of cultivation on the composition of organic matter and structural stability of soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 33, 975-993.

Golchin, A., Oades, J.M., Skjemstad, J.O., Clarke, P., 1994. Study of free and occluded particulate organic matter in soils by solid-state 13CNMRspectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 32, 285-309.

Gregorich E.G., Carter M..R., Angers, D.A., Monreal, C.M., Ellert, B.H., 1994. Towards a minimum data set to assess soil organic matter quality in agricultural soils. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 74, 367-385.

Gregorich, E. G., Drury, C. F., Ellert, B. H., Liang, B. C., 1997. Fertilization effects on physically protected light fraction organic matter. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 61, 482-484.

Gregorich, E.G., Monreal, C.M., Schnitzer, M., Schulten, H.R., 1996. Transformation of plant residues into soil organic matter; chemical characterization of plant tissue, isolated soil fraction, and whole soil. Soil Science, 161, 680–693.

Haynes, R. J., (2000). Labile organic matter as an indicator of organic matter quality in arable and pastoral soils in New Zealand. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 211-219.

Janzen, H. H., Campbell, C. A., Brandt, S. A., Lafond, G. P., Townley-Smith, L., 1992. Light-fraction organic matter in soils from long-term crop rotations. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 56, 1799-1806.

Joergensen, R.G., 1996. The fumigation-extraction method to estimate soil microbial biomass: calibration of the kEC value. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 28: 25-31.

Kalinina, O., Goryachkin, S.V., Karavaeva, N.A., Lyuri, D.I., Giani, L., 2010. Dynamics of carbon pools in post-agrogenic sandy soils of southern taiga of Russia. Carbon Balance and Management, 5, 1-9.

Larney, F.J., Bremer, E., Janzen, H.H., Johnston, A.M., Lindwall, C.W., 1997. Changes in total, mineralizable and light fraction soil organic matter with cropping and tillage intensities in semiarid southern Alberta, Canada Soil and Tillage Research, 42, 229-240.

McGill, W. B., Hunt, H. W., Woodmansee, R.G., Reuss, J.O., (981. In Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycles (pp. 45-115). Proc. Ecosys. Strat. Manag. Inputs. Ecol. Bull. (Stockholm) 33.

N’Dayegamiye, A., Goulet, M., Laverdière, M.R., 1997. Effet à long terme d’apports d’engrais minéraux et de fumier sur les teneurs en C et en N des fractions densimétriques et des agrégats du loam limoneux Le Bras. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 77, 351-358.

Nicolardot, B., 1988. Évolution du niveau de la biomasse microbienne du sols au cours d’une incubation de longue durée: Relation avec la minéralisation du carbone et de l’azote organique. Revue d’Écologie et de Biologie du Sol, 25, 287-304.

Nieder, R., Benbi, D.K., 2008. Carbon and nitrogen in the terrestrial environment. Springer.

O’Hara, C.P., Bauhus, J., Smethurst, P.J., 2006. Role of light fraction soil organic matter in the phosphorus nutrition of Eucalyptus globules seedlings. Plant and Soil, 280, 127-134.

Olfs, H.-W., Neu, A., Werner, W., 2004. Soil N transformations after application of 15N-labeled biomass in incubation experiments with repeated soil drying and rewetting. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 167, 147-152.

Paré, M.C., Bedard-Haughn, A., 2011. Optimum liquid density in separation of the physically uncomplexed organic matter in Arctic soils. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 91, 65-68.

Parton, W. J., Schimel, D. S., Cole, C. V., Ojima, D. S., 1987. Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in Great Plains grasslands. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 51, 1173-1179.

Paul, E. A., Follett, R. F., Haddix, M., Pruessner, E., 2011. Soil N dynamics related to soil C and microbial changes during long-term incubation. Soil Science, 176, 527-536.

Rovira, P., Casals, P. Romanyà, J., Bottner, P. Coûteaux, M.-H., Vallejo, V.R., 1998. Recovery of fresh debris of different sizes in density fractions of two contrasting soils. European Journal of Soil Biology, 34, 31-37.

Saviozzi, A., Biasci, R., Riffaldi, Levi-Minzi, R., 1999. Long-term effects of farmyard manure and sewage sludge on some soil biochemical characteristics. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 30, 100-106.

Sbih, M., N’Dayegamiye, A., Karam, A., 2003. Evaluation of carbon and nitrogen mineralization rates in meadow soils from dairy farms under transit to biological cropping systems. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 83, 25-33.

Six, J., Conant, R.T., Paul, E.A., Paustian, K., 2002. Stabilization mechanisms of soil organic matter: Implications for C-saturation of soils. Plant and Soil, 241, 155-176.

Sollins, P., Spycher, G., Glassman, C.A., 1984. Net nitrogen mineralization from light and heavy-fraction forest soil organic matter. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 16, 13-37.

SYSTAT, 1992. 5.2 Edition. Evaston, IL, USA.

Tan, Z., Lal, R., Owens, L., Izaurralde, R.C., 2007. Distribution of light and heavy fractions of soil organic carbon as related to land use and tillage practice. Soil Tillage Research, 92, 53-59.

Vance, E.D., Brookes, P.C., Jenkinson, D.S., 1987. An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 19, 703-707.

Wallenstein, M. D., McNulty, S., Fernandez, I.J., Boggs, J., Schlesinger, W.H., 2006. Nitrogen fertilization decreases forest soil fungal and bacterial biomass in three long-term experiments. Forest Ecology and Management, 222, 459-468.

Wander, M.M., Traina, S.J., 1996. Organic matter fractions from organically and conventionally managed soils: I. Carbon and nitrogen distribution. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 60, 1081-1087.

Wang, Q., and Wang, S., 2011. Response of labile soil organic matter to changes in forest vegetation in subtropical regions. Applied Soil Ecology, 47, 210-216.

Weil, R.R., Islam, K.R., Stine, M.A., Gruver, J.B., Samson-Liebig, S.E., 2003. Estimating active carbon for soil quality assessment: A simplified method for laboratory and field use. America Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 18, 3-17.

Whitbread, A.M., 1994. In ACIAR workshop Soil Organic Matter Management for Sustainable Agriculture (pp. 124–131). Ubon, Thailand, 24–26 August 1994. Canberra.

Woods, L.E., Schuman, G.E., 1988. Cultivation and slope position effects on soil organic matter. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 52, 1371-1376.

Woods, L. E., 1989. Active organic matter distribution in the surface 15 cm of undisturbed and cultivated soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 8, 271-278.

Yan, D., Wang, D., Yang, L., 2007. Long-term effect of chemical fertilizer, straw, and manure on labile organic matter fractions in a paddy soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 44, 93-101.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science